Información Legal: Minnesota

Órdenes de Restricción

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Actualizada: 
10 de mayo de 2022

¿Puede el agresor tener un arma de fuego?

Una vez que usted tenga una orden de protección, pueden haber leyes que prohíban que el/la demandado/a tenga un arma de fuego. Hay algunos lugares en los que puede encontrar esta información:

  • primero, lea las preguntas en esta página para averiguar si los/as jueces/zas en Minnesota tienen el poder para quitar armas de fuego como parte de una orden temporal o final;
  • segundo, vaya a nuestra sección de Leyes Estatales de Armas de Fuego para leer sobre las leyes estatales de armas de fuego específicas de su estado; y
  • tercero, puede leer nuestra sección de Leyes Federales sobre Armas de Fuego para entender las leyes federales que le aplican a todos los estados.

Puede leer más sobre cómo evitar que un/a agresor/a tenga acceso a armas de fuego en el sitio web del Centro Nacional de Recursos contra la Violencia Doméstica y las Armas de Fuego (National Domestic Violence and Firearms Resource Center).

What will happen to the abuser's firearms if the judge includes a firearm restriction in my order for protection?

If the judge orders that the abuser’s firearms be removed, there are two ways that the firearms can be taken away. First, if the judge believes that there is evidence that the abuser poses an immediate risk of causing you or another person substantial bodily harm, the judge must order the local law enforcement agency take immediate possession of all firearms in the abuser’s possession.1 If the judge does not believe there is an immediate risk, the abuser will have three business days to transfer the firearms to a federally licensed firearms dealer, a law enforcement agency, or a third party who may lawfully receive them, as long as the third party does not live with the abuser.2 The third party may be held criminally and civilly responsible if the abuser is able to access the firearms while they are in the custody of the third party. Then, the abuser must file proof of the transfer with the court within two business days of the transfer.3

1 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(6)(i)
2 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(6)(g)
3 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(6)(h)

¿Qué debo hacer al salir de la corte?

Aquí tiene algunas cosas que puede considerar hacer. Sin embargo, deberá evaluar cada una para ver si funciona en su situación.

  • Revise la orden antes de salir de la corte. Si hay algo incorrecto o falta algo, pídale a el/la secretario/a de la corte que corrija la orden antes que se vaya.
  • Si le preocupa que el/la agresor/a le acose al salir de la corte, pídale a el/la oficial de la corte si él/ella puede escoltarle a la puerta del edificio. Si tiene miedo que el/la agresor/a le siga al salir de la corte, explíquele eso a el/la oficial de la corte. El/la oficial de la corte puede detener a el/la agresor/a ahí durante algunos minutos en lo que usted se va para que pueda tener una ventaja, lo cual haría difícil que el/la agresor/a le siga. Esto puede ser especialmente importante si usted está viviendo en un albergue o un lugar confidencial y no quiere que el/la agresor/a sepa donde usted se está quedando.
  • Haga varias copias del interdicto lo antes posible.
  • Tenga una copia de la orden con usted en todo momento.
  • Deje copias de la orden en su trabajo, hogar, en la escuela o cuido de los niños/as, en su carro, con un/a vecino/a de confianza, y así sucesivamente.
  • Dele una copia a el/la guardia de seguridad o la persona que está en el recibidor del lugar donde usted vive o trabaja junto con una foto de el/la agresor/a.
  • Dele una copia de la orden a cualquier persona que aparezca en o esté protegido/a por la orden.
  • Si la corte no le ha dado una copia adicional para la policía local, lleve una de sus copias extras y entréguela.
  • Es posible que pueda considerar cambiar los seguros de las puertas (si la ley lo permite) y su número de teléfono.

Es importante que haga un plan de seguridad después de recibir la orden. Las personas pueden hacer ciertas cosas para aumentar su seguridad durante incidentes violentos, cuando se están preparando para dejar una relación de maltrato, y cuando están en la casa, el trabajo y la escuela. Muchos/as agresores/as respetan las órdenes de restricción, pero otros/as no. Haga clic en el siguiente enlace para sugerencias de Ideas para su Seguridad. Los/as intercesores/as en los centros de recursos locales también pueden ayudarle a diseñar un plan de seguridad y darle otros tipos de apoyo.

I was not granted an order for protection. What are my options?

If you are not granted an order for protection, there are still some things you can do to try to stay safe. It might be a good idea to contact one of the domestic violence resource centers on our MN Advocates and Shelters page to get help, support, and advice on how to stay safe. They can help you develop a safety plan and connect you with the resources you need. For safety planning ideas and information, go to our Safety Tips page.

If you were not granted an order for protection because your relationship with the abuser does not qualify as a “family or household member,” you may be able to seek protection through a harassment restraining order (HRO).

You may also reapply for an order for protection if a new incident of domestic abuse occurs after you are denied the order.

If you believe the judge made an error of law, you can talk to a lawyer about the possibility of filing an appeal.

What can I do if the abuser violates the order?

If the abuser violates the order, you can call the police, even if you think it is a minor violation. It can be a crime and contempt of court if the abuser violates the order in any way. An abuser can be arrested, fined, jailed, or ordered to participate in counseling or other appropriate programs.1 Another way to handle a violation is to file a violation petition in which you are asking the judge to hold the abuser in civil contempt for violating the judge’s order. This would be filed in the same court that issued your order.

If you do call the police, it is generally a good idea to write down the name of the responding officer(s) and their badge number in case you want to follow up on your case. Make sure a police report is filled out, even if no arrest is made. If you have legal documentation of all violations of the order, it may help you have the order extended or modified.

For more information about contempt, including the difference between criminal contempt and civil contempt, go to our general Domestic Violence Restraining Orders page.

1 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(14)

How can my order be changed, extended, or vacated?

The judge can extend the terms of an existing order if you can prove that:

  • the abuser has violated a prior or existing order for protection;
  • you are in fear of physical harm from the abuser;
  • the abuser has stalked you; or
  • the abuser is incarcerated and about to be released, or has recently been released from incarceration.1

You do not need to show that you are in danger of immediate physical harm to get your order extended.1 Generally, the judge can grant this extension of the order ex parte, without prior notice to the abuser and without a hearing where the abuser is present. A hearing will be held, however, if the judge decides not to grant you the ex parte extension or if the abuser requests a hearing after the ex parte extension is granted.2

Your order for protection can last for up to 50 years, if the judge determines that:

  • the abuser has violated a prior or existing order for protection on two or more occasions; or
  • you have had two or more orders for protection in effect against the same abuser.3

To modify or vacate an order, you may file a petition in court to request either one.

If you are granted an order up to 50 years, the abuser can request to have the order vacated or modified after the order has been in effect for at least five years and assuming the respondent has not violated the order during that time. Then you would be notified of this request and the judge would set a hearing date. The abuser has the burden of proving that there has been a substantial change in circumstances and that the reasons that you needed the order for protection no longer apply and are unlikely to occur again. If the court believes the abuser, the judge can dismiss or modify the order. If the judge does not believe the abuser, the abuser must wait another five years before s/he can apply again to modify or dismiss the order.4

1 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(6a)(b)
2 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(6a)(a)
3 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(6a)(c)
4 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(11)

Can my employer discipline or fire me for taking time off work to file for an order for protection?

Under Minnesota state law, your employer cannot fire, discipline, threaten, penalize, or otherwise discriminate against you because you took a reasonable amount of time off from work to seek an order for protection for domestic abuse.1

If you do need to take time off work to protect yourself or your children from domestic abuse, it is your responsibility to give your employer 48 hours’ advance notice, unless you or your child are in immediate danger or unless giving notice is impractical. Your employer can ask for proof of why you are absent but s/he has to keep all information confidential.1

If your employer does violate this law, s/he can be guilty of a crime. You also have the option of bringing a civil suit for damages against your employer.2

1 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(23)(a)
2 Minn. Stat. § 518B.01(23)(b), (23)(c)

Si me dan una orden de protección, ¿aparecerá en una búsqueda en el internet?

De acuerdo a la ley federal, que aplica a todos los estados, territorios y tierras tribales, se supone que las cortes no publiquen información que podría revelar su identidad y localización en el internet. Esto aplica a:

  • la petición que presenta;
  • la orden de protección, orden de restricción o interdicto que le dio la corte; o,
  • que se registró la orden en otro estado. 1

1 18 USC § 2265(d)(3)

WomensLaw sirve y apoya a todas las personas sobrevivientes sin importar su sexo o género.