Información Legal: Minnesota

Minnesota: Custodia

Leyes actualizadas al
5 de octubre de 2022

How will a judge make a decision about custody?

A judge will make a decision about custody based on what s/he thinks is in your child’s best interest. The judge will look at any factor that s/he thinks is important to make this decision including, but not limited to:

  • the child’s physical, emotional, cultural, spiritual, and other needs, and the effect of the proposed arrangements on the child’s needs and development;
  • any special medical, mental health, developmental disability, or educational needs that the child may have that may require special parenting arrangements or access to recommended services;
  • the reasonable preference of the child, if the judge believes that the child has sufficient ability, age, and maturity to express an “independent, reliable preference;”
  • if domestic abuse has occurred in either parent’s household or relationship:
    • the nature and context of the domestic abuse; and
    • the implications of the domestic abuse on:
      • the abuser’s parenting abilities; and
      • the child’s safety, well-being, and developmental needs;
  • any physical, mental, or chemical health issue of a parent that affects the child’s safety or developmental needs;
  • the history and nature of each parent’s participation in providing care for the child;
  • the willingness and ability of each parent to:
    • provide ongoing care for the child;
    • meet the child’s ongoing developmental, emotional, spiritual, and cultural needs; 
    • maintain consistency and follow through with parenting time;
    • cooperate in raising their child;
    • maximize the sharing of information and minimize exposure of the child to parental conflict; and
    • utilize methods for resolving disputes regarding any major decision concerning the life of the child;
  • the effect of changes to the child’s home, school, and community on the child’s well-being and development;
  • the effect of the proposed arrangements on the ongoing relationships between the child and each parent, siblings, and other significant people in the child’s life;
  • the benefit to the child in maximizing parenting time with both parents and the harm to the child in limiting parenting time with either parent;
  • except in cases in which domestic abuse has occurred, the readiness of each parent to support the child’s relationship with the other parent and to encourage and permit frequent and continuing contact between them;1 and
  • whether or not a parent violated the criminal law against falsely reporting child abuse.2

Note: The judge is not supposed to consider acts and behavior of a parent that does not affect the parent’s relationship with the child.  Also, the fact that the parent or the child may have a disability is not supposed to be the only factor that determines who should get custody.3  Lastly, if a parent is in the military, the judge cannot consider the parent’s past deployment or possible future deployment in determining the best interests of the child.4

1 Minn. Stat. §§ 257.025(a); 518.17(1)(a)
2 Minn. Stat. §§ 518.17(1)(b)(6); 609.507
3 Minn. Stat. § 518.17(1)(b)(4), (1)(b)(5)
4 Minn. Stat. § 518.17(1)(c)

What factors will a judge consider when deciding if the parents should have joint custody?

If one or both parents are asking for joint legal custody, there is a “rebuttable presumption” for joint legal custody. What this means is that the judge will assume that joint legal custody is in the best interests of the child but either parent can present evidence to the judge to change his/her mind. However, if one parent has committed domestic abuse, this standard does not apply.1 See Can a parent who committed domestic abuse get custody? for more information.

    1 Minn. Stat. § 518.17(1)(b)(9)

    Can a parent who committed domestic abuse get custody?

    If one parent has committed domestic abuse against the other parent, there is a “rebuttable presumption” against the abusive parent getting any type of joint custody. What this means is that the judge will assume that both joint legal and joint physical custody are not in the best interest of the child. However, the abusive parent can still present evidence to try to change the judge’s mind and prove why s/he should get joint custody. In deciding whether or not the abusive parent has presented enough evidence to change the judge’s mind about joint custody, the judge will consider all of the following:

    1. the nature and context of the domestic abuse;
    2. how the domestic abuse affects the abusive parent’s parenting abilities; and
    3. how the domestic abuse impacts the child’s safety, well-being, and developmental needs.1

    It is recommended that you seek legal advice from a lawyer to assist you in a custody case involving domestic violence. For information on how to find a lawyer see our MN Finding a Lawyer page.

    1 Minn. Stat. § 518.17(1)(b)(9)

    Can the non-custodial parent have access to the child's medical, health, and school records?

    Both parents, regardless of who has custody, will have the following rights unless the judge takes away any of these rights in an effort to protect the welfare of the other parent or the child:

    • the right to access, and to receive copies of, school, medical, dental, and religious training records, police reports, and other important records and information about the child;
    • the right to access information regarding health or dental insurance available to the child;
    • the right to be informed by the other parent as to the name and address of the school the child attends;
    • the right to be informed by school officials about the child’s welfare, educational progress and status, and to attend school and parent-teacher conferences. Note: The school is not required to hold a separate conference for each party, unless attending the same conference would result in violation of a court order prohibiting contact between the parties;
    • the right to be notified by the other parent of an accident or serious illness of a minor child, including the name of the health care provider and the place of treatment;
    • the right to reasonable access to the child and to telephone or other electronic contact with the child; and the right to be notified by the other parent if the child is the victim of a crime, including the name of the investigating law enforcement officer or agency. However, there is no duty to notify the other parent if s/he is the alleged perpetrator of the crime.1

    1 Minn. Statutes § 518.17(3)(a) - (3)(c)

    ¿Debo comenzar un caso en la corte para pedir visitas supervisadas?

    Si usted no está cómodo/a con el hecho de que el/la agresor/a esté a solas con su hijo/a, pude que usted quiera considerar pedirle a el/la juez/a que las visitas sean supervisadas.  Si usted tiene ya un caso abierto en la corte porque el/la agresor/a solicitó custodia o visitación, usted todavía puede pedirle a el/la juez/a que las visitas sean supervisadas.  No tiene qué perder. 

    Sin embargo, si usted no tiene un caso abierto en la corte, por favor obtenga consejo legal ANTES de que usted le pida a el/la juez/a las visitas supervisadas.  Nosotros recomendamos que hable con un/a abogado/a que se especialice en casos de custodia, para averiguar que tiene qué probar ante el/la juez/a para que le otorgue visitas supervisadas y cuánto tiempo estas visitas supervisadas van a durar dependiendo de su caso. 

    En la mayoría de los casos, las visitas supervisadas son una medida temporal.  Aunque cada orden de visitación va a depender de cada estado, condado o juez/a, el/la juez/a puede ordenarle a un/a profesional a que observe el comportamiento de el/la padre/madre en algunas de las visitas o las visitas puedes ser supervisadas por un/a familiar durante algunos meses – y si no hay ningún problema, lo más probable es que las visitas dejen de ser supervisadas.  Por lo general, el/la padre/madre termina teniendo vistas más frecuentes y por más tiempo que antes de ir a corte.  Puede que también termine teniendo la custodia compartida. 

    En algunos casos, para proteger a su hijo/a de peligro inmediato de el/la agresor/a, es apropiado empezar un caso en la corte sobre custodia y visitación.  Para saber si eso es lo mejor para su caso, vaya a MN Encontrando a un Abogado para buscar un consejo legal.

    Where can I find more information on custody in Minnesota?

    The Minnesota Judicial Branch has links to court forms related to custody and parenting time. provides information on custody, paternity, and parenting time.

    The Minnesota Department of Human Services also provides information on parentage (paternity), which is geared for both mothers and fathers. is not affiliated with any of the above websites. We provide the links for your information only.

    Si me mudo a otro estado, ¿puedo transferir mi caso de custodia allá?

    Es posible que en algún momento se mude con sus hijos/as del estado donde se dio la orden final de custodia. Para información sobre cómo solicitar que se transfiera el caso de custodia a un nuevo estado, por favor vaya a Transferir un caso de custodia a un estado diferente, en nuestra página general de Custodia. Sin embargo, es importante tener en cuenta que es probable que necesite obtener permiso de la corte o de el/la otro/a padre/madre para mudarse de estado. Por favor hable con un/a abogado/a para asegurarse que sus planes de mudanza no violen su orden de custodia o las leyes de secuestro parental de su estado.

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