What types of sexual abuse protective orders are there? How long do they last?
In Iowa, there are three types of sexual assault protective orders: emergency, temporary, and final.
Emergency orders: When the court is closed or a judge is unavailable at the end of the day or on weekends, you can file a petition for an emergency order with the district judge or district associate judge. The judge can grant you an emergency order if it is necessary to protect you from sexual abuse. The abuser does not have to receive notice of your case for the judge to grant an emergency order. Emergency orders last for 72 hours.1
Temporary orders: When you file a petition for a sexual assault protective order, you can ask for a temporary ex parte order to be issued immediately. Ex parte means that the abuser does not appear at the hearing or have notice of the case beforehand. A judge can grant you a temporary order if s/he decides it is necessary to protect you before the hearing for a final order, and you have given the judge good cause to believe the incidents in your petition.2 Your temporary order will last until your hearing for a final order. The court will schedule your hearing for a final order to take place between five and 15 days from when the abuser receives notice of the temporary order.3 The judge could also issue a subpoena requiring witnesses to appear and testify in the case if you or the abuser ask the judge to do so. The judge must also let the abuser know that s/he has the right to hire an attorney for the trial.4
Final orders: Before the judge can grant a final order, the abuser must have the opportunity to appear in court to present evidence and testimony. At that hearing, the abuser can agree to consent to the order without admitting to committing sexual abuse or s/he can ask for a trial. If there is a trial in your case and the judge finds that the abuser has sexually abused you, the judge can grant you a final order. The judge can issue the final order for up to one year.5 The order can also be extended multiple times. See Can I change, extend, or cancel my order? for more information.
1 IA ST § 236A.8(1), (2)
2 IA ST § 236A.6(2)
3 IA ST § 236A.6(1)
4 IA ST § 236A.6(4), (5)
5 IA ST § 236A.7(2), (1A)