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Información Legal: Vermont

Restraining Orders

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Laws current as of
12 de diciembre de 2023

What is a sexual assault or stalking protective order?

A sexual assault or stalking protective order is a civil court order, which can protect you from someone who is not a family member or household member who has stalked or sexually assaulted you.  A household member is generally defined as someone who you live/d with, have/had a sexual relationship with, or someone you date/d, for any period of time.2  If a family member or household member has stalked or sexually assaulted you, you may be eligible for a relief from abuse order instead.   For more information, see the Relief from Abuse Orders section.

1 VT ST 12 § 5133(a)
2 VT ST 15 § 1101(2)

What is the definition of stalking in Vermont?

Stalking is when someone repeatedly (at least 2 times) follows, monitors, surveils or threatens you, makes threats about you, or interferes with your property. These actions can be done directly or indirectly (through another person) and by using a device or through any other actions.1 The stalker must know or should know that his/her actions would reasonably cause you to:

  • fear for your safety or your family member’s safety; or
  • suffer substantial emotional harm. This “substantial emotional harm” can be shown by:
    • your fear of unlawful sexual conduct, unlawful restraint, bodily injury, or death; or
    • significant changes that you have made in your actions or routines, including:
      • moving from your home;
      • changing your daily routes to and from work even though it causes a serious disruption in your life;
      • changing your job or your work schedule; or
      • losing a job or losing time from work.2

1 VT ST 12 § 5131(1)(A)
2 VT ST 12 § 5131(6)

What is the definition of sexual assault in Vermont?

For the purpose of getting this protective order, “sexual assault” is defined as when the abuser commits one of the following crimes against you - however, s/he does not have to be arrested for the crime and it does not have to be reported to the police for you to file for this protective order.  His/her actions, however, must match the description of one of the crimes below – click on each crime to read its definition:

1 VT ST 12 § 5131(5)

What types of protective orders are available? How long do they last?

There are two types of protective orders - the temporary ex parte order and the final order.

Temporary ex parte order
You can file a complaint and affidavit (sworn statement) for a temporary protective order during regular court hours.  If the judge believes that the abuser/defendant stalked or sexually assaulted you, the judge can give you a temporary ex parte protective order without prior notice to the abuser/defendant.  A temporary protective order can state that the abuser has to stay away from you and/or your children and can include any other terms to protect the safety of you and/or your children.1

Final protective order against stalking or sexual assault
Every order will give a date (within the next 14 days), a time, and the place that the defendant can appear to petition the court to modify (change) or to dismiss the order.  At this court hearing, you will have to prove that the defendant stalked or sexually assaulted you to get the protective order continued.2  If the defendant was convicted criminally of sexual assault, the judge can issue a protection order without considering whether or not the defendant poses a risk of future harm.  However, if s/he was not convicted criminally of sexual assault, the judge must believe that s/he sexually assaulted you and that there is a danger of further harm to you.  The judge can consider the defendant’s past behavior as relevant evidence of future harm but, in general, the judge cannot consider evidence about your reputation or your past sexual conduct (although there are exceptions).3

If necessary, the judge can add additional protections to the final order.  At this hearing, the abuser/defendant has the right to offer evidence to prove that s/he did not stalk or sexually assault you.  Both you and the abuser can offer witnesses, testimony, and other evidence to prove your case.  You may want to be represented by a lawyer at this hearing, especially if the abuser has one.  Go to our VT Finding a Lawyer page for free and paid legal referrals.

Final protective orders against stalking or sexual assault will be for a fixed period of time, which will be stated in the order.  The order can be extended, however.  For more information, see Can the order be changed or extended?

1 VT ST 12 § 5134(a)
2 VT ST 12 § 5134(b)
3 VT ST 12 § 5133(d)(1),(c)

What protections can I get in a sexual assault or stalking protective order?

A sexual assault or stalking protective order can order the abuser to stay away from you and/or your children.1 Under Vermont law, “stay away” means that the offender cannot:

  • be physically close to you; or
  • have nonphysical contact with you directly or through a third person (regardless of whether or not the third person knows about the order).2Note: “Nonphysical contact” means s/he cannot contact you in writing, or through telephone calls, mail, e-mail, social media commentary or comments, or other electronic communication or fax.3

The judge can also order anything else that the judge believes is necessary to protect you and/or your children.1

1 VT ST 12 § 5133(d)
2 VT ST 12 § 5131(7)
3 VT ST 12 § 5131(3)

Si el agresor vive en otro estado, ¿puedo conseguir una orden en su contra?

Si el/la agresor/a vive en un estado diferente al suyo, el/la juez/a podría no tener “jurisdicción personal” (poder) sobre ese/a agresor/a. Esto significa que es posible que el tribunal no pueda otorgar una orden en contra de él/ella.

Hay algunas formas en las que una corte puede tener jurisdicción personal sobre un/a agresor/a que es de otro estado:

  1. El/la agresor/a tiene una conexión sustancial a su estado. Quizás el/la agresor/a viaja regularmente a su estado para visitarlo/a, por negocios, para ver la familia extendida, o el/la agresor/a vivía en su estado y huyó recientemente.
  2. Uno de los actos de maltrato “ocurrió” en su estado. Quizás el/la agresor/a le envía mensajes amenazantes o le hace llamadas acosadoras desde otro estado pero usted lee los mensajes o contesta las llamadas mientras usted está en su estado. El/la juez/a puede decidir que el maltrato “ocurrió” mientras estaba en su estado. También puede ser posible que el/la agresor/a estaba en su estado cuando le maltrató pero desde entonces se fue del estado.
  3. Otra forma para que la corte adquiera jurisdicción es si usted presenta su petición en el estado donde usted está, y el/la agresor/a recibe notificación de la petición de la corte mientras él/ella está en ese estado.

Sin embargo, aunque nada de esto aplique a su situación, eso no necesariamente significa que usted no pueda conseguir una orden. A usted le pueden dar una orden por consentimiento o el/la juez/a puede encontrar otras circunstancias que permitan que la orden sea dada. Puede leer más sobre jurisdicción personal en nuestra sección de Asuntos Básicos del Sistema Judicial - Jurisdicción Personal.

Nota: Si el/la juez/a de su estado se niega a dar una orden, usted puede pedir una orden en la corte del estado donde vive el/la agresor/a. Sin embargo, recuerde que es probable que usted necesite presentar la petición en persona y asistir a varias citas en la corte, lo cual podría ser difícil si el estado de el/la agresor/a es lejos.