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Legal Information: Washington

Statutes: Washington

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Updated: 
December 3, 2020

9.41.010. Terms defined

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.

(1) “Antique firearm” means a firearm or replica of a firearm not designed or redesigned for using rim fire or conventional center fire ignition with fixed ammunition and manufactured in or before 1898, including any matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system and also any firearm using fixed ammunition manufactured in or before 1898, for which ammunition is no longer manufactured in the United States and is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade.

(2) “Barrel length” means the distance from the bolt face of a closed action down the length of the axis of the bore to the crown of the muzzle, or in the case of a barrel with attachments to the end of any legal device permanently attached to the end of the muzzle.

(3) “Bump-fire stock” means a butt stock designed to be attached to a semiautomatic firearm with the effect of increasing the rate of fire achievable with the semiautomatic firearm to that of a fully automatic firearm by using the energy from the recoil of the firearm to generate reciprocating action that facilitates repeated activation of the trigger.

(4) “Crime of violence” means:

(a) Any of the following felonies, as now existing or hereafter amended: Any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or an attempt to commit a class A felony, criminal solicitation of or criminal conspiracy to commit a class A felony, manslaughter in the first degree, manslaughter in the second degree, indecent liberties if committed by forcible compulsion, kidnapping in the second degree, arson in the second degree, assault in the second degree, assault of a child in the second degree, extortion in the first degree, burglary in the second degree, residential burglary, and robbery in the second degree;

(b) Any conviction for a felony offense in effect at any time prior to June 6, 1996, which is comparable to a felony classified as a crime of violence in (a) of this subsection; and

(c) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense comparable to a felony classified as a crime of violence under (a) or (b) of this subsection.

(5) “Curio or relic” has the same meaning as provided in 27 C.F.R. Sec. 478.11.

(6) “Dealer” means a person engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail who has, or is required to have, a federal firearms license under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(a). A person who does not have, and is not required to have, a federal firearms license under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(a), is not a dealer if that person makes only occasional sales, exchanges, or purchases of firearms for the enhancement of a personal collection or for a hobby, or sells all or part of his or her personal collection of firearms.

(7) “Family or household member” has the same meaning as in RCW 26.50.010.

(8) “Felony” means any felony offense under the laws of this state or any federal or out-of-state offense comparable to a felony offense under the laws of this state.

(9) “Felony firearm offender” means a person who has previously been convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity in this state of any felony firearm offense. A person is not a felony firearm offender under this chapter if any and all qualifying offenses have been the subject of an expungement, pardon, annulment, certificate, or rehabilitation, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of the rehabilitation of the person convicted or a pardon, annulment, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of innocence.

(10) “Felony firearm offense” means:

(a) Any felony offense that is a violation of this chapter;

(b) A violation of RCW 9A.36.045;

(c) A violation of RCW 9A.56.300;

(d) A violation of RCW 9A.56.310;

(e) Any felony offense if the offender was armed with a firearm in the commission of the offense.

(11) “Firearm” means a weapon or device from which a projectile or projectiles may be fired by an explosive such as gunpowder. “Firearm” does not include a flare gun or other pyrotechnic visual distress signaling device, or a powder-actuated tool or other device designed solely to be used for construction purposes.

(12) “Gun” has the same meaning as firearm.

(13) “Intimate partner” has the same meaning as provided in RCW 26.50.010.

(14) “Law enforcement officer” includes a general authority Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020, or a specially commissioned Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020. “Law enforcement officer” also includes a limited authority Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020 if such officer is duly authorized by his or her employer to carry a concealed pistol.

(15) “Lawful permanent resident” has the same meaning afforded a person “lawfully admitted for permanent residence” in 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1101(a)(20).

(16) “Licensed collector” means a person who is federally licensed under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(b).

(17) “Licensed dealer” means a person who is federally licensed under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(a).

(18) “Loaded” means:

(a) There is a cartridge in the chamber of the firearm;

(b) Cartridges are in a clip that is locked in place in the firearm;

(c) There is a cartridge in the cylinder of the firearm, if the firearm is a revolver;

(d) There is a cartridge in the tube or magazine that is inserted in the action; or

(e) There is a ball in the barrel and the firearm is capped or primed if the firearm is a muzzle loader.

(19) “Machine gun” means any firearm known as a machine gun, mechanical rifle, submachine gun, or any other mechanism or instrument not requiring that the trigger be pressed for each shot and having a reservoir clip, disc, drum, belt, or other separable mechanical device for storing, carrying, or supplying ammunition which can be loaded into the firearm, mechanism, or instrument, and fired therefrom at the rate of five or more shots per second.

(20) “Manufacture” means, with respect to a firearm, the fabrication or construction of a firearm.

(21) “Nonimmigrant alien” means a person defined as such in 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1101(a)(15).

(22) “Person” means any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, club, organization, society, joint stock company, or other legal entity.

(23) “Pistol” means any firearm with a barrel less than sixteen inches in length, or is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand.

(24) “Rifle” means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed metallic cartridge to fire only a single projectile through a rifled bore for each single pull of the trigger.

(25) “Sale” and “sell” mean the actual approval of the delivery of a firearm in consideration of payment or promise of payment.

(26) “Secure gun storage” means:

(a) A locked box, gun safe, or other secure locked storage space that is designed to prevent unauthorized use or discharge of a firearm; and

(b) The act of keeping an unloaded firearm stored by such means.

(27) “Semiautomatic assault rifle” means any rifle which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge to extract the fired cartridge case and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge.

“Semiautomatic assault rifle” does not include antique firearms, any firearm that has been made permanently inoperable, or any firearm that is manually operated by bolt, pump, lever, or slide action.

(28) “Serious offense” means any of the following felonies or a felony attempt to commit any of the following felonies, as now existing or hereafter amended:

(a) Any crime of violence;

(b) Any felony violation of the uniform controlled substances act, chapter 69.50 RCW, that is classified as a class B felony or that has a maximum term of imprisonment of at least ten years;

(c) Child molestation in the second degree;

(d) Incest when committed against a child under age fourteen;

(e) Indecent liberties;

(f) Leading organized crime;

(g) Promoting prostitution in the first degree;

(h) Rape in the third degree;

(i) Drive-by shooting;

(j) Sexual exploitation;

(k) Vehicular assault, when caused by the operation or driving of a vehicle by a person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or by the operation or driving of a vehicle in a reckless manner;

(l) Vehicular homicide, when proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502, or by the operation of any vehicle in a reckless manner;

(m) Any other class B felony offense with a finding of sexual motivation, as “sexual motivation” is defined under RCW 9.94A.030;

(n) Any other felony with a deadly weapon verdict under RCW 9.94A.825;

(o) Any felony offense in effect at any time prior to June 6, 1996, that is comparable to a serious offense, or any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a serious offense; or

(p) Any felony conviction under RCW 9.41.115.

(29) “Short-barreled rifle” means a rifle having one or more barrels less than sixteen inches in length and any weapon made from a rifle by any means of modification if such modified weapon has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches.

(30) “Short-barreled shotgun” means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than eighteen inches in length and any weapon made from a shotgun by any means of modification if such modified weapon has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches.

(31) “Shotgun” means a weapon with one or more barrels, designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed shotgun shell to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger.

(32) “Transfer” means the intended delivery of a firearm to another person without consideration of payment or promise of payment including, but not limited to, gifts and loans. “Transfer” does not include the delivery of a firearm owned or leased by an entity licensed or qualified to do business in the state of Washington to, or return of such a firearm by, any of that entity’s employees or agents, defined to include volunteers participating in an honor guard, for lawful purposes in the ordinary course of business.

(33) “Undetectable firearm” means any firearm that is not as detectable as 3.7 ounces of 17-4 PH stainless steel by walk-through metal detectors or magnetometers commonly used at airports or any firearm where the barrel, the slide or cylinder, or the frame or receiver of the firearm would not generate an image that accurately depicts the shape of the part when examined by the types of X-ray machines commonly used at airports.

(34) “Unlicensed person” means any person who is not a licensed dealer under this chapter.

(35) “Untraceable firearm” means any firearm manufactured after July 1, 2019, that is not an antique firearm and that cannot be traced by law enforcement by means of a serial number affixed to the firearm by a federally licensed manufacturer or importer.