Legal Information: Washington

Statutes: Washington

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Statutes: Washington

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The statutes are current with all legislation through the 2017 Second Special Session of the Washington legislature. Please check to make sure there have been no changes since this time. You will find these and additional statutes online at the Washington State Legislature website.

Title 4. Civil Procedure

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 4.28. Commencement of Actions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

4.28.185. Personal service out-of-state-Acts submitting person to jurisdiction of courts-Saving

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any person, whether or not a citizen or resident of this state, who in person or through an agent does any of the acts in this section enumerated, thereby submits said person, and, if an individual, his or her personal representative, to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state as to any cause of action arising from the doing of any of said acts:

(a) The transaction of any business within this state;

(b) The commission of a tortious act within this state;

(c) The ownership, use, or possession of any property whether real or personal situated in this state;

(d) Contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this state at the time of contracting;

(e) The act of sexual intercourse within this state with respect to which a child may have been conceived;

(f) Living in a marital relationship within this state notwithstanding subsequent departure from this state, as to all proceedings authorized by chapter 26.09 RCW, so long as the petitioning party has continued to reside in this state or has continued to be a member of the armed forces stationed in this state.

(2) Service of process upon any person who is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state, as provided in this section, may be made by personally serving the defendant outside this state, as provided in RCW 4.28. 180, with the same force and effect as though personally served within this state.

(3) Only causes of action arising from acts enumerated herein may be asserted against a defendant in an action in which jurisdiction over him or her is based upon this section.

(4) Personal service outside the state shall be valid only when an affidavit is made and filed to the effect that service cannot be made within the state.

(5) In the event the defendant is personally served outside the state on causes of action enumerated in this section, and prevails in the action, there may be taxed and allowed to the defendant as part of the costs of defending the action a reasonable amount to be fixed by the court as attorneys' fees.

(6) Nothing herein contained limits or affects the right to serve any process in any other manner now or hereafter provided by law.

Title 7. Special Proceedings and Actions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 7.40. Injunctions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

7.40.020. Grounds for issuance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

When it appears by the complaint that the plaintiff is entitled to the relief demanded and the relief, or any part thereof, consists in restraining the commission or continuance of some act, the commission or continuance of which during the litigation would produce great injury to the plaintiff; or when during the litigation, it appears that the defendant is doing, or threatened, or is about to do, or is procuring, or is suffering some act to be done in violation of the plaintiff's rights respecting the subject of the action tending to render the judgment ineffectual; or where such relief, or any part thereof, consists in restraining proceedings upon any final order or judgment, an injunction may be granted to restrain such act or proceedings until the further order of the court, which may afterwards be dissolved or modified upon motion. And where it appears in the complaint at the commencement of the action, or during the pendency thereof, by affidavit, that the defendant threatens, or is about to remove or dispose of his or her property with intent to defraud his or her creditors, a temporary injunction may be granted to restrain the removal or disposition of his or her property.

7.40.050. Notice--Restraining orders in emergencies

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

No injunction shall be granted until it shall appear to the court or judge granting it, that some one or more of the opposite party concerned, has had reasonable notice of the time and place of making application, except that in cases of emergency to be shown in the complaint, the court may grant a restraining order until notice can be given and hearing had thereon.

Chapter 7.90. Sexual Assault Protection Order Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

7.90.010. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) “Nonconsensual” means a lack of freely given agreement.

(2) “Petitioner” means any named petitioner for the sexual assault protection order or any named victim of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration on whose behalf the petition is brought.

(3) “Sexual assault protection order” means an ex parte temporary order or a final order granted under this chapter, which includes a remedy authorized by RCW 7.90.090.

(4) “Sexual conduct” means any of the following:

(a) Any intentional or knowing touching or fondling of the genitals, anus, or breasts, directly or indirectly, including through clothing;

(b) Any intentional or knowing display of the genitals, anus, or breasts for the purposes of arousal or sexual gratification of the respondent;

(c) Any intentional or knowing touching or fondling of the genitals, anus, or breasts, directly or indirectly, including through clothing, that the petitioner is forced to perform by another person or the respondent;

(d) Any forced display of the petitioner's genitals, anus, or breasts for the purposes of arousal or sexual gratification of the respondent or others;

(e) Any intentional or knowing touching of the clothed or unclothed body of a child under the age of thirteen, if done for the purpose of sexual gratification or arousal of the respondent or others; and

(f) Any coerced or forced touching or fondling by a child under the age of thirteen, directly or indirectly, including through clothing, of the genitals, anus, or breasts of the respondent or others.

(5) “Sexual penetration” means any contact, however slight, between the sex organ or anus of one person by an object, the sex organ, mouth, or anus of another person, or any intrusion, however slight, of any part of the body of one person or of any animal or object into the sex organ or anus of another person, including but not limited to cunnilingus, fellatio, or anal penetration. Evidence of emission of semen is not required to prove sexual penetration.

(6) “Nonphysical contact” includes, but is not limited to, telephone calls, mail, e-mail, fax, and written notes.

7.90.020. Petition for a sexual assault protection order--Creation--Contents--Administration

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

There shall exist an action known as a petition for a sexual assault protection order.

(1) A petition for relief shall allege the existence of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration, and shall be accompanied by an affidavit made under oath stating the specific statements or actions made at the same time of the sexual assault or subsequently thereafter, which give rise to a reasonable fear of future dangerous acts, for which relief is sought. Petitioner and respondent shall disclose the existence of any other litigation or of any other restraining, protection, or no-contact orders between the parties.

(2) A petition for relief may be made regardless of whether or not there is a pending lawsuit, complaint, petition, or other action between the parties.

(3) Within ninety days of receipt of the master copy from the administrative office of the courts, all court clerk's offices shall make available the standardized forms, instructions, and informational brochures required by RCW 7.90.180 and shall fill in and keep current specific program names and telephone numbers for community resources. Any assistance or information provided by clerks under this section does not constitute the practice of law and clerks are not responsible for incorrect information contained in a petition.

(4) Forms and instructional brochures and the necessary number of certified copies shall be provided free of charge.

(5) A person is not required to post a bond to obtain relief in any proceeding under this section.

(6) If the petition states that disclosure of the petitioner's address would risk abuse of the petitioner or any member of the petitioner's family or household, that address may be omitted from all documents filed with the court. If the petitioner has not disclosed an address under this subsection, the petitioner shall designate an alternative address at which the respondent may serve notice of any motions.

7.90.030. Petition--Who may file

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A petition for a sexual assault protection order may be filed by a person:

(a) Who does not qualify for a protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW and who is a victim of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration, including a single incident of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration; or

(b) On behalf of any of the following persons who is a victim of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration and who does not qualify for a protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW:

(i) A minor child;

(ii) A vulnerable adult as defined in RCW 74.34.020 or 74.34.021; or

(iii) Any other adult who, because of age, disability, health, or inaccessibility, cannot file the petition.

7.90.040. Petition--Additional requirements

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any person may seek relief under this chapter by filing a petition with a court alleging that the person has been the victim of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration committed by the respondent.

(2) A person under eighteen years of age who is sixteen years of age or older may seek relief under this chapter and is not required to seek relief by a guardian or next friend.

(3) No guardian or guardian ad litem need be appointed on behalf of a respondent to an action under this chapter who is under eighteen years of age if such respondent is sixteen years of age or older.

(4) The court may, if it deems necessary, appoint a guardian ad litem for a petitioner or respondent who is a party to an action under this chapter. The appointment shall be at no cost to either party.

(5) Jurisdiction of the courts over proceedings under this chapter shall be the same as jurisdiction over domestic violence protection orders under RCW 26.50.020(5).

(6) An action under this chapter shall be filed in the county or the municipality where the petitioner resides.

7.90.055. Fees not permitted--Filing, service of process, certified copies

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

No fees for filing or service of process may be charged by a public agency to petitioners seeking relief under this chapter. Petitioners shall be provided the necessary number of certified copies at no cost.

7.90.060. Sexual assault advocates

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Sexual assault advocates, as defined in RCW 5.60.060, shall be allowed to accompany the victim and confer with the victim, unless otherwise directed by the court. Court administrators shall allow sexual assault advocates to assist victims of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration in the preparation of petitions for sexual assault protection orders. Sexual assault advocates are not engaged in the unauthorized practice of law when providing assistance of the types specified in this section. Communications between the petitioner and a sexual assault advocate are protected as provided by RCW 5.60.060.

7.90.070. Appointment of counsel

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may appoint counsel to represent the petitioner if the respondent is represented by counsel.

7.90.090. Burden of proof--Issuance of protection order--Remedies--Violations

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) If the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the petitioner has been a victim of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration by the respondent, the court shall issue a sexual assault protection order; provided that the petitioner must also satisfy the requirements of RCW 7.90.110 for ex parte temporary orders or RCW 7.90.120 for final orders.

(b) The petitioner shall not be denied a sexual assault protection order because the petitioner or the respondent is a minor or because the petitioner did not report the assault to law enforcement. The court, when determining whether or not to issue a sexual assault protection order, may not require proof of physical injury on the person of the victim or proof that the petitioner has reported the sexual assault to law enforcement. Modification and extension of prior sexual assault protection orders shall be in accordance with this chapter.

(2) The court may provide relief as follows:

(a) Restrain the respondent from having any contact, including nonphysical contact, with the petitioner directly, indirectly, or through third parties regardless of whether those third parties know of the order;

(b) Exclude the respondent from the petitioner's residence, workplace, or school, or from the day care or school of a child, if the victim is a child;

(c) Prohibit the respondent from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location; and

(d) Order any other injunctive relief as necessary or appropriate for the protection of the petitioner.

(3) In cases where the petitioner and the respondent are under the age of eighteen and attend the same public or private elementary, middle, or high school, the court, when issuing a protection order and providing relief, shall consider, among the other facts of the case, the severity of the act, any continuing physical danger or emotional distress to the petitioner, and the expense difficulty, and educational disruption that would be caused by a transfer of the respondent to another school. The court may order that the person restrained in the order not attend the public or approved private elementary, middle, or high school attended by the person under the age of eighteen protected by the order. In the event the court orders a transfer of the restrained person to another school, the parents or legal guardians of the person restrained in the order are responsible for transportation and other costs associated with the change of school by the person restrained in the order. The court shall send notice of the restriction on attending the same school as the person protected by the order to the public or approved private school the person restrained by the order will attend and to the school the person protected by the order attends.

(4) Denial of a remedy may not be based, in whole or in part, on evidence that:

(a) The respondent was voluntarily intoxicated;

(b) The petitioner was voluntarily intoxicated; or

(c) The petitioner engaged in limited consensual sexual touching.

(5) Monetary damages are not recoverable as a remedy.

(6) A knowing violation of a court order issued under this section is punishable under RCW 26.50.110.

7.90.110. Ex parte temporary sexual assault protection orders--Issuance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) An ex parte temporary sexual assault protection order shall issue if the petitioner satisfies the requirements of this subsection by a preponderance of the evidence. The petitioner shall establish that:

(a) The petitioner has been a victim of nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration by the respondent; and

(b) There is good cause to grant the remedy, regardless of the lack of prior service of process or of notice upon the respondent, because the harm which that remedy is intended to prevent would be likely to occur if the respondent were given any prior notice, or greater notice than was actually given, of the petitioner's efforts to obtain judicial relief.

(2) If the respondent appears in court for this hearing for an ex parte temporary order, he or she may elect to file a general appearance and testify. Any resulting order may be an ex parte temporary order, governed by this section.

(3) If the court declines to issue an ex parte temporary sexual assault protection order, the court shall state the particular reasons for the court's denial. The court's denial of a motion for an ex parte temporary order shall be filed with the court.

(4) A knowing violation of a court order issued under this section is punishable under RCW 26.50.110.

7.90.120. Ex parte orders--Duration

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) An ex parte temporary sexual assault protection order shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days. A full hearing, as provided in this chapter, shall be set for not later than fourteen days from the issuance of the temporary order or not later than twenty-four days if service by publication or service by mail is permitted. If the court permits service by publication or service by mail, the court shall also reissue the ex parte temporary protection order not to exceed another twenty-four days from the date of reissuing the ex parte protection order. Except as provided in RCW 7.90.050, 7.90.052, or 7.90.053, the respondent shall be personally served with a copy of the ex parte temporary sexual assault protection order along with a copy of the petition and notice of the date set for the hearing.

(b) Any ex parte temporary order issued under this section shall contain the date and time of issuance and the expiration date and shall be entered into a statewide judicial information system by the clerk of the court within one judicial day after issuance.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this section or RCW 7.90.150, a final sexual assault protection order shall be effective for a fixed period of time or be permanent.

(3) Any sexual assault protection order which would expire on a court holiday shall instead expire at the close of the next court business day.

(4) The practice of dismissing or suspending a criminal prosecution in exchange for the issuance of a sexual assault protection order undermines the purposes of this chapter. This section shall not be construed as encouraging that practice.

7.90.121. Renewal of ex parte order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017
  1. (1) Any ex parte temporary or nonpermanent final sexual assault protection order may be renewed one or more times, as required.

    (2) The petitioner may apply for renewal of the order by filing a motion for renewal at any time within the three months before the order expires. The motion for renewal shall state the reasons why the petitioner seeks to renew the protection order.

    (3) (a) The court shall grant the motion for renewal unless the respondent proves by a preponderance of the evidence that there has been a material change in circumstances such that the respondent is not likely to engage in or attempt to engage in physical or nonphysical contact with the petitioner when the order expires.

    (b) For purposes of this subsection (3), a court shall determine whether there has been a material change in circumstances by considering only factors which address whether the respondent is likely to engage in or attempt to engage in physical or nonphysical contact with the petitioner when the order expires. The passage of time and compliance with the existing protection order shall not, alone, be sufficient to meet this burden of proof. The court may renew the sexual assault protection order for another fixed time period or may enter a permanent order as provided in this section.

    (c) In determining whether there has been a material change in circumstances, the court may consider the following unweighted factors, and no inference is to be drawn from the order in which the factors are listed:

    (i) Whether the respondent has committed or threatened sexual assault, domestic violence, stalking, or other violent acts since the protection order was entered;

    (ii) Whether the respondent has violated the terms of the protection order and the time that has passed since the entry of the order;

    (iii) Whether the respondent has exhibited suicidal ideation or attempts since the protection order was entered;

    (iv) Whether the respondent has been convicted of criminal activity since the protection order was entered;

    (v) Whether the respondent has either acknowledged responsibility for acts of sexual assault that resulted in entry of the protection order or successfully completed sexual assault perpetrator treatment or counseling since the protection order was entered;

    (vi) Whether the respondent has a continuing involvement with drug or alcohol abuse, if such abuse was a factor in the protection order;

    (vii) Whether the respondent or petitioner has relocated to an area more distant from the other party, giving due consideration to the fact that acts of sexual assault may be committed from any distance such as via cybercrime;

    (viii) Other factors relating to a material change in circumstances.

    (4)(a) If the motion is contested, upon receipt of the motion, the court shall order that a hearing be held not later than fourteen days from the date of the order.

    (b) The court may schedule a hearing by telephone pursuant to local court rule, to reasonably accommodate a disability, or in exceptional circumstances to protect a petitioner from further nonconsensual sexual conduct or nonconsensual sexual penetration. The court shall require assurances of the petitioner's identity before conducting a telephonic hearing.

    (c) The respondent shall be personally served not less than five court days prior to the hearing. If timely personal service cannot be made, the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require additional attempts at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication as provided in RCW 7.90.052 or service by mail as provided in RCW 7.90.053. The court shall not require more than two attempts at obtaining personal service and shall permit service by publication or service by mail unless the petitioner requests additional time to attempt personal service. If the court permits service by publication or service by mail, the court shall set the hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date of the order.

    (5) Renewals may be granted only in open court.

7.90.160. Law enforcement agencies--Entry of protection order data

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A copy of a sexual assault protection order granted under this chapter shall be forwarded by the clerk of the court on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall immediately enter the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. The order shall remain in the computer for one year or until the expiration date specified on the order. Upon receipt of notice that an order has been terminated, the law enforcement agency shall remove the order from the computer-based criminal intelligence information system. The law enforcement agency shall only expunge from the computer-based criminal intelligence information system orders that are expired, vacated, terminated, or superseded. Entry into the law enforcement information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the order. The order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(2) The information entered into the computer-based criminal intelligence information system shall include notice to law enforcement whether the order was personally served, served by publication, or served by mail.

Chapter 7.92. Jennifer Paulson Stalking Protection Order Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

7.92.020. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) “Minor” means a person who is under eighteen years of age.

(2) “Petitioner” means any named petitioner for the stalking protection order or any named victim of stalking conduct on whose behalf the petition is brought.

(3) “Stalking conduct” means any of the following:

(a) Any act of stalking as defined under RCW 9A.46.110;

(b) Any act of cyberstalking as defined under RCW 9.61.260;

(c) Any course of conduct involving repeated or continuing contacts, attempts to contact, monitoring, tracking, keeping under observation, or following of another that:

(i) Would cause a reasonable person to feel intimidated, frightened, or threatened and that actually causes such a feeling;

(ii) Serves no lawful purpose; and

(iii) The stalker knows or reasonably should know threatens, frightens, or intimidates the person, even if the stalker did not intend to intimidate, frighten, or threaten the person.

(4) “Stalking no-contact order” means a temporary order or a final order granted under this chapter against a person charged with or arrested for stalking, which includes a remedy authorized under RCW 7.92.160.

(5) “Stalking protection order” means an ex parte temporary order or a final order granted under this chapter, which includes a remedy authorized in RCW 7.92.100.

7.92.040. Petition--Who may file

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A petition for a stalking protection order may be filed by a person:

(1) Who does not qualify for a protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW and who is a victim of stalking conduct; or

(2) On behalf of any of the following persons who is a victim of stalking conduct and who does not qualify for a protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW:

(a) A minor child, where the petitioner is a parent, a legal custodian, or, where the respondent is not a parent, an adult with whom the child is currently residing; or

(b) A vulnerable adult as defined in RCW 74.34.020 and where the petitioner is an interested person as defined in 1RCW 74.34.020(10).

7.92.050. Petition--Additional requirements

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any person may seek relief under this chapter by filing a petition with a court alleging that the person has been the victim of stalking conduct committed by the respondent.

(2) A minor sixteen years of age or older may seek relief under this chapter and is not required to seek relief through a guardian or next friend. This does not preclude a parent or legal custodian of a victim sixteen or seventeen years of age from seeking relief on behalf of the minor.

(3) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction and cognizance of any civil actions and proceedings brought under this chapter, except a district court shall transfer such actions and proceedings to the superior court when it is shown that (a) the petitioner, victim, or respondent to the petition is under eighteen years of age; (b) the action involves title or possession of real property; (c) a superior court has exercised or is exercising jurisdiction over a proceeding involving the parties; or (d) the action would have the effect of interfering with a respondent's care, control, or custody of the respondent's minor child.

(4) Municipal courts may exercise jurisdiction and cognizance of any civil actions and proceedings brought under this chapter by adoption of local court rule, except a municipal court shall transfer such actions and proceedings to the superior court when it is shown that (a) the petitioner, victim, or respondent to the petition is under eighteen years of age; (b) the action involves title or possession of real property; (c) a superior court has exercised or is exercising jurisdiction over a proceeding involving the parties; or (d) the action would have the effect of interfering with a respondent's care, control, or custody of the respondent's minor child.

(5) Superior courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction to receive transfer of stalking petitions in cases where a district or municipal court judge makes findings of fact and conclusions of law showing that meritorious reasons exist for the transfer. The jurisdiction of district and municipal courts is limited to enforcement of RCW 26.50.110(1), or the equivalent municipal ordinance, and the issuance and enforcement of temporary orders provided for in RCW 7.92.120 if the superior court is exercising jurisdiction over a proceeding under this chapter involving the parties.

(6) No guardian or guardian ad litem need be appointed on behalf of a respondent to an action under this chapter if such respondent is sixteen years of age or older.

(7) If a guardian ad litem is appointed for the petitioner or respondent, the petitioner shall not be required to pay any fee associated with such appointment.

(8) An action under this chapter shall be filed in the county or the municipality where the petitioner resides, unless the petitioner has left the residence or household to avoid stalking conduct. In that case, the petitioner may bring an action in the county or municipality of the previous or the new residence or household.

7.92.100. Burden of proof--Issuance of protection order--Remedies

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) If the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the petitioner has been a victim of stalking conduct by the respondent, the court shall issue a stalking protection order.

(b) The petitioner shall not be denied a stalking protection order because the petitioner or the respondent is a minor or because the petitioner did not report the stalking conduct to law enforcement. The court, when determining whether or not to issue a stalking protection order, may not require proof of the respondent's intentions regarding the acts alleged by the petitioner. Modification and extension of prior stalking protection orders shall be in accordance with this chapter.

(2) The court may provide relief as follows:

(a) Restrain the respondent from having any contact, including nonphysical contact, with the petitioner directly, indirectly, or through third parties regardless of whether those third parties know of the order;

(b) Exclude the respondent from the petitioner's residence, workplace, or school, or from the day care, workplace, or school of the petitioner's minor children;

(c) Prohibit the respondent from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location;

(d) Prohibit the respondent from keeping the petitioner and/or the petitioner's minor children under surveillance, to include electronic surveillance;

(e) Order any other injunctive relief as necessary or appropriate for the protection of the petitioner, to include a mental health and/or chemical dependency evaluation; and

(f) Require the respondent to pay the administrative court costs and service fees, as established by the county or municipality incurring the expense and to reimburse the petitioner for costs incurred in bringing the action, including reasonable attorneys' fees.

(3) Unless otherwise stated in the order, when a person is petitioning on behalf of a minor child or vulnerable adult, the relief authorized in this section shall apply only for the protection of the victim, and not the petitioner.

(4) In cases where the petitioner and the respondent attend the same public or private elementary, middle, or high school, the court, when issuing a protection order and providing relief, shall consider, among the other facts of the case, the severity of the act, any continuing physical danger or emotional distress to the petitioner, and the expense difficulty, and educational disruption that would be caused by a transfer of the respondent to another school. The court may order that the person restrained in the order not attend the public or approved private elementary, middle, or high school attended by the person protected by the order. In the event the court orders a transfer of the restrained person to another school, the parents or legal guardians of the person restrained in the order are responsible for transportation and other costs associated with the change of school by the person restrained in the order. The court shall send notice of the restriction on attending the same school as the person protected by the order to the public or approved private school the person restrained by the order will attend and to the school the person protected by the order attends.

7.92.120. Ex parte temporary order for protection--Issuance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Where it appears from the petition and any additional evidence that the respondent has engaged in stalking conduct and that irreparable injury could result if an order is not issued immediately without prior notice, the court may grant an ex parte temporary order for protection, pending a full hearing and grant such injunctive relief as it deems proper, including the relief as specified under RCW 7.92.100 (2)(a) through (d) and (4).

(2) Irreparable injury under this section includes, but is not limited to, situations in which the respondent has recently threatened the petitioner with bodily injury or has engaged in acts of stalking conduct against the petitioner.

(3) The court shall hold an ex parte hearing in person or by telephone on the day the petition is filed or on the following judicial day.

(4) An ex parte temporary stalking protection order shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days or twenty-four days if the court has permitted service by publication or mail. The ex parte order may be reissued. A full hearing, as provided in this chapter, shall be set for not later than fourteen days from the issuance of the temporary order or not later than twenty-four days if service by publication or by mail is permitted. Unless the court has permitted service by publication or mail, the respondent shall be personally served with a copy of the ex parte order along with a copy of the petition and notice of the date set for the hearing.

(5) Any order issued under this section shall contain the date and time of issuance and the expiration date and shall be entered into a statewide judicial information system by the clerk of the court within one judicial day after issuance.

(6) If the court declines to issue an ex parte temporary stalking protection order, the court shall state the particular reasons for the court's denial. The court's denial of a motion for an ex parte temporary order shall be filed with the court.

(7) A knowing violation of a court order issued under this section is punishable under RCW 26.50.110.

7.92.130. Protection orders--Duration

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section or RCW 7.92.160, a final stalking protection order shall be effective for a fixed period of time or be permanent.

(2) Any ex parte temporary or final stalking protection order may be renewed one or more times. The petitioner may apply for renewal of the order by filing a petition for renewal at any time within the three months before the order expires. If the motion for renewal is uncontested and the petitioner seeks no modification of the order, the order may be renewed on the basis of the petitioner's motion or affidavit stating that there has been no material change in relevant circumstances since entry of the order and stating the reason for the requested renewal. The court shall grant the petition for renewal unless the respondent proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent will not resume acts of stalking conduct against the petitioner or the petitioner's children or family or household members when the order expires. The court may renew the stalking protection order for another fixed time period or may enter a permanent order as provided in this section. The court may award court costs, service fees, and reasonable attorneys' fees as provided in RCW 7.92.100.

(3) Any stalking protection order which would expire on a court holiday shall instead expire at the close of the next court business day.

(4) The practice of dismissing or suspending a criminal prosecution in exchange for the issuance of a stalking protection order undermines the purposes of this chapter. This section shall not be construed as encouraging that practice.

(5) If the court declines to issue an order for protection or declines to renew an order for protection, the court shall state in writing on the order the particular reasons for the court's denial.

Chapter 7.94. Extreme Risk Protection Order Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

7.94.030. Petition for order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

There shall exist an action known as a petition for an extreme risk protection order.

(1) A petition for an extreme risk protection order may be filed by (a) a family or household member of the respondent or (b) a law enforcement officer or agency.

(2) An action under this chapter must be filed in the county where the petitioner resides or the county where the respondent resides.

(3) A petition must:

(a) Allege that the respondent poses a significant danger of causing personal injury to self or others by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm, and be accompanied by an affidavit made under oath stating the specific statements, actions, or facts that give rise to a reasonable fear of future dangerous acts by the respondent;

(b) Identify the number, types, and locations of any firearms the petitioner believes to be in the respondent's current ownership, possession, custody, or control;

(c) Identify whether there is a known existing protection order governing the respondent, under chapter 7.90, 7.92, 10.14, 9A.46, 10.99, 26.50, or 26.52 RCW or under any other applicable statute; and

(d) Identify whether there is a pending lawsuit, complaint, petition, or other action between the parties to the petition under the laws of Washington.

(4) The court administrator shall verify the terms of any existing order governing the parties. The court may not delay granting relief because of the existence of a pending action between the parties or the necessity of verifying the terms of an existing order. A petition for an extreme risk protection order may be granted whether or not there is a pending action between the parties.

(5) If the petitioner is a law enforcement officer or agency, the petitioner shall make a good faith effort to provide notice to a family or household member of the respondent and to any known third party who may be at risk of violence. The notice must state that the petitioner intends to petition the court for an extreme risk protection order or has already done so, and include referrals to appropriate resources, including mental health, domestic violence, and counseling resources. The petitioner must attest in the petition to having provided such notice, or attest to the steps that will be taken to provide such notice.

(6) If the petition states that disclosure of the petitioner's address would risk harm to the petitioner or any member of the petitioner's family or household, the petitioner's address may be omitted from all documents filed with the court. If the petitioner has not disclosed an address under this subsection, the petitioner must designate an alternative address at which the respondent may serve notice of any motions. If the petitioner is a law enforcement officer or agency, the address of record must be that of the law enforcement agency.

(7) Within ninety days of receipt of the master copy from the administrative office of the courts, all court clerk's offices shall make available the standardized forms, instructions, and informational brochures required by RCW 7.94.150. Any assistance or information provided by clerks under this section does not constitute the practice of law and clerks are not responsible for incorrect information contained in a petition.

(8) No fees for filing or service of process may be charged by a court or any public agency to petitioners seeking relief under this chapter. Petitioners shall be provided the necessary number of certified copies, forms, and instructional brochures free of charge.

(9) A person is not required to post a bond to obtain relief in any proceeding under this section.

(10) The superior courts of the state of Washington have jurisdiction over proceedings under this chapter. Additionally, district and municipal courts have limited jurisdiction over issuance and enforcement of ex parte extreme risk protection orders issued under RCW 7.94.050. The district or municipal court shall set the full hearing provided for in RCW 7.94.040 in superior court and transfer the case. If the notice and order are not served on the respondent in time for the full hearing, the issuing court has concurrent jurisdiction with the superior court to extend the ex parte extreme risk protection order.

7.94.010. Purpose - Intent

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Chapter 3, Laws of 2017 is designed to temporarily prevent individuals who are at high risk of harming themselves or others from accessing firearms by allowing family, household members, and police to obtain a court order when there is demonstrated evidence that the person poses a significant danger, including danger as a result of a dangerous mental health crisis or violent behavior.

(2) Every year, over one hundred thousand people are victims of gunshot wounds and more than thirty thousand of those victims lose their lives. Over the last five years for which data is available, one hundred sixty-four thousand eight hundred twenty-one people in America were killed with firearms--an average of ninety-one deaths each day.

(3) Studies show that individuals who engage in certain dangerous behaviors are significantly more likely to commit violence toward themselves or others in the near future. These behaviors, which can include other acts or threats of violence, self-harm, or the abuse of drugs or alcohol, are warning signs that the person may soon commit an act of violence.

(4) Individuals who pose a danger to themselves or others often exhibit signs that alert family, household members, or law enforcement to the threat. Many mass shooters displayed warning signs prior to their killings, but federal and state laws provided no clear legal process to suspend the shooters' access to guns, even temporarily.

(5) In enacting this initiative [chapter 3, Laws of 2017], it is the purpose and intent of the people to reduce gun deaths and injuries, while respecting constitutional rights, by providing a court procedure for family, household members, and law enforcement to obtain an order temporarily restricting a person's access to firearms. Court orders are intended to be limited to situations in which the person poses a significant danger of harming themselves or others by possessing a firearm and include standards and safeguards to protect the rights of respondents and due process of law.

7.94.020. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) “Extreme risk protection order” means an ex parte temporary order or a final order granted under this chapter.

(2) “Family or household member” means, with respect to a respondent, any: (a) Person related by blood, marriage, or adoption to the respondent; (b) Dating partners of the respondent; (c) Person who has a child in common with the respondent, regardless of whether such person has been married to the respondent or has lived together with the respondent at any time; (d) Person who resides or has resided with the respondent within the past year; (e) Domestic partner of the respondent; (f) Person who has a biological or legal parent-child relationship with the respondent, including stepparents and stepchildren and grandparents and grandchildren; and (g) Person who is acting or has acted as the respondent's legal guardian.

(3) “Petitioner” means the person who petitions for an order under this chapter.

(4) “Respondent” means the person who is identified as the respondent in a petition filed under this chapter.

7.94.040. Hearings on petition--Grounds for order issuance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall order a hearing to be held not later than fourteen days from the date of the order and issue a notice of hearing to the respondent for the same.

(a) The court may schedule a hearing by telephone pursuant to local court rule, to reasonably accommodate a disability, or in exceptional circumstances to protect a petitioner from potential harm. The court shall require assurances of the petitioner's identity before conducting a telephonic hearing.

(b) The court clerk shall cause a copy of the notice of hearing and petition to be forwarded on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency for service upon the respondent.

(c) Personal service of the notice of hearing and petition shall be made upon the respondent by a law enforcement officer not less than five court days prior to the hearing. Service issued under this section takes precedence over the service of other documents, unless the other documents are of a similar emergency nature. If timely personal service cannot be made, the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require additional attempts at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication or mail as provided in RCW 7.94.070. The court shall not require more than two attempts at obtaining personal service and shall permit service by publication or mail after two attempts at obtaining personal service unless the petitioner requests additional time to attempt personal service. If the court issues an order permitting service by publication or mail, the court shall set the hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date the order issues.

(d) The court may, as provided in RCW 7.94.050, issue an ex parte extreme risk protection order pending the hearing ordered under this subsection (1). Such ex parte order must be served concurrently with the notice of hearing and petition.

(2) Upon hearing the matter, if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent poses a significant danger of causing personal injury to self or others by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm, the court shall issue an extreme risk protection order for a period of one year.

(3) In determining whether grounds for an extreme risk protection order exist, the court may consider any relevant evidence including, but not limited to, any of the following:

(a) A recent act or threat of violence by the respondent against self or others, whether or not such violence or threat of violence involves a firearm;

(b) A pattern of acts or threats of violence by the respondent within the past twelve months including, but not limited to, acts or threats of violence by the respondent against self or others;

(c) Any dangerous mental health issues of the respondent;

(d) A violation by the respondent of a protection order or a no-contact order issued under chapter 7.90, 7.92, 10.14, 9A.46, 10.99, 26.50, or 26.52 RCW;

(e) A previous or existing extreme risk protection order issued against the respondent;

(f) A violation of a previous or existing extreme risk protection order issued against the respondent;

(g) A conviction of the respondent for a crime that constitutes domestic violence as defined in RCW 10.99.020;

(h) The respondent's ownership, access to, or intent to possess firearms;

(i) The unlawful or reckless use, display, or brandishing of a firearm by the respondent;

(j) The history of use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force by the respondent against another person, or the respondent's history of stalking another person;

(k) Any prior arrest of the respondent for a felony offense or violent crime;

(l) Corroborated evidence of the abuse of controlled substances or alcohol by the respondent; and

(m) Evidence of recent acquisition of firearms by the respondent.

(4) The court may:

(a) Examine under oath the petitioner, the respondent, and any witnesses they may produce, or, in lieu of examination, consider sworn affidavits of the petitioner, the respondent, and any witnesses they may produce; and

(b) Ensure that a reasonable search has been conducted for criminal history records related to the respondent.

(5) In a hearing under this chapter, the rules of evidence apply to the same extent as in a domestic violence protection order proceeding under chapter 26.50 RCW.

(6) During the hearing, the court shall consider whether a mental health evaluation or chemical dependency evaluation is appropriate, and may order such evaluation if appropriate.

(7) An extreme risk protection order must include:

(a) A statement of the grounds supporting the issuance of the order;

(b) The date and time the order was issued;

(c) The date and time the order expires;

(d) Whether a mental health evaluation or chemical dependency evaluation of the respondent is required;

(e) The address of the court in which any responsive pleading should be filed;

(f) A description of the requirements for relinquishment of firearms under RCW 7.94.090; and

(g) The following statement: “To the subject of this protection order: This order will last until the date and time noted above. If you have not done so already, you must surrender to the (insert name of local law enforcement agency) all firearms in your custody, control, or possession and any concealed pistol license issued to you under RCW 9.41.070 immediately. You may not have in your custody or control, purchase, possess, receive, or attempt to purchase or receive, a firearm while this order is in effect. You have the right to request one hearing to terminate this order every twelve-month period that this order is in effect, starting from the date of this order and continuing through any renewals. You may seek the advice of an attorney as to any matter connected with this order.”

(8) When the court issues an extreme risk protection order, the court shall inform the respondent that he or she is entitled to request termination of the order in the manner prescribed by RCW 7.94.080. The court shall provide the respondent with a form to request a termination hearing.

(9) If the court declines to issue an extreme risk protection order, the court shall state the particular reasons for the court's denial.

7.94.050. Ex parte orders

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A petitioner may request that an ex parte extreme risk protection order be issued before a hearing for an extreme risk protection order, without notice to the respondent, by including in the petition detailed allegations based on personal knowledge that the respondent poses a significant danger of causing personal injury to self or others in the near future by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm.

(2) In considering whether to issue an ex parte extreme risk protection order under this section, the court shall consider all relevant evidence, including the evidence described in RCW 7.94.040(3).

(3) If a court finds there is reasonable cause to believe that the respondent poses a significant danger of causing personal injury to self or others in the near future by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm, the court shall issue an ex parte extreme risk protection order.

(4) The court shall hold an ex parte extreme risk protection order hearing in person or by telephone on the day the petition is filed or on the judicial day immediately following the day the petition is filed.

(5) In accordance with RCW 7.94.040(1), the court shall schedule a hearing within fourteen days of the issuance of an ex parte extreme risk protection order to determine if a one-year extreme risk protection order should be issued under this chapter.

(6) An ex parte extreme risk protection order shall include:

(a) A statement of the grounds asserted for the order;

(b) The date and time the order was issued;

(c) The date and time the order expires;

(d) The address of the court in which any responsive pleading should be filed;

(e) The date and time of the scheduled hearing;

(f) A description of the requirements for surrender of firearms under RCW 7.94.090; and

(g) The following statement: “To the subject of this protection order: This order is valid until the date and time noted above. You are required to surrender all firearms in your custody, control, or possession. You may not have in your custody or control, purchase, possess, receive, or attempt to purchase or receive, a firearm while this order is in effect. You must surrender to the (insert name of local law enforcement agency) all firearms in your custody, control, or possession and any concealed pistol license issued to you under RCW 9.41.070 immediately. A hearing will be held on the date and at the time noted above to determine if an extreme risk protection order should be issued. Failure to appear at that hearing may result in a court making an order against you that is valid for one year. You may seek the advice of an attorney as to any matter connected with this order.”

(7) Any ex parte extreme risk protection order issued expires upon the hearing on the extreme risk protection order.

(8) An ex parte extreme risk protection order shall be served by a law enforcement officer in the same manner as provided for in RCW 7.94.040 for service of the notice of hearing and petition, and shall be served concurrently with the notice of hearing and petition.

(9) If the court declines to issue an ex parte extreme risk protection order, the court shall state the particular reasons for the court's denial.

7.94.080. Termination and renewal of orders

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The respondent may submit one written request for a hearing to terminate an extreme risk protection order issued under this chapter every twelve-month period that the order is in effect, starting from the date of the order and continuing through any renewals.

(a) Upon receipt of the request for a hearing to terminate an extreme risk protection order, the court shall set a date for a hearing. Notice of the request must be served on the petitioner in accordance with RCW 4.28.080. The hearing shall occur no sooner than fourteen days and no later than thirty days from the date of service of the request upon the petitioner.

(b) The respondent shall have the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent does not pose a significant danger of causing personal injury to self or others by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm. The court may consider any relevant evidence, including evidence of the considerations listed in RCW 7.94.040(3).

(c) If the court finds after the hearing that the respondent has met his or her burden, the court shall terminate the order.

(2) The court must notify the petitioner of the impending expiration of an extreme risk protection order. Notice must be received by the petitioner one hundred five calendar days before the date the order expires.

(3) A family or household member of a respondent or a law enforcement officer or agency may by motion request a renewal of an extreme risk protection order at any time within one hundred five calendar days before the expiration of the order.

(a) Upon receipt of the motion to renew, the court shall order that a hearing be held not later than fourteen days from the date the order issues.

(i) The court may schedule a hearing by telephone in the manner prescribed by RCW 7.94.040(1)(a).

(ii) The respondent shall be personally served in the same manner prescribed by RCW 7.94.040(1) (b) and (c).

(b) In determining whether to renew an extreme risk protection order issued under this section, the court shall consider all relevant evidence presented by the petitioner and follow the same procedure as provided in RCW 7.94.040.

(c) If the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the requirements for issuance of an extreme risk protection order as provided in RCW 7.94.040 continue to be met, the court shall renew the order. However, if, after notice, the motion for renewal is uncontested and the petitioner seeks no modification of the order, the order may be renewed on the basis of the petitioner's motion or affidavit stating that there has been no material change in relevant circumstances since entry of the order and stating the reason for the requested renewal.

(d) The renewal of an extreme risk protection order has a duration of one year, subject to termination as provided in subsection (1) of this section or further renewal by order of the court.

7.94.120. Penalities

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any person who files a petition under this chapter knowing the information in such petition to be materially false, or with intent to harass the respondent, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

(2) Any person who has in his or her custody or control, purchases, possesses, or receives a firearm with knowledge that he or she is prohibited from doing so by an order issued under this chapter is guilty of a gross misdemeanor, and further is prohibited from having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving, or attempting to purchase or receive, a firearm for a period of five years from the date the existing order expires. However, such person is guilty of a class C felony if the person has two or more previous convictions for violating an order issued under this chapter.

7.94.120. Penalities

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any person who files a petition under this chapter knowing the information in such petition to be materially false, or with intent to harass the respondent, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

(2) Any person who has in his or her custody or control, purchases, possesses, or receives a firearm with knowledge that he or she is prohibited from doing so by an order issued under this chapter is guilty of a gross misdemeanor, and further is prohibited from having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving, or attempting to purchase or receive, a firearm for a period of five years from the date the existing order expires. However, such person is guilty of a class C felony if the person has two or more previous convictions for violating an order issued under this chapter.

Title 9. Crimes and Punishments

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 9.41. Firearms and Dangerous Weapons

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9.41.340. Return of privately owned firearm by law enforcement agency--Notification to family or household member--Exception--Exemption from public disclosure--Civil liability--Liability for request based on false information

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Each law enforcement agency shall develop a notification protocol that allows a family or household member to use an incident or case number to request to be notified when a law enforcement agency returns a privately owned firearm to the individual from whom it was obtained or to an authorized representative of that person.

(a) Notification may be made via telephone, email, text message, or another method that allows notification to be provided without unnecessary delay.

(b) If a law enforcement agency is in possession of more than one privately owned firearm from a single person, notification relating to the return of one firearm shall be considered notification for all privately owned firearms for that person.

(c) “Family or household member” has the same meaning as in RCW 26.50.010.

(2) A law enforcement agency shall not provide notification to any party other than a family or household member who has an incident or case number and who has requested to be notified pursuant to this section or another criminal justice agency.

(3) The information provided by a family or household member pursuant to chapter 130, Laws of 2015, including the existence of the request for notification, is not subject to public disclosure pursuant to chapter 42.56 RCW.

(4) An appointed or elected official, public employee, or public agency as defined in RCW 4.24.470, or combination of units of local government and its employees, as provided in RCW 36.28A.010, are immune from civil liability for damages for any release of information or the failure to release information related to this section, so long as the release or failure was without gross negligence.

(5) An individual who knowingly makes a request for notification under this section based on false information may be held liable under RCW 9A.76.175.

9.41.345. Return of privately owned firearm by law enforcement agency--Duties--Notice--Exception

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Before a law enforcement agency returns a privately owned firearm, the law enforcement agency must:

(a) Confirm that the individual to whom the firearm will be returned is the individual from whom the firearm was obtained or an authorized representative of that person;

(b) Confirm that the individual to whom the firearm will be returned is eligible to possess a firearm pursuant to RCW 9.41.040;

(c) Ensure that the firearm is not otherwise required to be held in custody or otherwise prohibited from being released; and

(d) Ensure that twenty-four hours have elapsed from the time the firearm was obtained by law enforcement.

(2)(a) Once the requirements in subsections (1) and (3) of this section have been met, a law enforcement agency must release a firearm to the individual from whom it was obtained or an authorized representative of that person upon request without unnecessary delay.

(b)(i) If a firearm cannot be returned because it is required to be held in custody or is otherwise prohibited from being released, a law enforcement agency must provide written notice to the individual from whom it was obtained within five business days of the individual requesting return of his or her firearm and specify the reason the firearm must be held in custody.

(ii) Notification may be made via email, text message, mail service, or personal service. For methods other than personal service, service shall be considered complete once the notification is sent.

(3) If a family or household member has requested to be notified pursuant to RCW 9.41.340, a law enforcement agency must:

(a) Provide notice to the family or household member within one business day of verifying that the requirements in subsection (1) of this section have been met; and

(b) Hold the firearm in custody for seventy-two hours from the time notification has been provided.

(4) The provisions of chapter 130, Laws of 2015 shall not apply to circumstances where a law enforcement officer has momentarily obtained a firearm from an individual and would otherwise immediately return the firearm to the individual during the same interaction.

9.41.010. Terms defined

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Currentness

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.

(1) “Antique firearm” means a firearm or replica of a firearm not designed or redesigned for using rim fire or conventional center fire ignition with fixed ammunition and manufactured in or before 1898, including any matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system and also any firearm using fixed ammunition manufactured in or before 1898, for which ammunition is no longer manufactured in the United States and is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade.

(2) “Barrel length” means the distance from the bolt face of a closed action down the length of the axis of the bore to the crown of the muzzle, or in the case of a barrel with attachments to the end of any legal device permanently attached to the end of the muzzle.

(3) “Crime of violence” means:

(a) Any of the following felonies, as now existing or hereafter amended: Any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or an attempt to commit a class A felony, criminal solicitation of or criminal conspiracy to commit a class A felony, manslaughter in the first degree, manslaughter in the second degree, indecent liberties if committed by forcible compulsion, kidnapping in the second degree, arson in the second degree, assault in the second degree, assault of a child in the second degree, extortion in the first degree, burglary in the second degree, residential burglary, and robbery in the second degree;

(b) Any conviction for a felony offense in effect at any time prior to June 6, 1996, which is comparable to a felony classified as a crime of violence in (a) of this subsection; and

(c) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense comparable to a felony classified as a crime of violence under (a) or (b) of this subsection.

(4) “Curio or relic” has the same meaning as provided in 27 C.F.R. Sec. 478.11.

(5) “Dealer” means a person engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail who has, or is required to have, a federal firearms license under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(a). A person who does not have, and is not required to have, a federal firearms license under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(a), is not a dealer if that person makes only occasional sales, exchanges, or purchases of firearms for the enhancement of a personal collection or for a hobby, or sells all or part of his or her personal collection of firearms.

(6) “Family or household member” means “family” or “household member” as used in RCW 10.99.020.

(7) “Felony” means any felony offense under the laws of this state or any federal or out-of-state offense comparable to a felony offense under the laws of this state.

(8) “Felony firearm offender” means a person who has previously been convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity in this state of any felony firearm offense. A person is not a felony firearm offender under this chapter if any and all qualifying offenses have been the subject of an expungement, pardon, annulment, certificate, or rehabilitation, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of the rehabilitation of the person convicted or a pardon, annulment, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of innocence.

(9) “Felony firearm offense” means:

(a) Any felony offense that is a violation of this chapter;

(b) A violation of RCW 9A.36.045;

(c) A violation of RCW 9A.56.300;

(d) A violation of RCW 9A.56.310;

(e) Any felony offense if the offender was armed with a firearm in the commission of the offense.

(10) “Firearm” means a weapon or device from which a projectile or projectiles may be fired by an explosive such as gunpowder. “Firearm” does not include a flare gun or other pyrotechnic visual distress signaling device, or a powder-actuated tool or other device designed solely to be used for construction purposes.

(11) “Gun” has the same meaning as firearm.

(12) “Law enforcement officer” includes a general authority Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020, or a specially commissioned Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020. “Law enforcement officer” also includes a limited authority Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020 if such officer is duly authorized by his or her employer to carry a concealed pistol.

(13) “Lawful permanent resident” has the same meaning afforded a person “lawfully admitted for permanent residence” in 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1101(a)(20).

(14) “Licensed collector” means a person who is federally licensed under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(b).

(15) “Licensed dealer” means a person who is federally licensed under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 923(a).

(16) “Loaded” means:

(a) There is a cartridge in the chamber of the firearm;

(b) Cartridges are in a clip that is locked in place in the firearm;

(c) There is a cartridge in the cylinder of the firearm, if the firearm is a revolver;

(d) There is a cartridge in the tube or magazine that is inserted in the action; or

(e) There is a ball in the barrel and the firearm is capped or primed if the firearm is a muzzle loader.

(17) “Machine gun” means any firearm known as a machine gun, mechanical rifle, submachine gun, or any other mechanism or instrument not requiring that the trigger be pressed for each shot and having a reservoir clip, disc, drum, belt, or other separable mechanical device for storing, carrying, or supplying ammunition which can be loaded into the firearm, mechanism, or instrument, and fired therefrom at the rate of five or more shots per second.

(18) “Nonimmigrant alien” means a person defined as such in 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1101(a)(15).

(19) “Person” means any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, club, organization, society, joint stock company, or other legal entity.

(20) “Pistol” means any firearm with a barrel less than sixteen inches in length, or is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand.

(21) “Rifle” means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed metallic cartridge to fire only a single projectile through a rifled bore for each single pull of the trigger.

(22) “Sale” and “sell” mean the actual approval of the delivery of a firearm in consideration of payment or promise of payment.

(23) “Serious offense” means any of the following felonies or a felony attempt to commit any of the following felonies, as now existing or hereafter amended:

(a) Any crime of violence;

(b) Any felony violation of the uniform controlled substances act, chapter 69.50 RCW, that is classified as a class B felony or that has a maximum term of imprisonment of at least ten years;

(c) Child molestation in the second degree;

(d) Incest when committed against a child under age fourteen;

(e) Indecent liberties;

(f) Leading organized crime;

(g) Promoting prostitution in the first degree;

(h) Rape in the third degree;

(i) Drive-by shooting;

(j) Sexual exploitation;

(k) Vehicular assault, when caused by the operation or driving of a vehicle by a person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or by the operation or driving of a vehicle in a reckless manner;

(l) Vehicular homicide, when proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502, or by the operation of any vehicle in a reckless manner;

(m) Any other class B felony offense with a finding of sexual motivation, as “sexual motivation” is defined under RCW 9.94A.030;

(n) Any other felony with a deadly weapon verdict under RCW 9.94A.825;

(o) Any felony offense in effect at any time prior to June 6, 1996, that is comparable to a serious offense, or any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a serious offense; or

(p) Any felony conviction under RCW 9.41.115.

(24) “Short-barreled rifle” means a rifle having one or more barrels less than sixteen inches in length and any weapon made from a rifle by any means of modification if such modified weapon has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches.

(25) “Short-barreled shotgun” means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than eighteen inches in length and any weapon made from a shotgun by any means of modification if such modified weapon has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches.

(26) “Shotgun” means a weapon with one or more barrels, designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed shotgun shell to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger.

(27) “Transfer” means the intended delivery of a firearm to another person without consideration of payment or promise of payment including, but not limited to, gifts and loans. “Transfer” does not include the delivery of a firearm owned or leased by an entity licensed or qualified to do business in the state of Washington to, or return of such a firearm by, any of that entity's employees or agents, defined to include volunteers participating in an honor guard, for lawful purposes in the ordinary course of business.

(28) “Unlicensed person” means any person who is not a licensed dealer under this chapter.

9.41.040. Unlawful possession of firearms--Ownership, possession by certain persons--Restoration of right to possess--Penalties

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) A person, whether an adult or juvenile, is guilty of the crime of unlawful possession of a firearm in the first degree, if the person owns, has in his or her possession, or has in his or her control any firearm after having previously been convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity in this state or elsewhere of any serious offense as defined in this chapter.

(b) Unlawful possession of a firearm in the first degree is a class B felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW.

(2)(a) A person, whether an adult or juvenile, is guilty of the crime of unlawful possession of a firearm in the second degree, if the person does not qualify under subsection (1) of this section for the crime of unlawful possession of a firearm in the first degree and the person owns, has in his or her possession, or has in his or her control any firearm:

(i) After having previously been convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity in this state or elsewhere of any felony not specifically listed as prohibiting firearm possession under subsection (1) of this section, or any of the following crimes when committed by one family or household member against another, committed on or after July 1, 1993: Assault in the fourth degree, coercion, stalking, reckless endangerment, criminal trespass in the first degree, or violation of the provisions of a protection order or no-contact order restraining the person or excluding the person from a residence (RCW 26.50.060, 26.50.070, 26.50.130, or 10.99.040);

(ii) During any period of time that the person is subject to a court order issued under chapter 7.90, 7.92, 9A.46, 10.14, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 26.50 RCW that:

(A) Was issued after a hearing of which the person received actual notice, and at which the person had an opportunity to participate;

(B) Restrains the person from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner of the person or child of the intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child; and

(C)(I) Includes a finding that the person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of the intimate partner or child; and

(II) By its terms, explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury;

(iii) After having previously been involuntarily committed for mental health treatment under RCW 71.05.240, 71.05.320, 71.34.740, 71.34.750, chapter 10.77 RCW, or equivalent statutes of another jurisdiction, unless his or her right to possess a firearm has been restored as provided in RCW 9.41.047;

(iv) If the person is under eighteen years of age, except as provided in RCW 9.41.042; and/or

(v) If the person is free on bond or personal recognizance pending trial, appeal, or sentencing for a serious offense as defined in RCW 9.41.010.

(b) (a)(ii) of this subsection does not apply to a sexual assault protection order under chapter 7.90 RCW if the order has been modified pursuant to RCW 7.90.170 to remove any restrictions on firearm purchase, transfer, or possession.

(c) Unlawful possession of a firearm in the second degree is a class C felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW.

(3) Notwithstanding RCW 9.41.047 or any other provisions of law, as used in this chapter, a person has been “convicted”, whether in an adult court or adjudicated in a juvenile court, at such time as a plea of guilty has been accepted, or a verdict of guilty has been filed, notwithstanding the pendency of any future proceedings including but not limited to sentencing or disposition, post-trial or post-fact-finding motions, and appeals. Conviction includes a dismissal entered after a period of probation, suspension or deferral of sentence, and also includes equivalent dispositions by courts in jurisdictions other than Washington state. A person shall not be precluded from possession of a firearm if the conviction has been the subject of a pardon, annulment, certificate of rehabilitation, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of the rehabilitation of the person convicted or the conviction or disposition has been the subject of a pardon, annulment, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of innocence. Where no record of the court's disposition of the charges can be found, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the person was not convicted of the charge.

(4)(a) Notwithstanding subsection (1) or (2) of this section, a person convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity of an offense prohibiting the possession of a firearm under this section other than murder, manslaughter, robbery, rape, indecent liberties, arson, assault, kidnapping, extortion, burglary, or violations with respect to controlled substances under RCW 69.50.401 and 69.50.410, who received a probationary sentence under RCW 9.95.200, and who received a dismissal of the charge under RCW 9.95.240, shall not be precluded from possession of a firearm as a result of the conviction or finding of not guilty by reason of insanity. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, if a person is prohibited from possession of a firearm under subsection (1) or (2) of this section and has not previously been convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity of a sex offense prohibiting firearm ownership under subsection (1) or (2) of this section and/or any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or with a maximum sentence of at least twenty years, or both, the individual may petition a court of record to have his or her right to possess a firearm restored:

(i) Under RCW 9.41.047; and/or

(ii)(A) If the conviction or finding of not guilty by reason of insanity was for a felony offense, after five or more consecutive years in the community without being convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity or currently charged with any felony, gross misdemeanor, or misdemeanor crimes, if the individual has no prior felony convictions that prohibit the possession of a firearm counted as part of the offender score under RCW 9.94A.525; or

(B) If the conviction or finding of not guilty by reason of insanity was for a nonfelony offense, after three or more consecutive years in the community without being convicted or found not guilty by reason of insanity or currently charged with any felony, gross misdemeanor, or misdemeanor crimes, if the individual has no prior felony convictions that prohibit the possession of a firearm counted as part of the offender score under RCW 9.94A.525 and the individual has completed all conditions of the sentence.

(b) An individual may petition a court of record to have his or her right to possess a firearm restored under (a) of this subsection (4) only at:

(i) The court of record that ordered the petitioner's prohibition on possession of a firearm; or

(ii) The superior court in the county in which the petitioner resides.

(5) In addition to any other penalty provided for by law, if a person under the age of eighteen years is found by a court to have possessed a firearm in a vehicle in violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section or to have committed an offense while armed with a firearm during which offense a motor vehicle served an integral function, the court shall notify the department of licensing within twenty-four hours and the person's privilege to drive shall be revoked under RCW 46.20.265, unless the offense is the juvenile's first offense in violation of this section and has not committed an offense while armed with a firearm, an unlawful possession of a firearm offense, or an offense in violation of chapter 66.44, 69.52, 69.41, or 69.50 RCW.

(6) Nothing in chapter 129, Laws of 1995 shall ever be construed or interpreted as preventing an offender from being charged and subsequently convicted for the separate felony crimes of theft of a firearm or possession of a stolen firearm, or both, in addition to being charged and subsequently convicted under this section for unlawful possession of a firearm in the first or second degree. Notwithstanding any other law, if the offender is convicted under this section for unlawful possession of a firearm in the first or second degree and for the felony crimes of theft of a firearm or possession of a stolen firearm, or both, then the offender shall serve consecutive sentences for each of the felony crimes of conviction listed in this subsection.

(7) Each firearm unlawfully possessed under this section shall be a separate offense.

(8) For purposes of this section, “intimate partner” includes: A spouse, a domestic partner, a former spouse, a former domestic partner, a person with whom the restrained person has a child in common, or a person with whom the restrained person has cohabitated or is cohabitating as part of a dating relationship.

9.41.115 Penalties--Violations of 9.41.113

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Notwithstanding the penalty provisions in this chapter, any person knowingly violating RCW 9.41.113 is guilty of a gross misdemeanor punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW. If a person previously has been found guilty under this section, then the person is guilty of a class C felony punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW for each subsequent knowing violation of RCW 9.41.113. A person is guilty of a separate offense for each and every gun sold or transferred without complying with the background check requirements of RCW 9.41.113. It is an affirmative defense to any prosecution brought under this section that the sale or transfer satisfied one of the exceptions in RCW 9.41.113(4).

9.41.800. Surrender of weapons or licenses--Prohibition on future possession or licensing

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any court when entering an order authorized under chapter 7.92 RCW, RCW 7.90.090, 9A.46.080, 10.14.080, 10.99.040, 10.99.045, 26.09.050, 26.09.060, 26.10.040, 26.10.115, 26.26.130, 26.50.060, 26.50.070, or 26.26.590 shall, upon a showing by clear and convincing evidence, that a party has: Used, displayed, or threatened to use a firearm or other dangerous weapon in a felony, or previously committed any offense that makes him or her ineligible to possess a firearm under the provisions of RCW 9.41.040:

(a) Require the party to surrender any firearm or other dangerous weapon;

(b) Require the party to surrender any concealed pistol license issued under RCW 9.41.070;

(c) Prohibit the party from obtaining or possessing a firearm or other dangerous weapon;

(d) Prohibit the party from obtaining or possessing a concealed pistol license.

(2) Any court when entering an order authorized under chapter 7.92 RCW, RCW 7.90.090, 9A.46.080, 10.14.080, 10.99.040, 10.99.045, 26.09.050, 26.09.060, 26.10.040, 26.10.115, 26.26.130, 26.50.060, 26.50.070, or 26.26.590 may, upon a showing by a preponderance of the evidence but not by clear and convincing evidence, that a party has: Used, displayed, or threatened to use a firearm or other dangerous weapon in a felony, or previously committed any offense that makes him or her ineligible to possess a firearm under the provisions of RCW 9.41.040:

(a) Require the party to surrender any firearm or other dangerous weapon;

(b) Require the party to surrender a concealed pistol license issued under RCW 9.41.070;

(c) Prohibit the party from obtaining or possessing a firearm or other dangerous weapon;

(d) Prohibit the party from obtaining or possessing a concealed pistol license.

(3) During any period of time that the person is subject to a court order issued under chapter 7.90, 7.92, 9A.46, 10.14, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 26.50 RCW that:

(a) Was issued after a hearing of which the person received actual notice, and at which the person had an opportunity to participate;

(b) Restrains the person from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner of the person or child of the intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child; and

(c)(i) Includes a finding that the person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of the intimate partner or child; and

(ii) By its terms, explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury, the court shall:

(A) Require the party to surrender any firearm or other dangerous weapon;

(B) Require the party to surrender a concealed pistol license issued under RCW 9.41.070;

(C) Prohibit the party from obtaining or possessing a firearm or other dangerous weapon; and

(D) Prohibit the party from obtaining or possessing a concealed pistol license.

(4) The court may order temporary surrender of a firearm or other dangerous weapon without notice to the other party if it finds, on the basis of the moving affidavit or other evidence, that irreparable injury could result if an order is not issued until the time for response has elapsed.

(5) In addition to the provisions of subsections (1), (2), and (4) of this section, the court may enter an order requiring a party to comply with the provisions in subsection (1) of this section if it finds that the possession of a firearm or other dangerous weapon by any party presents a serious and imminent threat to public health or safety, or to the health or safety of any individual.

(6) The requirements of subsections (1), (2), and (5) of this section may be for a period of time less than the duration of the order.

(7) The court may require the party to surrender any firearm or other dangerous weapon in his or her immediate possession or control or subject to his or her immediate possession or control to the sheriff of the county having jurisdiction of the proceeding, the chief of police of the municipality having jurisdiction, or to the restrained or enjoined party's counsel or to any person designated by the court.

Chapter 9.61. Malicious Mischief--Injury to Property

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9.61.230. Telephone harassment

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Every person who, with intent to harass, intimidate, torment or embarrass any other person, shall make a telephone call to such other person:

(a) Using any lewd, lascivious, profane, indecent, or obscene words or language, or suggesting the commission of any lewd or lascivious act; or

(b) Anonymously or repeatedly or at an extremely inconvenient hour, whether or not conversation ensues; or

(c) Threatening to inflict injury on the person or property of the person called or any member of his or her family or household; is guilty of a gross misdemeanor, except as provided in subsection (2) of this section.

(2) The person is guilty of a class C felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW if either of the following applies:

(a) That person has previously been convicted of any crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, with the same victim or member of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a no-contact or no-harassment order in this or any other state; or

(b) That person harasses another person under subsection (1)(c) of this section by threatening to kill the person threatened or any other person.

9.61.240. Telephone harassment--Permitting telephone to be used

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Any person who knowingly permits any telephone under his or her control to be used for any purpose prohibited by RCW 9.61.230 shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

9.61.260. Cyberstalking

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of cyberstalking if he or she, with intent to harass, intimidate, torment, or embarrass any other person, and under circumstances not constituting telephone harassment, makes an electronic communication to such other person or a third party:

(a) Using any lewd, lascivious, indecent, or obscene words, images, or language, or suggesting the commission of any lewd or lascivious act;

(b) Anonymously or repeatedly whether or not conversation occurs; or

(c) Threatening to inflict injury on the person or property of the person called or any member of his or her family or household.

(2) Cyberstalking is a gross misdemeanor, except as provided in subsection (3) of this section.

(3) Cyberstalking is a class C felony if either of the following applies:

(a) The perpetrator has previously been convicted of the crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, with the same victim or a member of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a no-contact order or no-harassment order in this or any other state; or

(b) The perpetrator engages in the behavior prohibited under subsection (1)(c) of this section by threatening to kill the person threatened or any other person.

(4) Any offense committed under this section may be deemed to have been committed either at the place from which the communication was made or at the place where the communication was received.

(5) For purposes of this section, “electronic communication” means the transmission of information by wire, radio, optical cable, electromagnetic, or other similar means. “Electronic communication” includes, but is not limited to, electronic mail, internet-based communications, pager service, and electronic text messaging.

Chapter 9.35 Identity Crimes

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9.35.020 Identity theft

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) No person may knowingly obtain, possess, use, or transfer a means of identification or financial information of another person, living or dead, with the intent to commit, or to aid or abet, any crime.

(2) Violation of this section when the accused or an accomplice violates subsection (1) of this section and obtains credit, money, goods, services, or anything else of value in excess of one thousand five hundred dollars in value, or when the accused knowingly targets a senior or vulnerable individual in carrying out a violation of subsection (1) of this section, shall constitute identity theft in the first degree. Identity theft in the first degree is a class B felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW.

(3) A person is guilty of identity theft in the second degree when he or she violates subsection (1) of this section under circumstances not amounting to identity theft in the first degree. Identity theft in the second degree is a class C felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW.

(4) Each crime prosecuted under this section shall be punished separately under chapter 9.94A RCW, unless it is the same criminal conduct as any other crime, under RCW 9.94A.589.

(5) Whenever any series of transactions involving a single person’s means of identification or financial information which constitute identity theft would, when considered separately, constitute identity theft in the second degree because of value, and the series of transactions are a part of a common scheme or plan, then the transactions may be aggregated in one count and the sum of the value of all of the transactions shall be the value considered in determining the degree of identity theft involved.

(6) Every person who, in the commission of identity theft, shall commit any other crime may be punished therefor as well as for the identity theft, and may be prosecuted for each crime separately.

(7) A person who violates this section is liable for civil damages of one thousand dollars or actual damages, whichever is greater, including costs to repair the victim’s credit record, and reasonable attorneys’ fees as determined by the court.

(8) In a proceeding under this section, the crime will be considered to have been committed in any locality where the person whose means of identification or financial information was appropriated resides, or in which any part of the offense took place, regardless of whether the defendant was ever actually in that locality.

(9) The provisions of this section do not apply to any person who obtains another person’s driver’s license or other form of identification for the sole purpose of misrepresenting his or her age.

(10) In a proceeding under this section in which a person’s means of identification or financial information was used without that person’s authorization, and when there has been a conviction, the sentencing court may issue such orders as are necessary to correct a public record that contains false information resulting from a violation of this section.

Chapter 9.94A. Sentencing Reform Act of 1981

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9.94A.030. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.
(1) “Board” means the indeterminate sentence review board created under chapter 9.95 RCW.
(2) “Collect,” or any derivative thereof, “collect and remit,” or “collect and deliver,” when used with reference to the department, means that the department, either directly or through a collection agreement authorized by RCW 9.94A.760, is responsible for monitoring and enforcing the offender's sentence with regard to the legal financial obligation, receiving payment thereof from the offender, and, consistent with current law, delivering daily the entire payment to the superior court clerk without depositing it in a departmental account.
(3) “Commission” means the sentencing guidelines commission.
(4) “Community corrections officer” means an employee of the department who is responsible for carrying out specific duties in supervision of sentenced offenders and monitoring of sentence conditions.
(5) “Community custody” means that portion of an offender's sentence of confinement in lieu of earned release time or imposed as part of a sentence under this chapter and served in the community subject to controls placed on the offender's movement and activities by the department.
(6) “Community protection zone” means the area within eight hundred eighty feet of the facilities and grounds of a public or private school.
(7) “Community restitution” means compulsory service, without compensation, performed for the benefit of the community by the offender.
(8) “Confinement” means total or partial confinement.
(9) “Conviction” means an adjudication of guilt pursuant to Title 10 or 13 RCW and includes a verdict of guilty, a finding of guilty, and acceptance of a plea of guilty.
(10) “Crime-related prohibition” means an order of a court prohibiting conduct that directly relates to the circumstances of the crime for which the offender has been convicted, and shall not be construed to mean orders directing an offender affirmatively to participate in rehabilitative programs or to otherwise perform affirmative conduct. However, affirmative acts necessary to monitor compliance with the order of a court may be required by the department.
(11) “Criminal history” means the list of a defendant's prior convictions and juvenile adjudications, whether in this state, in federal court, or elsewhere, and any issued certificates of restoration of opportunity pursuant to RCW 9.97.020.
(a) The history shall include, where known, for each conviction (i) whether the defendant has been placed on probation and the length and terms thereof; and (ii) whether the defendant has been incarcerated and the length of incarceration.
(b) A conviction may be removed from a defendant's criminal history only if it is vacated pursuant to RCW 9.96.060, 9.94A.640, 9.95.240, or a similar out-of-state statute, or if the conviction has been vacated pursuant to a governor's pardon.
(c) The determination of a defendant's criminal history is distinct from the determination of an offender score. A prior conviction that was not included in an offender score calculated pursuant to a former version of the sentencing reform act remains part of the defendant's criminal history.
(12) “Criminal street gang” means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, having as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal acts, and whose members or associates individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal street gang activity. This definition does not apply to employees engaged in concerted activities for their mutual aid and protection, or to the activities of labor and bona fide nonprofit organizations or their members or agents.
(13) “Criminal street gang associate or member” means any person who actively participates in any criminal street gang and who intentionally promotes, furthers, or assists in any criminal act by the criminal street gang.
(14) “Criminal street gang-related offense” means any felony or misdemeanor offense, whether in this state or elsewhere, that is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, or is committed with the intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by the gang, or is committed for one or more of the following reasons:
(a) To gain admission, prestige, or promotion within the gang;
(b) To increase or maintain the gang's size, membership, prestige, dominance, or control in any geographical area;
(c) To exact revenge or retribution for the gang or any member of the gang;
(d) To obstruct justice, or intimidate or eliminate any witness against the gang or any member of the gang;
(e) To directly or indirectly cause any benefit, aggrandizement, gain, profit, or other advantage for the gang, its reputation, influence, or membership; or
(f) To provide the gang with any advantage in, or any control or dominance over any criminal market sector, including, but not limited to, manufacturing, delivering, or selling any controlled substance (chapter 69.50 RCW); arson (chapter 9A.48 RCW); trafficking in stolen property (chapter 9A.82 RCW); promoting prostitution (chapter 9A.88 RCW); human trafficking (RCW 9A.40.100); promoting commercial sexual abuse of a minor (RCW 9.68A.101); or promoting pornography (chapter 9.68 RCW).
(15) “Day fine” means a fine imposed by the sentencing court that equals the difference between the offender's net daily income and the reasonable obligations that the offender has for the support of the offender and any dependents.
(16) “Day reporting” means a program of enhanced supervision designed to monitor the offender's daily activities and compliance with sentence conditions, and in which the offender is required to report daily to a specific location designated by the department or the sentencing court.
(17) “Department” means the department of corrections.
(18) “Determinate sentence” means a sentence that states with exactitude the number of actual years, months, or days of total confinement, of partial confinement, of community custody, the number of actual hours or days of community restitution work, or dollars or terms of a legal financial obligation. The fact that an offender through earned release can reduce the actual period of confinement shall not affect the classification of the sentence as a determinate sentence.
(19) “Disposable earnings” means that part of the earnings of an offender remaining after the deduction from those earnings of any amount required by law to be withheld. For the purposes of this definition, “earnings” means compensation paid or payable for personal services, whether denominated as wages, salary, commission, bonuses, or otherwise, and, notwithstanding any other provision of law making the payments exempt from garnishment, attachment, or other process to satisfy a court-ordered legal financial obligation, specifically includes periodic payments pursuant to pension or retirement programs, or insurance policies of any type, but does not include payments made under Title 50 RCW, except as provided in RCW 50.40.020 and 50.40.050, or Title 74 RCW.
(20) “Domestic violence” has the same meaning as defined in RCW 10.99.020 and 26.50.010.
(21) “Drug offender sentencing alternative” is a sentencing option available to persons convicted of a felony offense other than a violent offense or a sex offense and who are eligible for the option under RCW 9.94A.660.
(22) “Drug offense” means:
(a) Any felony violation of chapter 69.50 RCW except possession of a controlled substance (RCW 69.50.4013) or forged prescription for a controlled substance (RCW 69.50.403);
(b) Any offense defined as a felony under federal law that relates to the possession, manufacture, distribution, or transportation of a controlled substance; or
(c) Any out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a drug offense under (a) of this subsection.
(23) “Earned release” means earned release from confinement as provided in RCW 9.94A.728.
(24) “Electronic monitoring” means tracking the location of an individual, whether pretrial or posttrial, through the use of technology that is capable of determining or identifying the monitored individual's presence or absence at a particular location including, but not limited to:
(a) Radio frequency signaling technology, which detects if the monitored individual is or is not at an approved location and notifies the monitoring agency of the time that the monitored individual either leaves the approved location or tampers with or removes the monitoring device; or
(b) Active or passive global positioning system technology, which detects the location of the monitored individual and notifies the monitoring agency of the monitored individual's location.
(25) “Escape” means:
(a) Sexually violent predator escape (RCW 9A.76.115), escape in the first degree (RCW 9A.76.110), escape in the second degree (RCW 9A.76.120), willful failure to return from furlough (1RCW 72.66.060), willful failure to return from work release (1RCW 72.65.070), or willful failure to be available for supervision by the department while in community custody (RCW 72.09.310); or
(b) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as an escape under (a) of this subsection.
(26) “Felony traffic offense” means:
(a) Vehicular homicide (RCW 46.61.520), vehicular assault (RCW 46.61.522), eluding a police officer (RCW 46.61.024), felony hit-and-run injury-accident (RCW 46.52.020(4)), felony driving while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug (RCW 46.61.502(6)), or felony physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug (RCW 46.61.504(6)); or
(b) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a felony traffic offense under (a) of this subsection.
(27) “Fine” means a specific sum of money ordered by the sentencing court to be paid by the offender to the court over a specific period of time.
(28) “First-time offender” means any person who has no prior convictions for a felony and is eligible for the first-time offender waiver under RCW 9.94A.650.
(29) “Home detention” is a subset of electronic monitoring and means a program of partial confinement available to offenders wherein the offender is confined in a private residence twenty-four hours a day, unless an absence from the residence is approved, authorized, or otherwise permitted in the order by the court or other supervising agency that ordered home detention, and the offender is subject to electronic monitoring.
(30) “Homelessness” or “homeless” means a condition where an individual lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence and who has a primary nighttime residence that is:
(a) A supervised, publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations;
(b) A public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; or
(c) A private residence where the individual stays as a transient invitee.
(31) “Legal financial obligation” means a sum of money that is ordered by a superior court of the state of Washington for legal financial obligations which may include restitution to the victim, statutorily imposed crime victims' compensation fees as assessed pursuant to RCW 7.68.035, court costs, county or interlocal drug funds, court-appointed attorneys' fees, and costs of defense, fines, and any other financial obligation that is assessed to the offender as a result of a felony conviction. Upon conviction for vehicular assault while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.522(1)(b), or vehicular homicide while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.520(1)(a), legal financial obligations may also include payment to a public agency of the expense of an emergency response to the incident resulting in the conviction, subject to RCW 38.52.430.
(32) “Minor child” means a biological or adopted child of the offender who is under age eighteen at the time of the offender's current offense.
(33) “Most serious offense” means any of the following felonies or a felony attempt to commit any of the following felonies:
(a) Any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or criminal solicitation of or criminal conspiracy to commit a class A felony;
(b) Assault in the second degree;
(c) Assault of a child in the second degree;
(d) Child molestation in the second degree;
(e) Controlled substance homicide;
(f) Extortion in the first degree;
(g) Incest when committed against a child under age fourteen;
(h) Indecent liberties;
(i) Kidnapping in the second degree;
(j) Leading organized crime;
(k) Manslaughter in the first degree;
(l) Manslaughter in the second degree;
(m) Promoting prostitution in the first degree;
(n) Rape in the third degree;
(o) Robbery in the second degree;
(p) Sexual exploitation;
(q) Vehicular assault, when caused by the operation or driving of a vehicle by a person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or by the operation or driving of a vehicle in a reckless manner;
(r) Vehicular homicide, when proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502, or by the operation of any vehicle in a reckless manner;
(s) Any other class B felony offense with a finding of sexual motivation;
(t) Any other felony with a deadly weapon verdict under RCW 9.94A.825;
(u) Any felony offense in effect at any time prior to December 2, 1993, that is comparable to a most serious offense under this subsection, or any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a most serious offense under this subsection;
(v)(i) A prior conviction for indecent liberties under RCW 9A.44.100(1) (a), (b), and (c), chapter 260, Laws of 1975 1st ex. sess. as it existed until July 1, 1979, RCW 9A.44.100(1) (a), (b), and (c) as it existed from July 1, 1979, until June 11, 1986, and RCW 9A.44.100(1) (a), (b), and (d) as it existed from June 11, 1986, until July 1, 1988;
(ii) A prior conviction for indecent liberties under RCW 9A.44.100(1)(c) as it existed from June 11, 1986, until July 1, 1988, if: (A) The crime was committed against a child under the age of fourteen; or (B) the relationship between the victim and perpetrator is included in the definition of indecent liberties under RCW 9A.44.100(1)(c) as it existed from July 1, 1988, through July 27, 1997, or RCW 9A.44.100(1) (d) or (e) as it existed from July 25, 1993, through July 27, 1997;
(w) Any out-of-state conviction for a felony offense with a finding of sexual motivation if the minimum sentence imposed was ten years or more; provided that the out-of-state felony offense must be comparable to a felony offense under this title and Title 9A RCW and the out-of-state definition of sexual motivation must be comparable to the definition of sexual motivation contained in this section.
(34) “Nonviolent offense” means an offense which is not a violent offense.
(35) “Offender” means a person who has committed a felony established by state law and is eighteen years of age or older or is less than eighteen years of age but whose case is under superior court jurisdiction under RCW 13.04.030 or has been transferred by the appropriate juvenile court to a criminal court pursuant to RCW 13.40.110. In addition, for the purpose of community custody requirements under this chapter, “offender” also means a misdemeanant or gross misdemeanant probationer ordered by a superior court to probation pursuant to RCW 9.92.060, 9.95.204, or 9.95.210 and supervised by the department pursuant to RCW 9.94A.501 and 29.94A.5011. Throughout this chapter, the terms “offender” and “defendant” are used interchangeably.
(36) “Partial confinement” means confinement for no more than one year in a facility or institution operated or utilized under contract by the state or any other unit of government, or, if home detention, electronic monitoring, or work crew has been ordered by the court or home detention has been ordered by the department as part of the parenting program, in an approved residence, for a substantial portion of each day with the balance of the day spent in the community. Partial confinement includes work release, home detention, work crew, electronic monitoring, and a combination of work crew, electronic monitoring, and home detention.
(37) “Pattern of criminal street gang activity” means:
(a) The commission, attempt, conspiracy, or solicitation of, or any prior juvenile adjudication of or adult conviction of, two or more of the following criminal street gang-related offenses:
(i) Any “serious violent” felony offense as defined in this section, excluding Homicide by Abuse (RCW 9A.32.055) and Assault of a Child 1 (RCW 9A.36.120);
(ii) Any “violent” offense as defined by this section, excluding Assault of a Child 2 (RCW 9A.36.130);
(iii) Deliver or Possession with Intent to Deliver a Controlled Substance (chapter 69.50 RCW);
(iv) Any violation of the firearms and dangerous weapon act (chapter 9.41 RCW);
(v) Theft of a Firearm (RCW 9A.56.300);
(vi) Possession of a Stolen Firearm (RCW 9A.56.310);
(vii) Malicious Harassment (RCW 9A.36.080);
(viii) Harassment where a subsequent violation or deadly threat is made (RCW 9A.46.020(2)(b));
(ix) Criminal Gang Intimidation (RCW 9A.46.120);
(x) Any felony conviction by a person eighteen years of age or older with a special finding of involving a juvenile in a felony offense under RCW 9.94A.833;
(xi) Residential Burglary (RCW 9A.52.025);
(xii) Burglary 2 (RCW 9A.52.030);
(xiii) Malicious Mischief 1 (RCW 9A.48.070);
(xiv) Malicious Mischief 2 (RCW 9A.48.080);
(xv) Theft of a Motor Vehicle (RCW 9A.56.065);
(xvi) Possession of a Stolen Motor Vehicle (RCW 9A.56.068);
(xvii) Taking a Motor Vehicle Without Permission 1 (RCW 9A.56.070);
(xviii) Taking a Motor Vehicle Without Permission 2 (RCW 9A.56.075);
(xix) Extortion 1 (RCW 9A.56.120);
(xx) Extortion 2 (RCW 9A.56.130);
(xxi) Intimidating a Witness (RCW 9A.72.110);
(xxii) Tampering with a Witness (RCW 9A.72.120);
(xxiii) Reckless Endangerment (RCW 9A.36.050);
(xxiv) Coercion (RCW 9A.36.070);
(xxv) Harassment (RCW 9A.46.020); or
(xxvi) Malicious Mischief 3 (RCW 9A.48.090);
(b) That at least one of the offenses listed in (a) of this subsection shall have occurred after July 1, 2008;
(c) That the most recent committed offense listed in (a) of this subsection occurred within three years of a prior offense listed in (a) of this subsection; and
(d) Of the offenses that were committed in (a) of this subsection, the offenses occurred on separate occasions or were committed by two or more persons.
(38) “Persistent offender” is an offender who:
(a)(i) Has been convicted in this state of any felony considered a most serious offense; and
(ii) Has, before the commission of the offense under (a) of this subsection, been convicted as an offender on at least two separate occasions, whether in this state or elsewhere, of felonies that under the laws of this state would be considered most serious offenses and would be included in the offender score under RCW 9.94A.525; provided that of the two or more previous convictions, at least one conviction must have occurred before the commission of any of the other most serious offenses for which the offender was previously convicted; or
(b)(i) Has been convicted of: (A) Rape in the first degree, rape of a child in the first degree, child molestation in the first degree, rape in the second degree, rape of a child in the second degree, or indecent liberties by forcible compulsion; (B) any of the following offenses with a finding of sexual motivation: Murder in the first degree, murder in the second degree, homicide by abuse, kidnapping in the first degree, kidnapping in the second degree, assault in the first degree, assault in the second degree, assault of a child in the first degree, assault of a child in the second degree, or burglary in the first degree; or (C) an attempt to commit any crime listed in this subsection (38)(b)(i); and
(ii) Has, before the commission of the offense under (b)(i) of this subsection, been convicted as an offender on at least one occasion, whether in this state or elsewhere, of an offense listed in (b)(i) of this subsection or any federal or out-of-state offense or offense under prior Washington law that is comparable to the offenses listed in (b)(i) of this subsection. A conviction for rape of a child in the first degree constitutes a conviction under (b)(i) of this subsection only when the offender was sixteen years of age or older when the offender committed the offense. A conviction for rape of a child in the second degree constitutes a conviction under (b)(i) of this subsection only when the offender was eighteen years of age or older when the offender committed the offense.
(39) “Predatory” means: (a) The perpetrator of the crime was a stranger to the victim, as defined in this section; (b) the perpetrator established or promoted a relationship with the victim prior to the offense and the victimization of the victim was a significant reason the perpetrator established or promoted the relationship; or (c) the perpetrator was: (i) A teacher, counselor, volunteer, or other person in authority in any public or private school and the victim was a student of the school under his or her authority or supervision. For purposes of this subsection, “school” does not include home-based instruction as defined in RCW 28A.225.010; (ii) a coach, trainer, volunteer, or other person in authority in any recreational activity and the victim was a participant in the activity under his or her authority or supervision; (iii) a pastor, elder, volunteer, or other person in authority in any church or religious organization, and the victim was a member or participant of the organization under his or her authority; or (iv) a teacher, counselor, volunteer, or other person in authority providing home-based instruction and the victim was a student receiving home-based instruction while under his or her authority or supervision. For purposes of this subsection: (A) “Home-based instruction” has the same meaning as defined in RCW 28A.225.010; and (B) “teacher, counselor, volunteer, or other person in authority” does not include the parent or legal guardian of the victim.
(40) “Private school” means a school regulated under chapter 28A.195 or 28A.205 RCW.
(41) “Public school” has the same meaning as in RCW 28A.150.010.
(42) “Repetitive domestic violence offense” means any:
(a)(i) Domestic violence assault that is not a felony offense under RCW 9A.36.041;
(ii) Domestic violence violation of a no-contact order under chapter 10.99 RCW that is not a felony offense;
(iii) Domestic violence violation of a protection order under chapter 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 26.50 RCW that is not a felony offense;
(iv) Domestic violence harassment offense under RCW 9A.46.020 that is not a felony offense; or
(v) Domestic violence stalking offense under RCW 9A.46.110 that is not a felony offense; or
(b) Any federal, out-of-state, tribal court, military, county, or municipal conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be classified as a repetitive domestic violence offense under (a) of this subsection.
(43) “Restitution” means a specific sum of money ordered by the sentencing court to be paid by the offender to the court over a specified period of time as payment of damages. The sum may include both public and private costs.
(44) “Risk assessment” means the application of the risk instrument recommended to the department by the Washington state institute for public policy as having the highest degree of predictive accuracy for assessing an offender's risk of reoffense.
(45) “Serious traffic offense” means:
(a) Nonfelony driving while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug (RCW 46.61.502), nonfelony actual physical control while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug (RCW 46.61.504), reckless driving (RCW 46.61.500), or hit-and-run an attended vehicle (RCW 46.52.020(5)); or
(b) Any federal, out-of-state, county, or municipal conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be classified as a serious traffic offense under (a) of this subsection.
(46) “Serious violent offense” is a subcategory of violent offense and means:
(a)(i) Murder in the first degree;
(ii) Homicide by abuse;
(iii) Murder in the second degree;
(iv) Manslaughter in the first degree;
(v) Assault in the first degree;
(vi) Kidnapping in the first degree;
(vii) Rape in the first degree;
(viii) Assault of a child in the first degree; or
(ix) An attempt, criminal solicitation, or criminal conspiracy to commit one of these felonies; or
(b) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a serious violent offense under (a) of this subsection.
(47) “Sex offense” means:
(a)(i) A felony that is a violation of chapter 9A.44 RCW other than RCW 9A.44.132;
(ii) A violation of RCW 9A.64.020;
(iii) A felony that is a violation of chapter 9.68A RCW other than RCW 9.68A.080;
(iv) A felony that is, under chapter 9A.28 RCW, a criminal attempt, criminal solicitation, or criminal conspiracy to commit such crimes; or
(v) A felony violation of RCW 9A.44.132(1) (failure to register as a sex offender) if the person has been convicted of violating RCW 9A.44.132(1) (failure to register as a sex offender) or 9A.44.130 prior to June 10, 2010, on at least one prior occasion;
(b) Any conviction for a felony offense in effect at any time prior to July 1, 1976, that is comparable to a felony classified as a sex offense in (a) of this subsection;
(c) A felony with a finding of sexual motivation under RCW 9.94A.835 or 13.40.135; or
(d) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a sex offense under (a) of this subsection.
(48) “Sexual motivation” means that one of the purposes for which the defendant committed the crime was for the purpose of his or her sexual gratification.
(49) “Standard sentence range” means the sentencing court's discretionary range in imposing a nonappealable sentence.
(50) “Statutory maximum sentence” means the maximum length of time for which an offender may be confined as punishment for a crime as prescribed in chapter 9A.20 RCW, RCW 9.92.010, the statute defining the crime, or other statute defining the maximum penalty for a crime.
(51) “Stranger” means that the victim did not know the offender twenty-four hours before the offense.
(52) “Total confinement” means confinement inside the physical boundaries of a facility or institution operated or utilized under contract by the state or any other unit of government for twenty-four hours a day, or pursuant to RCW 72.64.050 and 72.64.060.
(53) “Transition training” means written and verbal instructions and assistance provided by the department to the offender during the two weeks prior to the offender's successful completion of the work ethic camp program. The transition training shall include instructions in the offender's requirements and obligations during the offender's period of community custody.
(54) “Victim” means any person who has sustained emotional, psychological, physical, or financial injury to person or property as a direct result of the crime charged.
(55) “Violent offense” means:
(a) Any of the following felonies:
(i) Any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or an attempt to commit a class A felony;
(ii) Criminal solicitation of or criminal conspiracy to commit a class A felony;
(iii) Manslaughter in the first degree;
(iv) Manslaughter in the second degree;
(v) Indecent liberties if committed by forcible compulsion;
(vi) Kidnapping in the second degree;
(vii) Arson in the second degree;
(viii) Assault in the second degree;
(ix) Assault of a child in the second degree;
(x) Extortion in the first degree;
(xi) Robbery in the second degree;
(xii) Drive-by shooting;
(xiii) Vehicular assault, when caused by the operation or driving of a vehicle by a person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or by the operation or driving of a vehicle in a reckless manner; and
(xiv) Vehicular homicide, when proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502, or by the operation of any vehicle in a reckless manner;
(b) Any conviction for a felony offense in effect at any time prior to July 1, 1976, that is comparable to a felony classified as a violent offense in (a) of this subsection; and
(c) Any federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that under the laws of this state would be a felony classified as a violent offense under (a) or (b) of this subsection.
(56) “Work crew” means a program of partial confinement consisting of civic improvement tasks for the benefit of the community that complies with RCW 9.94A.725.
(57) “Work ethic camp” means an alternative incarceration program as provided in RCW 9.94A.690 designed to reduce recidivism and lower the cost of corrections by requiring offenders to complete a comprehensive array of real-world job and vocational experiences, character-building work ethics training, life management skills development, substance abuse rehabilitation, counseling, literacy training, and basic adult education.
(58) “Work release” means a program of partial confinement available to offenders who are employed or engaged as a student in a regular course of study at school.

9.94A.825. Deadly weapon special verdict--Definition

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

In a criminal case wherein there has been a special allegation and evidence establishing that the accused or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon at the time of the commission of the crime, the court shall make a finding of fact of whether or not the accused or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon at the time of the commission of the crime, or if a jury trial is had, the jury shall, if it find[s] the defendant guilty, also find a special verdict as to whether or not the defendant or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon at the time of the commission of the crime.

For purposes of this section, a deadly weapon is an implement or instrument which has the capacity to inflict death and from the manner in which it is used, is likely to produce or may easily and readily produce death. The following instruments are included in the term deadly weapon: Blackjack, sling shot, billy, sand club, sandbag, metal knuckles, any dirk, dagger, pistol, revolver, or any other firearm, any knife having a blade longer than three inches, any razor with an unguarded blade, any metal pipe or bar used or intended to be used as a club, any explosive, and any weapon containing poisonous or injurious gas.

Title 9A. Washington Criminal Code

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 9A.20. Classification of Crime

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.20.021. Maximum sentences for crimes committed July 1, 1984, and after

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Felony. Unless a different maximum sentence for a classified felony is specifically established by a statute of this state, no person convicted of a classified felony shall be punished by confinement or fine exceeding the following:

(a) For a class A felony, by confinement in a state correctional institution for a term of life imprisonment, or by a fine in an amount fixed by the court of fifty thousand dollars, or by both such confinement and fine;

(b) For a class B felony, by confinement in a state correctional institution for a term of ten years, or by a fine in an amount fixed by the court of twenty thousand dollars, or by both such confinement and fine;

(c) For a class C felony, by confinement in a state correctional institution for five years, or by a fine in an amount fixed by the court of ten thousand dollars, or by both such confinement and fine.

(2) Gross misdemeanor. Every person convicted of a gross misdemeanor defined in Title 9A RCW shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a maximum term fixed by the court of up to three hundred sixty-four days, or by a fine in an amount fixed by the court of not more than five thousand dollars, or by both such imprisonment and fine.

(3) Misdemeanor. Every person convicted of a misdemeanor defined in Title 9A RCW shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a maximum term fixed by the court of not more than ninety days, or by a fine in an amount fixed by the court of not more than one thousand dollars, or by both such imprisonment and fine.

(4) This section applies to only those crimes committed on or after July 1, 1984.

(5) The fines in this section apply to adult offenders only.

Chapter 9A.36. Assault--Physical Harm

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.36.011. Assault in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of assault in the first degree if he or she, with intent to inflict great bodily harm:

(a) Assaults another with a firearm or any deadly weapon or by any force or means likely to produce great bodily harm or death; or

(b) Administers, exposes, or transmits to or causes to be taken by another, poison, the human immunodeficiency virus as defined in chapter 70.24 RCW, or any other destructive or noxious substance; or

(c) Assaults another and inflicts great bodily harm.

(2) Assault in the first degree is a class A felony.

9A.36.021. Assault in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of assault in the second degree if he or she, under circumstances not amounting to assault in the first degree:

(a) Intentionally assaults another and thereby recklessly inflicts substantial bodily harm; or

(b) Intentionally and unlawfully causes substantial bodily harm to an unborn quick child by intentionally and unlawfully inflicting any injury upon the mother of such child; or

(c) Assaults another with a deadly weapon; or

(d) With intent to inflict bodily harm, administers to or causes to be taken by another, poison or any other destructive or noxious substance; or

(e) With intent to commit a felony, assaults another; or

(f) Knowingly inflicts bodily harm which by design causes such pain or agony as to be the equivalent of that produced by torture; or

(g) Assaults another by strangulation or suffocation.

(2)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, assault in the second degree is a class B felony.

(b) Assault in the second degree with a finding of sexual motivation under RCW 9.94A.835 or 13.40.135 is a class A felony.

9A.36.031. Assault in the third degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of assault in the third degree if he or she, under circumstances not amounting to assault in the first or second degree:

(a) With intent to prevent or resist the execution of any lawful process or mandate of any court officer or the lawful apprehension or detention of himself, herself, or another person, assaults another; or

(b) Assaults a person employed as a transit operator or driver, the immediate supervisor of a transit operator or driver, a mechanic, or a security officer, by a public or private transit company or a contracted transit service provider, while that person is performing his or her official duties at the time of the assault; or

(c) Assaults a school bus driver, the immediate supervisor of a driver, a mechanic, or a security officer, employed by a school district transportation service or a private company under contract for transportation services with a school district, while the person is performing his or her official duties at the time of the assault; or

(d) With criminal negligence, causes bodily harm to another person by means of a weapon or other instrument or thing likely to produce bodily harm; or

(e) Assaults a firefighter or other employee of a fire department, county fire marshal's office, county fire prevention bureau, or fire protection district who was performing his or her official duties at the time of the assault; or

(f) With criminal negligence, causes bodily harm accompanied by substantial pain that extends for a period sufficient to cause considerable suffering; or

(g) Assaults a law enforcement officer or other employee of a law enforcement agency who was performing his or her official duties at the time of the assault; or

(h) Assaults a peace officer with a projectile stun gun; or

(i) Assaults a nurse, physician, or health care provider who was performing his or her nursing or health care duties at the time of the assault. For purposes of this subsection: “Nurse” means a person licensed under chapter 18.79 RCW; “physician” means a person licensed under chapter 18.57 or 18.71 RCW; and “health care provider” means a person certified under chapter 18.71 or 18.73 RCW who performs emergency medical services or a person regulated under Title 18 RCW and employed by, or contracting with, a hospital licensed under chapter 70.41 RCW; or

(j) Assaults a judicial officer, court-related employee, county clerk, or county clerk's employee, while that person is performing his or her official duties at the time of the assault or as a result of that person's employment within the judicial system. For purposes of this subsection, “court-related employee” includes bailiffs, court reporters, judicial assistants, court managers, court managers' employees, and any other employee, regardless of title, who is engaged in equivalent functions; or

(k) Assaults a person located in a courtroom, jury room, judge's chamber, or any waiting area or corridor immediately adjacent to a courtroom, jury room, or judge's chamber. This section shall apply only: (i) During the times when a courtroom, jury room, or judge's chamber is being used for judicial purposes during court proceedings; and (ii) if signage was posted in compliance with section 3 of this act at the time of the assault.

(2) Assault in the third degree is a class C felony.

9A.36.041. Assault in the fourth degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of assault in the fourth degree if, under circumstances not amounting to assault in the first, second, or third degree, or custodial assault, he or she assaults another.

(2) Assault in the fourth degree is a gross misdemeanor, except as provided in subsection (3) of this section.

(3) Assault in the fourth degree, where domestic violence was pleaded and proven after the effective date of this section, is a class C felony if the person has two or more prior adult convictions within ten years for any of the following offenses where domestic violence as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 was pleaded and proven after the effective date of this section:

(a) Repetitive domestic violence offense as defined in RCW 9.94A.030;

(b) Crime of harassment as defined by RCW 9A.46.060;

(c) Assault in the third degree;

(d) Assault in the second degree;

(e) Assault in the first degree; or

(f) An out-of-state comparable offense.

(4) For purposes of subsection (3) of this section, family or household members means spouses, domestic partners, former spouses, former domestic partners, persons who have a child in common regardless of whether they have been married or have lived together at any time, persons sixteen years of age or older who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past and who have or have had a dating relationship, and persons sixteen years of age or older with whom a person sixteen years of age or older has or has had a dating relationship.

9A.36.050. Reckless endangerment

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of reckless endangerment when he or she recklessly engages in conduct not amounting to drive-by shooting but that creates a substantial risk of death or serious physical injury to another person.

(2) Reckless endangerment is a gross misdemeanor.

9A.36.070. Coercion

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of coercion if by use of a threat he or she compels or induces a person to engage in conduct which the latter has a legal right to abstain from, or to abstain from conduct which he or she has a legal right to engage in.

(2) “Threat” as used in this section means:

(a) To communicate, directly or indirectly, the intent immediately to use force against any person who is present at the time; or

(b) Threats as defined in 1RCW 9A.04.110 (27)(a), (b), or (c).

(3) Coercion is a gross misdemeanor.

Chapter 9A.40. Kidnapping, Unlawful Imprisonment, and Custodial Interference

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.40.010. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The following definitions apply in this chapter:

(1) “Abduct” means to restrain a person by either (a) secreting or holding him or her in a place where he or she is not likely to be found, or (b) using or threatening to use deadly force.

(2) “Commercial sex act” means any act of sexual contact or sexual intercourse for which something of value is given or received.

(3) “Forced labor” means knowingly providing or obtaining labor or services of a person by: (a) Threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint against, that person or another person; or (b) means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person did not perform such labor or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint.

(4) “Involuntary servitude” means a condition of servitude in which the victim was forced to work by the use or threat of physical restraint or physical injury, by the use of threat of coercion through law or legal process, or as set forth in RCW 9A.40.110. For the purposes of this subsection, “coercion” has the same meaning as provided in RCW 9A.36.070.

(5) “Relative” means an ancestor, descendant, or sibling, including a relative of the same degree through marriage or adoption, or a spouse.

(6) “Restrain” means to restrict a person's movements without consent and without legal authority in a manner which interferes substantially with his or her liberty. Restraint is “without consent” if it is accomplished by (a) physical force, intimidation, or deception, or (b) any means including acquiescence of the victim, if he or she is a child less than sixteen years old or an incompetent person and if the parent, guardian, or other person or institution having lawful control or custody of him or her has not acquiesced.

(7) “Serious harm” means any harm, whether physical or nonphysical, including psychological, financial, or reputational harm, that is sufficiently serious, under all the surrounding circumstances, to compel a reasonable person of the same background and in the same circumstances to perform or to continue performing labor, services, or a commercial sex act in order to avoid incurring that harm.

9A.40.020. Kidnapping in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of kidnapping in the first degree if he or she intentionally abducts another person with intent:

(a) To hold him or her for ransom or reward, or as a shield or hostage; or

(b) To facilitate commission of any felony or flight thereafter; or

(c) To inflict bodily injury on him or her; or

(d) To inflict extreme mental distress on him, her, or a third person; or

(e) To interfere with the performance of any governmental function.

(2) Kidnapping in the first degree is a class A felony.

9A.40.030. Kidnapping in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of kidnapping in the second degree if he or she intentionally abducts another person under circumstances not amounting to kidnapping in the first degree.

(2) In any prosecution for kidnapping in the second degree, it is a defense if established by the defendant by a preponderance of the evidence that (a) the abduction does not include the use of or intent to use or threat to use deadly force, and (b) the actor is a relative of the person abducted, and (c) the actor's sole intent is to assume custody of that person. Nothing contained in this paragraph shall constitute a defense to a prosecution for, or preclude a conviction of, any other crime.

(3)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, kidnapping in the second degree is a class B felony.

(b) Kidnapping in the second degree with a finding of sexual motivation under RCW 9.94A.835 or 13.40.135 is a class A felony.

9A.40.040. Unlawful imprisonment

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of unlawful imprisonment if he or she knowingly restrains another person.

(2) Unlawful imprisonment is a class C felony.

9A.40.060. Custodial interference in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A relative of a child under the age of eighteen or of an incompetent person is guilty of custodial interference in the first degree if, with the intent to deny access to the child or incompetent person by a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having a lawful right to physical custody of such person, the relative takes, entices, retains, detains, or conceals the child or incompetent person from a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having a lawful right to physical custody of such person and:

(a) Intends to hold the child or incompetent person permanently or for a protracted period; or

(b) Exposes the child or incompetent person to a substantial risk of illness or physical injury; or

(c) Causes the child or incompetent person to be removed from the state of usual residence; or

(d) Retains, detains, or conceals the child or incompetent person in another state after expiration of any authorized visitation period with intent to intimidate or harass a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having lawful right to physical custody or to prevent a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person with lawful right to physical custody from regaining custody.

(2) A parent of a child is guilty of custodial interference in the first degree if the parent takes, entices, retains, detains, or conceals the child, with the intent to deny access, from the other parent having the lawful right to time with the child pursuant to a court order making residential provisions for the child, and:

(a) Intends to hold the child permanently or for a protracted period; or

(b) Exposes the child to a substantial risk of illness or physical injury; or

(c) Causes the child to be removed from the state of usual residence.

(3) A parent or other person acting under the directions of the parent is guilty of custodial interference in the first degree if the parent or other person intentionally takes, entices, retains, or conceals a child, under the age of eighteen years and for whom no lawful custody order or order making residential provisions for the child has been entered by a court of competent jurisdiction, from the other parent with intent to deprive the other parent from access to the child permanently or for a protracted period.

(4) Custodial interference in the first degree is a class C felony.

9A.40.070. Custodial interference in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A relative of a person is guilty of custodial interference in the second degree if, with the intent to deny access to such person by a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having a lawful right to physical custody of such person, the relative takes, entices, retains, detains, or conceals the person from a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having a lawful right to physical custody of such person. This subsection shall not apply to a parent's noncompliance with a court order making residential provisions for the child.

(2) A parent of a child is guilty of custodial interference in the second degree if: (a) The parent takes, entices, retains, detains, or conceals the child, with the intent to deny access, from the other parent having the lawful right to time with the child pursuant to a court order making residential provisions for the child; or (b) the parent has not complied with the residential provisions of a court-ordered parenting plan after a finding of contempt under RCW 26.09.160(3); or (c) if the court finds that the parent has engaged in a pattern of willful violations of a court order making residential provisions for the child.

(3) Nothing in subsection (2)(b) of this section prohibits conviction of custodial interference in the second degree under subsection (2)(a) or (c) of this section in absence of findings of contempt.

(4)(a) The first conviction of custodial interference in the second degree is a gross misdemeanor.

(b) The second or subsequent conviction of custodial interference in the second degree is a class C felony.

9A.40.080. Custodial interference--Assessment of costs--Defense--Consent defense, restricted

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any reasonable expenses incurred in locating or returning a child or incompetent person shall be assessed against a defendant convicted under RCW 9A.40.060 or 9A.40.070.

(2) In any prosecution of custodial interference in the first or second degree, it is a complete defense, if established by the defendant by a preponderance of the evidence, that:

(a) The defendant's purpose was to protect the child, incompetent person, or himself or herself from imminent physical harm, that the belief in the existence of the imminent physical harm was reasonable, and that the defendant sought the assistance of the police, sheriff's office, protective agencies, or the court of any state before committing the acts giving rise to the charges or within a reasonable time thereafter;

(b) The complainant had, prior to the defendant committing the acts giving rise to the crime, for a protracted period of time, failed to exercise his or her rights to physical custody or access to the child under a court-ordered parenting plan or order granting visitation rights, provided that such failure was not the direct result of the defendant's denial of access to such person;

(c) The acts giving rise to the charges were consented to by the complainant; or

(d) The offender, after providing or making a good faith effort to provide notice to the person entitled to access to the child, failed to provide access to the child due to reasons that a reasonable person would believe were directly related to the welfare of the child, and allowed access to the child in accordance with the court order within a reasonable period of time. The burden of proof that the denial of access was reasonable is upon the person denying access to the child.

(3) Consent of a child less than sixteen years of age or of an incompetent person does not constitute a defense to an action under RCW 9A.40.060 or 9A.40.070.

9A.40.090. Luring

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person commits the crime of luring if the person, with the intent to harm the health, safety, or welfare of the minor or person with a developmental disability or with the intent to facilitate the commission of any crime:

(a) Orders, lures, or attempts to lure a minor or a person with a developmental disability into any area or structure that is obscured from or inaccessible to the public, or away from any area or structure constituting a bus terminal, airport terminal, or other transportation terminal, or into a motor vehicle;

(b) Does not have the consent of the minor's parent or guardian or of the guardian of the person with a developmental disability; and

(c) Is unknown to the child or developmentally disabled person.

(2) For purposes of this section:

(a) “Minor” means a person under the age of sixteen;

(b) “Person with a developmental disability” means a person with a developmental disability as defined in RCW 71A.10.020.

(3) Luring is a class C felony.

9A.40.100. Trafficking

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of trafficking in the first degree when:

(a) Such person:

(i) Recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, provides, obtains, buys, purchases, or receives by any means another person knowing, or in reckless disregard of the fact, (A) that force, fraud, or coercion as defined in RCW 9A.36.070 will be used to cause the person to engage in:

(I) Forced labor;

(II) Involuntary servitude;

(III) A sexually explicit act; or

(IV) A commercial sex act, or (B) that the person has not attained the age of eighteen years and is caused to engage in a sexually explicit act or a commercial sex act; or

(ii) Benefits financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has engaged in acts set forth in (a)(i) of this subsection; and

(b) The acts or venture set forth in (a) of this subsection:

(i) Involve committing or attempting to commit kidnapping;

(ii) Involve a finding of sexual motivation under RCW 9.94A.835;

(iii) Involve the illegal harvesting or sale of human organs; or

(iv) Result in a death.

(2) Trafficking in the first degree is a class A felony.

(3)(a) A person is guilty of trafficking in the second degree when such person:

(i) Recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, provides, obtains, buys, purchases, or receives by any means another person knowing, or in reckless disregard of the fact, that force, fraud, or coercion as defined in RCW 9A.36.070 will be used to cause the person to engage in forced labor, involuntary servitude, a sexually explicit act, or a commercial sex act, or that the person has not attained the age of eighteen years and is caused to engage in a sexually explicit act or a commercial sex act; or

(ii) Benefits financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture that has engaged in acts set forth in (a)(i) of this subsection.

(b) Trafficking in the second degree is a class A felony.

(4)(a) In any prosecution under this chapter in which the offense or degree of the offense depends on the victim's age, it is not a defense that the perpetrator did not know the victim's age, or that the perpetrator believed the victim to be older, as the case may be.

(b) A person who is either convicted or given a deferred sentence or a deferred prosecution or who has entered into a statutory or nonstatutory diversion agreement as a result of an arrest for a violation of a trafficking crime shall be assessed a ten thousand dollar fee.

(c) The court shall not reduce, waive, or suspend payment of all or part of the fee assessed in this section unless it finds, on the record, that the offender does not have the ability to pay the fee in which case it may reduce the fee by an amount up to two-thirds of the maximum allowable fee.

(d) Fees assessed under this section shall be collected by the clerk of the court and remitted to the treasurer of the county where the offense occurred for deposit in the county general fund, except in cases in which the offense occurred in a city or town that provides for its own law enforcement, in which case these amounts shall be remitted to the treasurer of the city or town for deposit in the general fund of the city or town. Revenue from the fees must be used for local efforts to reduce the commercial sale of sex including, but not limited to, increasing enforcement of commercial sex laws.

(i) At least fifty percent of the revenue from fees imposed under this section must be spent on prevention, including education programs for offenders, such as john school, and rehabilitative services, such as mental health and substance abuse counseling, parenting skills, training, housing relief, education, vocational training, drop-in centers, and employment counseling.

(ii) Revenues from these fees are not subject to the distribution requirements under RCW 3.50.100, 3.62.020, 3.62.040, 10.82.070, or 35.20.220.

(5) If the victim of any offense identified in this section is a minor, force, fraud, or coercion are not necessary elements of an offense and consent to the sexually explicit act or commercial sex act does not constitute a defense.

(6) For purposes of this section:

(a) “Commercial sex act” means any act of sexual contact or sexual intercourse, both as defined in chapter 9A.44 RCW, for which something of value is given or received by any person; and

(b) “Sexually explicit act” means a public, private, or live photographed, recorded, or videotaped act or show intended to arouse or satisfy the sexual desires or appeal to the prurient interests of patrons for which something of value is given or received.

Chapter 9A.44. Sex Offenses

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.44.040. Rape in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of rape in the first degree when such person engages in sexual intercourse with another person by forcible compulsion where the perpetrator or an accessory:

(a) Uses or threatens to use a deadly weapon or what appears to be a deadly weapon; or

(b) Kidnaps the victim; or

(c) Inflicts serious physical injury, including but not limited to physical injury which renders the victim unconscious; or

(d) Feloniously enters into the building or vehicle where the victim is situated.

(2) Rape in the first degree is a class A felony.

9A.44.050. Rape in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of rape in the second degree when, under circumstances not constituting rape in the first degree, the person engages in sexual intercourse with another person:

(a) By forcible compulsion;

(b) When the victim is incapable of consent by reason of being physically helpless or mentally incapacitated;

(c) When the victim is a person with a developmental disability and the perpetrator is a person who is not married to the victim and who:

(i) Has supervisory authority over the victim; or

(ii) Was providing transportation, within the course of his or her employment, to the victim at the time of the offense;

(d) When the perpetrator is a health care provider, the victim is a client or patient, and the sexual intercourse occurs during a treatment session, consultation, interview, or examination. It is an affirmative defense that the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the client or patient consented to the sexual intercourse with the knowledge that the sexual intercourse was not for the purpose of treatment;

(e) When the victim is a resident of a facility for persons with a mental disorder or chemical dependency and the perpetrator is a person who is not married to the victim and has supervisory authority over the victim; or

(f) When the victim is a frail elder or vulnerable adult and the perpetrator is a person who is not married to the victim and who:

(i) Has a significant relationship with the victim; or

(ii) Was providing transportation, within the course of his or her employment, to the victim at the time of the offense.

(2) Rape in the second degree is a class A felony.

9A.44.060. Rape in the third degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of rape in the third degree when, under circumstances not constituting rape in the first or second degrees, such person engages in sexual intercourse with another person:

(a) Where the victim did not consent as defined in RCW 9A.44.010(7), to sexual intercourse with the perpetrator and such lack of consent was clearly expressed by the victim's words or conduct, or

(b) Where there is threat of substantial unlawful harm to property rights of the victim.

(2) Rape in the third degree is a class C felony.

9A.44.115. Voyeurism

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) As used in this section:

(a) “Intimate areas” means any portion of a person's body or undergarments that is covered by clothing and intended to be protected from public view;

(b) “Photographs” or “films” means the making of a photograph, motion picture film, videotape, digital image, or any other recording or transmission of the image of a person;

(c) “Place where he or she would have a reasonable expectation of privacy” means:

(i) A place where a reasonable person would believe that he or she could disrobe in privacy, without being concerned that his or her undressing was being photographed or filmed by another; or

(ii) A place where one may reasonably expect to be safe from casual or hostile intrusion or surveillance;

(d) “Surveillance” means secret observation of the activities of another person for the purpose of spying upon and invading the privacy of the person;

(e) “Views” means the intentional looking upon of another person for more than a brief period of time, in other than a casual or cursory manner, with the unaided eye or with a device designed or intended to improve visual acuity.

(2)(a) A person commits the crime of voyeurism in the first degree if, for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of any person, he or she knowingly views, photographs, or films:

(i) Another person without that person's knowledge and consent while the person being viewed, photographed, or filmed is in a place where he or she would have a reasonable expectation of privacy; or

(ii) The intimate areas of another person without that person's knowledge and consent and under circumstances where the person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, whether in a public or private place.

(b) Voyeurism in the first degree is a class C felony.

(3)(a) A person commits the crime of voyeurism in the second degree if he or she intentionally photographs or films another person for the purpose of photographing or filming the intimate areas of that person with the intent to distribute or disseminate the photograph or film, without that person's knowledge and consent, and under circumstances where the person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, whether in a public or private place.

(b) Voyeurism in the second degree is a gross misdemeanor.

(c) Voyeurism in the second degree is not a sex offense for the purposes of sentencing or sex offender registration requirements under this chapter.

(4) This section does not apply to viewing, photographing, or filming by personnel of the department of corrections or of a local jail or correctional facility for security purposes or during investigation of alleged misconduct by a person in the custody of the department of corrections or the local jail or correctional facility.

(5) If a person is convicted of a violation of this section, the court may order the destruction of any photograph, motion picture film, digital image, videotape, or any other recording of an image that was made by the person in violation of this section.

Chapter 9A.46. Harassment

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.46.110. Stalking

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person commits the crime of stalking if, without lawful authority and under circumstances not amounting to a felony attempt of another crime:

(a) He or she intentionally and repeatedly harasses or repeatedly follows another person; and

(b) The person being harassed or followed is placed in fear that the stalker intends to injure the person, another person, or property of the person or of another person. The feeling of fear must be one that a reasonable person in the same situation would experience under all the circumstances; and

(c) The stalker either:

(i) Intends to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person; or

(ii) Knows or reasonably should know that the person is afraid, intimidated, or harassed even if the stalker did not intend to place the person in fear or intimidate or harass the person.

(2)(a) It is not a defense to the crime of stalking under subsection (1)(c)(i) of this section that the stalker was not given actual notice that the person did not want the stalker to contact or follow the person; and

(b) It is not a defense to the crime of stalking under subsection (1)(c)(ii) of this section that the stalker did not intend to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person.

(3) It shall be a defense to the crime of stalking that the defendant is a licensed private investigator acting within the capacity of his or her license as provided by chapter 18.165 RCW.

(4) Attempts to contact or follow the person after being given actual notice that the person does not want to be contacted or followed constitutes prima facie evidence that the stalker intends to intimidate or harass the person. “Contact” includes, in addition to any other form of contact or communication, the sending of an electronic communication to the person.

(5)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a person who stalks another person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

(b) A person who stalks another is guilty of a class B felony if any of the following applies: (i) The stalker has previously been convicted in this state or any other state of any crime of harassment, as defined in RCW 9A.46.060, of the same victim or members of the victim's family or household or any person specifically named in a protective order; (ii) the stalking violates any protective order protecting the person being stalked; (iii) the stalker has previously been convicted of a gross misdemeanor or felony stalking offense under this section for stalking another person; (iv) the stalker was armed with a deadly weapon, as defined in RCW 9.94A.825, while stalking the person; (v)(A) the stalker's victim is or was a law enforcement officer; judge; juror; attorney; victim advocate; legislator; community corrections' officer; an employee, contract staff person, or volunteer of a correctional agency; court employee, court clerk, or courthouse facilitator; or an employee of the child protective, child welfare, or adult protective services division within the department of social and health services; and (B) the stalker stalked the victim to retaliate against the victim for an act the victim performed during the course of official duties or to influence the victim's performance of official duties; or (vi) the stalker's victim is a current, former, or prospective witness in an adjudicative proceeding, and the stalker stalked the victim to retaliate against the victim as a result of the victim's testimony or potential testimony.

(6) As used in this section:

(a) “Correctional agency” means a person working for the department of natural resources in a correctional setting or any state, county, or municipally operated agency with the authority to direct the release of a person serving a sentence or term of confinement and includes but is not limited to the department of corrections, the indeterminate sentence review board, and the department of social and health services.

(b) “Follows” means deliberately maintaining visual or physical proximity to a specific person over a period of time. A finding that the alleged stalker repeatedly and deliberately appears at the person's home, school, place of employment, business, or any other location to maintain visual or physical proximity to the person is sufficient to find that the alleged stalker follows the person. It is not necessary to establish that the alleged stalker follows the person while in transit from one location to another.

(c) “Harasses” means unlawful harassment as defined in RCW 10.14.020.

(d) “Protective order” means any temporary or permanent court order prohibiting or limiting violence against, harassment of, contact or communication with, or physical proximity to another person.

(e) “Repeatedly” means on two or more separate occasions.

Chapter 9A.52. Burglary and Trespass

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.52.070. Criminal trespass in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of criminal trespass in the first degree if he or she knowingly enters or remains unlawfully in a building.

(2) Criminal trespass in the first degree is a gross misdemeanor.

9A.52.080. Criminal trespass in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of criminal trespass in the second degree if he or she knowingly enters or remains unlawfully in or upon premises of another under circumstances not constituting criminal trespass in the first degree.

(2) Criminal trespass in the second degree is a misdemeanor.

Chapter 9A.90. Washington Cybercrime Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

9A.90.040. Computer trespass in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of computer trespass in the first degree if the person, without authorization, intentionally gains access to a computer system or electronic database of another; and

(a) The access is made with the intent to commit another crime in violation of a state law not included in this chapter; or

(b) The violation involves a computer or database maintained by a government agency.

(2) Computer trespass in the first degree is a class C felony.

9A.90.050. Computer trespass in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of computer trespass in the second degree if the person, without authorization, intentionally gains access to a computer system or electronic database of another under circumstances not constituting the offense in the first degree.

(2) Computer trespass in the second degree is a gross misdemeanor.

9A.90.070. Spoofing

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of spoofing if he or she, without authorization, knowingly initiates the transmission, display, or receipt of the identifying information of another organization or person for the purpose of gaining unauthorized access to electronic data, a data system, or a data network, and with the intent to commit another crime in violation of a state law not included in this chapter.

(2) Spoofing is a gross misdemeanor.

9A.90.080. Electronic data tampering in the first degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of electronic data tampering in the first degree if he or she maliciously and without authorization:

(a)(i) Alters data as it transmits between two data systems over an open or unsecure network; or

(ii) Introduces any malware into any electronic data, data system, or data network; and

(b)(i) Doing so is for the purpose of devising or executing any scheme to defraud, deceive, or extort, or commit any other crime in violation of a state law not included in this chapter, or of wrongfully controlling, gaining access to, or obtaining money, property, or electronic data; or

(ii) The electronic data, data system, or data network is maintained by a governmental [government] agency.

(2) Electronic data tampering in the first degree is a class C felony.

9A.90.090. Electronic data tampering in the second degree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of electronic data tampering in the second degree if he or she maliciously and without authorization:

(a) Alters data as it transmits between two data systems over an open or unsecure network under circumstances not constituting the offense in the first degree; or

(b) Introduces any malware into any electronic data, data system, or data network under circumstances not constituting the offense in the first degree.

(2) Electronic data tampering in the second degree is a gross misdemeanor.

9A.90.100. Electronic data theft

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person is guilty of electronic data theft if he or she intentionally, without authorization, and without reasonable grounds to believe that he or she has such authorization,

(a) Devise or execute any scheme to defraud, deceive, extort, or commit any other crime in violation of a state law not included in this chapter; or

(b) Wrongfully control, gain access to, or obtain money, property, or electronic data.

(2) Electronic data theft is a class C felony.

Title 10. Criminal Procedures

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 10.14. Harassment

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

10.14.020. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.

(1) “Unlawful harassment” means a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person which seriously alarms, annoys, harasses, or is detrimental to such person, and which serves no legitimate or lawful purpose. The course of conduct shall be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress, and shall actually cause substantial emotional distress to the petitioner, or, when the course of conduct would cause a reasonable parent to fear for the well-being of their child.

(2) “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. “Course of conduct” includes, in addition to any other form of communication, contact, or conduct, the sending of an electronic communication, but does not include constitutionally protected free speech. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct.”

10.14.030. Course of conduct - Determination of purpose

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

In determining whether the course of conduct serves any legitimate or lawful purpose, the court should consider whether:

(1) Any current contact between the parties was initiated by the respondent only or was initiated by both parties;

(2) The respondent has been given clear notice that all further contact with the petitioner is unwanted;

(3) The respondent's course of conduct appears designed to alarm, annoy, or harass the petitioner;

(4) The respondent is acting pursuant to any statutory authority, including but not limited to acts which are reasonably necessary to:

(a) Protect property or liberty interests;

(b) Enforce the law; or

(c) Meet specific statutory duties or requirements;

(5) The respondent's course of conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with the petitioner's privacy or the purpose or effect of creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive living environment for the petitioner;

(6) Contact by the respondent with the petitioner or the petitioner's family has been limited in any manner by any previous court order.

10.14.040. Protection order - Petition

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

There shall exist an action known as a petition for an order for protection in cases of unlawful harassment.

(1) A petition for relief shall allege the existence of harassment and shall be accompanied by an affidavit made under oath stating the specific facts and circumstances from which relief is sought.

(2) A petition for relief may be made regardless of whether or not there is a pending lawsuit, complaint, petition, or other action between the parties.

(3) All court clerks' offices shall make available simplified forms and instructional brochures. Any assistance or information provided by clerks under this section does not constitute the practice of law and clerks are not responsible for incorrect information contained in a petition.

(4) Filing fees are set in RCW 36.18.020, but no filing fee may be charged for a petition filed in an existing action or under an existing cause number brought under this chapter in the jurisdiction where the relief is sought or as provided in RCW 10.14.055. Forms and instructional brochures shall be provided free of charge.

(5) A person is not required to post a bond to obtain relief in any proceeding under this section.

(6) The parent or guardian of a child under age eighteen may petition for an order of protection to restrain a person age eighteen years or over from contact with that child upon a showing that contact with the person to be enjoined is detrimental to the welfare of the child.

(7) The parent or guardian of a child under the age of eighteen may petition in superior court for an order of protection to restrain a person under the age of eighteen years from contact with that child only in cases where the person to be restrained has been adjudicated of an offense against the child protected by the order, or is under investigation or has been investigated for such an offense. In issuing a protection order under this subsection, the court shall consider, among the other facts of the case, the severity of the alleged offense, any continuing physical danger or emotional distress to the alleged victim, and the expense, difficulty, and educational disruption that would be caused by a transfer of the alleged offender to another school. The court may order that the person restrained in the order not attend the public or approved private elementary, middle, or high school attended by the person under the age of eighteen years protected by the order. In the event that the court orders a transfer of the restrained person to another school, the parents or legal guardians of the person restrained in the order are responsible for transportation and other costs associated with the change of school by the person restrained in the order. The court shall send notice of the restriction on attending the same school as the person protected by the order to the public or approved private school the person restrained by the order will attend and to the school the person protected by the order attends.

10.14.055. Fees excused, when

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

No fees for filing or service of process may be charged by a public agency to petitioners seeking relief under this chapter from a person who has stalked them as that term is defined in RCW 9A.46.110, or from a person who has engaged in conduct that would constitute a sex offense as defined in RCW 9A.44.130, or from a person who is a family or household member as defined in RCW 26.50.010(2) who has engaged in conduct that would constitute domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010(1).

10.14.060. Proceeding in forma pauperis

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Persons seeking relief under this chapter may file an application for leave to proceed in forma pauperis on forms supplied by the court. If the court determines that a petitioner lacks the funds to pay the costs of filing, the petitioner shall be granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis and no filing fee or any other court related fees shall be charged by the court to the petitioner for relief sought under this chapter. If the petitioner is granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis, then no fees for service may be charged to the petitioner.

10.14.070. Hearing - Service

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Upon receipt of the petition alleging a prima facie case of harassment, other than a petition alleging a sex offense as defined in chapter 9A.44 RCW or a petition for a stalking protection order under chapter 7.92 RCW, the court shall order a hearing which shall be held not later than fourteen days from the date of the order. If the petition alleges a sex offense as defined in chapter 9A.44 RCW, the court shall order a hearing which shall be held not later than fourteen days from the date of the order. Except as provided in RCW 10. 14.085, personal service shall be made upon the respondent not less than five court days before the hearing. If timely personal service cannot be made, the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require additional attempts at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication as provided by RCW 10.14.085. If the court permits service by publication, the court shall set the hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date of the order. The court may issue an ex parte order for protection pending the hearing as provided in RCW 10.14.080 and 10.14.085.

10.14.080. Antiharassment protection orders -- Ex parte temporary -- Hearing -- Longer term, renewal

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Upon filing a petition for a civil antiharassment protection order under this chapter, the petitioner may obtain an ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order. An ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order may be granted with or without notice upon the filing of an affidavit which, to the satisfaction of the court, shows reasonable proof of unlawful harassment of the petitioner by the respondent and that great or irreparable harm will result to the petitioner if the temporary antiharassment protection order is not granted.

(2) An ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days or twenty-four days if the court has permitted service by publication under RCW 10.14.085. The ex parte order may be reissued. A full hearing, as provided in this chapter, shall be set for not later than fourteen days from the issuance of the temporary order or not later than twenty-four days if service by publication is permitted. Except as provided in RCW 10.14.070 and 10.14.085, the respondent shall be personally served with a copy of the ex parte order along with a copy of the petition and notice of the date set for the hearing. The ex parte order and notice of hearing shall include at a minimum the date and time of the hearing set by the court to determine if the temporary order should be made effective for one year or more, and notice that if the respondent should fail to appear or otherwise not respond, an order for protection will be issued against the respondent pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, for a minimum of one year from the date of the hearing. The notice shall also include a brief statement of the provisions of the ex parte order and notify the respondent that a copy of the ex parte order and notice of hearing has been filed with the clerk of the court.

(3) At the hearing, if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that unlawful harassment exists, a civil antiharassment protection order shall issue prohibiting such unlawful harassment.

(4) An order issued under this chapter shall be effective for not more than one year unless the court finds that the respondent is likely to resume unlawful harassment of the petitioner when the order expires. If so, the court may enter an order for a fixed time exceeding one year or may enter a permanent antiharassment protection order. The court shall not enter an order that is effective for more than one year if the order restrains the respondent from contacting the respondent's minor children. This limitation is not applicable to civil antiharassment protection orders issued under chapter 26.09, 26.10, or 26.26 RCW. If the petitioner seeks relief for a period longer than one year on behalf of the respondent's minor children, the court shall advise the petitioner that the petitioner may apply for renewal of the order as provided in this chapter or if appropriate may seek relief pursuant to chapter 26.09 or 26.10 RCW.

(5) At any time within the three months before the expiration of the order, the petitioner may apply for a renewal of the order by filing a petition for renewal. The petition for renewal shall state the reasons why the petitioner seeks to renew the protection order. Upon receipt of the petition for renewal, the court shall order a hearing which shall be not later than fourteen days from the date of the order. Except as provided in RCW 10.14.085, personal service shall be made upon the respondent not less than five days before the hearing. If timely service cannot be made the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require additional attempts at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication as provided by RCW 10.14.085. If the court permits service by publication, the court shall set the new hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date of the order. If the order expires because timely service cannot be made the court shall grant an ex parte order of protection as provided in this section. The court shall grant the petition for renewal unless the respondent proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent will not resume harassment of the petitioner when the order expires. The court may renew the protection order for another fixed time period or may enter a permanent order as provided in subsection (4) of this section.

(6) The court, in granting an ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order or a civil antiharassment protection order, shall have broad discretion to grant such relief as the court deems proper, including an order:

(a) Restraining the respondent from making any attempts to contact the petitioner;

(b) Restraining the respondent from making any attempts to keep the petitioner under surveillance;

(c) Requiring the respondent to stay a stated distance from the petitioner's residence and workplace; and

(d) Considering the provisions of RCW 9.41.800.

(7) The court in granting an ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order or a civil antiharassment protection order, shall not prohibit the respondent from exercising constitutionally protected free speech. Nothing in this section prohibits the petitioner from utilizing other civil or criminal remedies to restrain conduct or communications not otherwise constitutionally protected.

(8) The court in granting an ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order or a civil antiharassment protection order, shall not prohibit the respondent from the use or enjoyment of real property to which the respondent has a cognizable claim unless that order is issued under chapter 26.09 RCW or under a separate action commenced with a summons and complaint to determine title or possession of real property.

(9) The court in granting an ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order or a civil antiharassment protection order, shall not limit the respondent's right to care, control, or custody of the respondent's minor child, unless that order is issued under chapter 13.32A, 26.09, 26.10, or 26.26 RCW.

(10) A petitioner may not obtain an ex parte temporary antiharassment protection order against a respondent if the petitioner has previously obtained two such ex parte orders against the same respondent but has failed to obtain the issuance of a civil antiharassment protection order unless good cause for such failure can be shown.

(11) The court order shall specify the date an order issued pursuant to subsections (4) and (5) of this section expires if any. The court order shall also state whether the court issued the protection order following personal service or service by publication and whether the court has approved service by publication of an order issued under this section.

10.14.085. Hearing reset after ex parte order -- Service by publication -- Circumstances

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) If the respondent was not personally served with the petition, notice of hearing, and ex parte order before the hearing, the court shall reset the hearing for twenty-four days from the date of entry of the order and may order service by publication instead of personal service under the following circumstances:

(a) The sheriff or municipal officer files an affidavit stating that the officer was unable to complete personal service upon the respondent. The affidavit must describe the number and types of attempts the officer made to complete service;

(b) The petitioner files an affidavit stating that the petitioner believes that the respondent is hiding from the server to avoid service. The petitioner's affidavit must state the reasons for the belief that the respondent is avoiding service;

(c) The server has deposited a copy of the summons, in substantially the form prescribed in subsection (3) of this section, notice of hearing, and the ex parte order of protection in the post office, directed to the respondent at the respondent's last known address, unless the server states that the server does not know the respondent's address; and

(d) The court finds reasonable grounds exist to believe that the respondent is concealing himself or herself to avoid service, and that further attempts to personally serve the respondent would be futile or unduly burdensome.

(2) The court shall reissue the temporary order of protection not to exceed another twenty-four days from the date of reissuing the ex parte protection order and order to provide service by publication.

(3) The publication shall be made in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the petition was brought and in the county of the last known address of the respondent once a week for three consecutive weeks. The newspaper selected must be one of the three most widely circulated papers in the county. The publication of summons shall not be made until the court orders service by publication under this section. Service of the summons shall be considered complete when the publication has been made for three consecutive weeks. The summons must be signed by the petitioner. The summons shall contain the date of the first publication, and shall require the respondent upon whom service by publication is desired, to appear and answer the petition on the date set for the hearing. The summons shall also contain a brief statement of the reason for the petition and a summary of the provisions under the ex parte order. The summons shall be essentially in the following form:

In the ......... court of the state of Washington for the county of .........

..............., Petitioner

vs.

No. ......

..............., Respondent

The state of Washington to ......... (respondent):

You are hereby summoned to appear on the .... day of ......, (year) ...., at .... a.m./p.m., and respond to the petition. If you fail to respond, an order of protection will be issued against you pursuant to the provisions of chapter 10.14 RCW, for a minimum of one year from the date you are required to appear. A temporary order of protection has been issued against you, restraining you from the following: (Insert a brief statement of the provisions of the ex parte order). A copy of the petition, notice of hearing, and ex parte order has been filed with the clerk of this court.

Petitioner

10.14.090. Representation or appearance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall preclude either party from representation by private counsel or from appearing on his or her own behalf.

(2) The court may require the respondent to pay the filing fee and court costs, including service fees, and to reimburse the petitioner for costs incurred in bringing the action, including a reasonable attorney's fee. If the petitioner has been granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis, the court may require the respondent to pay the filing fee and costs, including services fees, to the county or municipality incurring the expense.

10.14.100. Service of order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) An order issued under this chapter shall be personally served upon the respondent, except as provided in subsections (5) and (7) of this section.

(2) The sheriff of the county or the peace officers of the municipality in which the respondent resides shall serve the respondent personally unless the petitioner elects to have the respondent served by a private party.

(3) If the sheriff or municipal peace officer cannot complete service upon the respondent within ten days, the sheriff or municipal peace officer shall notify the petitioner.

(4) Returns of service under this chapter shall be made in accordance with the applicable court rules.

(5) If an order entered by the court recites that the respondent appeared in person before the court, the necessity for further service is waived and proof of service of that order is not necessary. The court's order, entered after a hearing, need not be served on a respondent who fails to appear before the court, if material terms of the order have not changed from those contained in the temporary order, and it is shown to the court's satisfaction that the respondent has previously been personally served with the temporary order.

(6) Except in cases where the petitioner has fees waived under RCW 10.14.055 or is granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis, municipal police departments serving documents as required under this chapter may collect the same fees for service and mileage authorized by RCW 36.18.040 to be collected by sheriffs.

(7) If the court previously entered an order allowing service by publication of the notice of hearing and temporary order of protection pursuant to RCW 10.14.085, the court may permit service by publication of the order of protection issued under RCW 10.14.080. Service by publication must comply with the requirements of RCW 10.14.085.

10.14.105. Order following service by publication

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Following completion of service by publication as provided in RCW 10.14.085, if the respondent fails to appear at the hearing, the court may issue an order of protection as provided in RCW 10.14.080. That order must be served pursuant to RCW 10.14.100, and forwarded to the appropriate law enforcement agency pursuant to RCW 10.14.110.

10.14.110. Notice to law enforcement agencies - Enforceability

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A copy of an antiharassment protection order granted under this chapter shall be forwarded by the clerk of the court on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order.

Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall forthwith enter the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. The law enforcement agency shall expunge expired orders from the computer system. Entry into the law enforcement information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the order. The order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(2) The information entered into the computer-based system shall include notice to law enforcement whether the order was personally served or served by publication.

10.14.115. Enforcement of order - Knowledge prerequisite to penalties -- Reasonable efforts to serve copy of order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) When the court issues an order of protection pursuant to RCW 10.14.080, the court shall advise the petitioner that the respondent may not be subjected to the penalties set forth in RCW 10.14.120 and 10.14.170 for a violation of the order unless the respondent knows of the order.

(2) When a peace officer investigates a report of an alleged violation of an order for protection issued under this chapter the officer shall attempt to determine whether the respondent knew of the existence of the protection order. If the officer determines that the respondent did not or probably did not know about the protection order, the officer shall make reasonable efforts to obtain a copy of the protection order and serve it on the respondent during the investigation.

10.14.120. Disobedience of order - Penalties

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Any willful disobedience by a respondent age eighteen years or over of any temporary antiharassment protection order or civil antiharassment protection order issued under this chapter subjects the respondent to criminal penalties under this chapter. Any respondent age eighteen years or over who willfully disobeys the terms of any order issued under this chapter may also, in the court's discretion, be found in contempt of court and subject to penalties under chapter 7.21 RCW. Any respondent under the age of eighteen years who willfully disobeys the terms of an order issued under this chapter may, in the court's discretion, be found in contempt of court and subject to the sanction specified in RCW 7.21.030(4).

10.14.125. Service by publication--Costs

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may permit service by publication under this chapter only if the petitioner pays the cost of publication or if the petitioner's costs have been waived pursuant to RCW 10.14.055, unless the county legislative authority allocates funds for service of process by publication for petitioners who are granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis.

10.14.130. Exclusion of certain actions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Protection orders authorized under this chapter shall not be issued for any action specifically covered by chapter 7.90, 10.99, or 26.50 RCW.

10.14.150. Jurisdiction

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction and cognizance of any civil actions and proceedings brought under this chapter, except the district court shall transfer such actions and proceedings to the superior court when it is shown that (a) the respondent to the petition is under eighteen years of age; (b) the action involves title or possession of real property; (c) a superior court has exercised or is exercising jurisdiction over a proceeding involving the parties; or (d) the action would have the effect of interfering with a respondent's care, control, or custody of the respondent's minor child.

(2) Municipal courts may exercise jurisdiction and cognizance of any civil actions and proceedings brought under this chapter by adoption of local court rule, except the municipal court shall transfer such actions and proceedings to the superior court when it is shown that (a) the respondent to the petition is under eighteen years of age; (b) the action involves title or possession of real property; (c) a superior court has exercised or is exercising jurisdiction over a proceeding involving the parties; or (d) the action would have the effect of interfering with a respondent's care, control, or custody of the respondent's minor child.

(3) Superior courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction to receive transfer of antiharassment petitions in cases where a district or municipal court judge makes findings of fact and conclusions of law showing that meritorious reasons exist for the transfer. The municipal and district courts shall have jurisdiction and cognizance of any criminal actions brought under RCW 10.14.120 and 10.14.170.

10.14.155. Personal jurisdiction-Nonresident individual

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In a proceeding in which a petition for an order for protection under this chapter is sought, a court of this state may exercise personal jurisdiction over a nonresident individual if:

(a) The individual is personally served with a petition within this state;

(b) The individual submits to the jurisdiction of this state by consent, entering a general appearance, or filing a responsive document having the effect of waiving any objection to consent to personal jurisdiction;

(c) The act or acts of the individual or the individual's agent giving rise to the petition or enforcement of an order for protection occurred within this state;

(d)(i) The act or acts of the individual or the individual's agent giving rise to the petition or enforcement of an order for protection occurred outside this state and are part of an ongoing pattern of harassment that has an adverse effect on the petitioner or a member of the petitioner's family or household and the petitioner resides in this state; or

(ii) As a result of acts of harassment, the petitioner or a member of the petitioner's family or household has sought safety or protection in this state and currently resides in this state; or

(e) There is any other basis consistent with RCW 4.28.185 or with the constitutions of this state and the United States.

(2) For jurisdiction to be exercised under subsection (1)(d)(i) or (ii) of this section, the individual must have communicated with the petitioner or a member of the petitioner's family, directly or indirectly, or made known a threat to the safety of the petitioner or member of the petitioner's family while the petitioner or family member resides in this state. For the purposes of subsection (1)(d)(i) or (ii) of this section, “communicated or made known” includes, but is not limited to, through the mail, telephonically, or a posting on an electronic communication site or medium. Communication on any electronic medium that is generally available to any individual residing in the state shall be sufficient to exercise jurisdiction under subsection (1)(d)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(3) For the purposes of this section, an act or acts that “occurred within this state” includes, but is not limited to, an oral or written statement made or published by a person outside of this state to any person in this state by means of the mail, interstate commerce, or foreign commerce. Oral or written statements sent by electronic mail or the internet are deemed to have “occurred within this state.”

10.14.160. Where action may be brought

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

For the purposes of this chapter an action may be brought in:

(1) The judicial district of the county in which the alleged acts of unlawful harassment occurred;

(2) The judicial district of the county where any respondent resides at the time the petition is filed;

(3) The judicial district of the county where a respondent may be served if it is the same county or judicial district where a respondent resides;

(4) The municipality in which the alleged acts of unlawful harassment occurred;

(5) The municipality where any respondent resides at the time the petition is filed; or

(6) The municipality where a respondent may be served if it is the same county or judicial district where a respondent resides.

10.14.170. Criminal penalty

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Any respondent age eighteen years or over who willfully disobeys any civil antiharassment protection order issued pursuant to this chapter shall be guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

10.14.180. Modification of order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Upon application with notice to all parties and after a hearing, the court may modify the terms of an existing order under this chapter. In any situation where an order is terminated or modified before its expiration date, the clerk of the court shall forward on or before the next judicial day a true copy of the modified order or the termination order to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the modified order or termination order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall promptly enter it in the law enforcement information system.

Chapter 10.40. Arraignment

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

10.40.050. Entry and use of true name

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

If he or she alleges that another name is his or her true name it must be entered in the minutes of the court, and the subsequent proceedings on the indictment or information may be had against him or her by that name, referring also to the name by which he or she is indicted or informed against.

Chapter 10.99. Domestic Violence--Official Response

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

10.99.050. Victim contact--Restriction, prohibition--Violation, penalties--Written order--Procedures--Notice of change

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) When a defendant is found guilty of a crime and a condition of the sentence restricts the defendant's ability to have contact with the victim, such condition shall be recorded and a written certified copy of that order shall be provided to the victim.

(2)(a) Willful violation of a court order issued under this section is punishable under RCW 26.50.110.

(b) The written order shall contain the court's directives and shall bear the legend: Violation of this order is a criminal offense under chapter 26.50 RCW and will subject a violator to arrest; any assault, drive-by shooting, or reckless endangerment that is a violation of this order is a felony.

(3) Whenever an order prohibiting contact is issued pursuant to this section, the clerk of the court shall forward a copy of the order on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the copy of the order the law enforcement agency shall enter the order for one year or until the expiration date specified on the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. Entry into the computer-based criminal intelligence information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the order. The order is fully enforceable in any jurisdiction in the state.

(4) If an order prohibiting contact issued pursuant to this section is modified or terminated, the clerk of the court shall notify the law enforcement agency specified in the order on or before the next judicial day. Upon receipt of notice that an order has been terminated, the law enforcement agency shall remove the order from any computer-based criminal intelligence system.

10.99.020. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.

(1) “Agency” means a general authority Washington law enforcement agency as defined in RCW 10.93.020.

(2) “Association” means the Washington association of sheriffs and police chiefs.

(3) “Family or household members” means spouses, former spouses, persons who have a child in common regardless of whether they have been married or have lived together at any time, adult persons related by blood or marriage, adult persons who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past, persons sixteen years of age or older who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past and who have or have had a dating relationship, persons sixteen years of age or older with whom a person sixteen years of age or older has or has had a dating relationship, and persons who have a biological or legal parent-child relationship, including stepparents and stepchildren and grandparents and grandchildren.

(4) “Dating relationship” has the same meaning as in RCW 26.50.010.

(5) “Domestic violence” includes but is not limited to any of the following crimes when committed by one family or household member against another:

(a) Assault in the first degree (RCW 9A.36.011);

(b) Assault in the second degree (RCW 9A.36.021);

(c) Assault in the third degree (RCW 9A.36.031);

(d) Assault in the fourth degree (RCW 9A.36.041);

(e) Drive-by shooting (RCW 9A.36.045);

(f) Reckless endangerment (RCW 9A.36.050);

(g) Coercion (RCW 9A.36.070);

(h) Burglary in the first degree (RCW 9A.52.020);

(i) Burglary in the second degree (RCW 9A.52.030);

(j) Criminal trespass in the first degree (RCW 9A.52.070);

(k) Criminal trespass in the second degree (RCW 9A.52.080);

(l) Malicious mischief in the first degree (RCW 9A.48.070);

(m) Malicious mischief in the second degree (RCW 9A.48.080);

(n) Malicious mischief in the third degree (RCW 9A.48.090);

(o) Kidnapping in the first degree (RCW 9A.40.020);

(p) Kidnapping in the second degree (RCW 9A.40.030);

(q) Unlawful imprisonment (RCW 9A.40.040);

(r) Violation of the provisions of a restraining order, no-contact order, or protection order restraining or enjoining the person or restraining the person from going onto the grounds of or entering a residence, workplace, school, or day care, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location (RCW 10.99.040, 10.99.050, 26.09.300, 26.10.220, 26.26.138, 26.44.063, 26.44.150, 26.50.060, 26.50.070, 26.50.130, 26.52.070, or 74.34.145);

(s) Rape in the first degree (RCW 9A.44.040);

(t) Rape in the second degree (RCW 9A.44.050);

(u) Residential burglary (RCW 9A.52.025);

(v) Stalking (RCW 9A.46.110); and

(w) Interference with the reporting of domestic violence (RCW 9A.36.150).

(6) “Employee” means any person currently employed with an agency.

(7) “Sworn employee” means a general authority Washington peace officer as defined in RCW 10.93.020, any person appointed under RCW 35.21.333, and any person appointed or elected to carry out the duties of the sheriff under chapter 36.28 RCW.

(8) “Victim” means a family or household member who has been subjected to domestic violence.

Title 12. District Courts--Civil Procedure

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 12.40. Small Claims

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

12.40.010. Department authorized--Jurisdictional amount

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

In every district court there shall be created and organized by the court a department to be known as the “small claims department of the district court.” The small claims department shall have jurisdiction, but not exclusive, in cases for the recovery of money only if the amount claimed does not exceed five thousand dollars.

Title 26. Domestic Relations

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 26.09. Dissolution of Marriage - Legal Separation

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.09.002. Policy

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Parents have the responsibility to make decisions and perform other parental functions necessary for the care and growth of their minor children. In any proceeding between parents under this chapter, the best interests of the child shall be the standard by which the court determines and allocates the parties' parental responsibilities. The state recognizes the fundamental importance of the parent-child relationship to the welfare of the child, and that the relationship between the child and each parent should be fostered unless inconsistent with the child's best interests. Residential time and financial support are equally important components of parenting arrangements. The best interests of the child are served by a parenting arrangement that best maintains a child's emotional growth, health and stability, and physical care. Further, the best interest of the child is ordinarily served when the existing pattern of interaction between a parent and child is altered only to the extent necessitated by the changed relationship of the parents or as required to protect the child from physical, mental, or emotional harm.

26.09.003. Policy--Intent--Findings

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The legislature reaffirms the intent of the current law as expressed in RCW 26.09.002. However, after review, the legislature finds that there are certain components of the existing law which do not support the original legislative intent. In order to better implement the existing legislative intent the legislature finds that incentives for parties to reduce family conflict and additional alternative dispute resolution options can assist in reducing the number of contested trials. Furthermore, the legislature finds that the identification of domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010 and the treatment needs of the parties to dissolutions are necessary to improve outcomes for children. When judicial officers have the discretion to tailor individualized resolutions, the legislative intent expressed in RCW 26.09.002 can more readily be achieved. Judicial officers should have the discretion and flexibility to assess each case based on the merits of the individual cases before them.

26.09.004 Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.

(1) “Military duties potentially impacting parenting functions” means those obligations imposed, voluntarily or involuntarily, on a parent serving in the armed forces that may interfere with that parent's abilities to perform his or her parenting functions under a temporary or permanent parenting plan. Military duties potentially impacting parenting functions include, but are not limited to:

(a) “Deployment,” which means the temporary transfer of a service member serving in an active-duty status to another location in support of a military operation, to include any tour of duty classified by the member's branch of the armed forces as “remote” or “unaccompanied”;

(b) “Activation” or “mobilization,” which means the call-up of a national guard or reserve service member to extended active-duty status. For purposes of this definition, “mobilization” does not include national guard or reserve annual training, inactive duty days, or drill weekends; or

(c) “Temporary duty,” which means the transfer of a service member from one military base or the service member's home to a different location, usually another base, for a limited period of time to accomplish training or to assist in the performance of a noncombat mission.

(2) “Parenting functions” means those aspects of the parent-child relationship in which the parent makes decisions and performs functions necessary for the care and growth of the child. Parenting functions include:

(a) Maintaining a loving, stable, consistent, and nurturing relationship with the child;

(b) Attending to the daily needs of the child, such as feeding, clothing, physical care and grooming, supervision, health care, and day care, and engaging in other activities which are appropriate to the developmental level of the child and that are within the social and economic circumstances of the particular family;

(c) Attending to adequate education for the child, including remedial or other education essential to the best interests of the child;

(d) Assisting the child in developing and maintaining appropriate interpersonal relationships;

(e) Exercising appropriate judgment regarding the child's welfare, consistent with the child's developmental level and the family's social and economic circumstances; and

(f) Providing for the financial support of the child.

(3) “Permanent parenting plan” means a plan for parenting the child, including allocation of parenting functions, which plan is incorporated in any final decree or decree of modification in an action for dissolution of marriage or domestic partnership, declaration of invalidity, or legal separation.

(4) “Temporary parenting plan” means a plan for parenting of the child pending final resolution of any action for dissolution of marriage or domestic partnership, declaration of invalidity, or legal separation which is incorporated in a temporary order.

26.09.006. Mandatory use of approved forms

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Effective January 1, 1992, a party shall not file any pleading with the clerk of the court in an action commenced under this chapter unless on forms approved by the administrator for the courts.

(2) The parties shall comply with requirements for submission to the court of forms as provided in RCW 26.18.220.

26.09.013. Interpretive services--Literacy assistance--Guardian ad litem charges--Telephone or interactive videoconference participation--Residential time in cases involving domestic violence or child abuse--Supervised visitation and safe exchange centers

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

In order to provide judicial officers with better information and to facilitate decision making which allows for the protection of children from physical, mental, or emotional harm and in order to facilitate consistent healthy contact between both parents and their children:

(1) Parties and witnesses who require the assistance of interpreters shall be provided access to qualified interpreters pursuant to chapter 2.42 or 2.43 RCW. To the extent practicable and within available resources, interpreters shall also be made available at dissolution-related proceedings.

(2) Parties and witnesses who require literacy assistance shall be referred to the multipurpose service centers established in chapter 28B.04 RCW.

(3) In matters involving guardians ad litem, the court shall specify the hourly rate the guardian ad litem may charge for his or her services, and shall specify the maximum amount the guardian ad litem may charge without additional review. Counties may, and to the extent state funding is provided therefor counties shall, provide indigent parties with guardian ad litem services at a reduced or waived fee.

(4) Parties may request to participate by telephone or interactive videoconference. The court may allow telephonic or interactive videoconference participation of one or more parties at any proceeding in its discretion. The court may also allow telephonic or interactive videoconference participation of witnesses.

(5) In cases involving domestic violence or child abuse, if residential time is ordered, the court may:

(a) Order exchange of a child to occur in a protected setting;

(b) Order residential time supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such residential time. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the supervisor is willing to and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor if the court determines, after a hearing, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child. If the court allows a family or household member to supervise residential time, the court shall establish conditions to be followed during residential time.

(6)(a) In cases in which the court has made a finding of domestic violence or child abuse, the court may not require a victim of domestic violence or the custodial parent of a victim of child abuse to disclose to the other party information that would reasonably be expected to enable the perpetrator of domestic violence or child abuse to obtain previously undisclosed information regarding the name, location, or address of a victim's residence, employer, or school at an initial hearing, and shall carefully weigh the safety interests of the victim before issuing orders which would require disclosure in a future hearing.

(b) In cases in which domestic violence or child abuse has been alleged but the court has not yet made a finding regarding such allegations, the court shall provide the party alleging domestic violence or child abuse with the opportunity to prove the allegations before ordering the disclosure of information that would reasonably be expected to enable the alleged perpetrator of domestic violence or child abuse to obtain previously undisclosed information regarding the name, location, or address of a victim's residence, employer, or school.

(7) In cases in which the court finds that the parties do not have a satisfactory history of cooperation or there is a high level of parental conflict, the court may order the parties to use supervised visitation and safe exchange centers or alternative safe locations to facilitate the exercise of residential time.

26.09.016. Mediation in cases involving domestic violence or child abuse

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Mediation is generally inappropriate in cases involving domestic violence and child abuse. In order to effectively identify cases where issues of domestic violence and child abuse are present and reduce conflict in dissolution matters: (1) Where appropriate parties shall be provided access to trained domestic violence advocates; and (2) in cases where a victim requests mediation the court may make exceptions and permit mediation, so long as the court makes a finding that mediation is appropriate under the circumstances and the victim is permitted to have a supporting person present during the mediation proceedings.

26.09.060. Temporary maintenance or child support--Temporary restraining order--Preliminary injunction--Domestic violence or antiharassment protection order--Notice of termination or modification of restraining order--Support debts, notice

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In a proceeding for:

(a) Dissolution of marriage or domestic partnership, legal separation, or a declaration of invalidity; or

(b) Disposition of property or liabilities, maintenance, or support following dissolution of the marriage or the domestic partnership by a court which lacked personal jurisdiction over the absent spouse or absent domestic partner; either party may move for temporary maintenance or for temporary support of children entitled to support. The motion shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting forth the factual basis for the motion and the amounts requested.

(2) As a part of a motion for temporary maintenance or support or by independent motion accompanied by affidavit, either party may request the court to issue a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction, providing relief proper in the circumstances, and restraining or enjoining any person from:

(a) Transferring, removing, encumbering, concealing, or in any way disposing of any property except in the usual course of business or for the necessities of life, and, if so restrained or enjoined, requiring him or her to notify the moving party of any proposed extraordinary expenditures made after the order is issued;

(b) Molesting or disturbing the peace of the other party or of any child;

(c) Going onto the grounds of or entering the home, workplace, or school of the other party or the day care or school of any child upon a showing of the necessity therefor;

(d) Knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location; and

(e) Removing a child from the jurisdiction of the court.

(3) Either party may request a domestic violence protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW or an antiharassment protection order under chapter 10.14 RCW on a temporary basis. The court may grant any of the relief provided in RCW 26.50.060 except relief pertaining to residential provisions for the children which provisions shall be provided for under this chapter, and any of the relief provided in RCW 10.14.080. Ex parte orders issued under this subsection shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days, or upon court order, not to exceed twenty-four days if necessary to ensure that all temporary motions in the case can be heard at the same time.

(4) In issuing the order, the court shall consider the provisions of RCW 9.41.800.

(5) The court may issue a temporary restraining order without requiring notice to the other party only if it finds on the basis of the moving affidavit or other evidence that irreparable injury could result if an order is not issued until the time for responding has elapsed.

(6) The court may issue a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction and an order for temporary maintenance or support in such amounts and on such terms as are just and proper in the circumstances. The court may in its discretion waive the filing of the bond or the posting of security.

(7) Restraining orders issued under this section restraining the person from molesting or disturbing another party, or from going onto the grounds of or entering the home, workplace, or school of the other party or the day care or school of any child, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, shall prominently bear on the front page of the order the legend: VIOLATION OF THIS ORDER WITH ACTUAL NOTICE OF ITS TERMS IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE UNDER CHAPTER 26.50 RCW AND WILL SUBJECT A VIOLATOR TO ARREST.

(8) The court shall order that any temporary restraining order bearing a criminal offense legend, any domestic violence protection order, or any antiharassment protection order granted under this section be forwarded by the clerk of the court on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall enter the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. Entry into the computer-based criminal intelligence information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the order. The order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(9) If a restraining order issued pursuant to this section is modified or terminated, the clerk of the court shall notify the law enforcement agency specified in the order on or before the next judicial day. Upon receipt of notice that an order has been terminated, the law enforcement agency shall remove the order from any computer-based criminal intelligence system.

(10) A temporary order, temporary restraining order, or preliminary injunction:

(a) Does not prejudice the rights of a party or any child which are to be adjudicated at subsequent hearings in the proceeding;

(b) May be revoked or modified;

(c) Terminates when the final decree is entered, except as provided under subsection (11) of this section, or when the petition for dissolution, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity is dismissed;

(d) May be entered in a proceeding for the modification of an existing decree.

(11) Delinquent support payments accrued under an order for temporary support remain collectible and are not extinguished when a final decree is entered unless the decree contains specific language to the contrary. A support debt under a temporary order owed to the state for public assistance expenditures shall not be extinguished by the final decree if:

(a) The obligor was given notice of the state's interest under chapter 74.20A RCW; or

(b) The temporary order directs the obligor to make support payments to the office of support enforcement or the Washington state support registry.

26.09.100. Child support--Apportionment of expense--Periodic adjustments or modifications

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or domestic partnership, legal separation, declaration of invalidity, maintenance, or child support, after considering all relevant factors but without regard to misconduct, the court shall order either or both parents owing a duty of support to any child of the marriage or the domestic partnership dependent upon either or both spouses or domestic partners to pay an amount determined under chapter 26.19 RCW.

(2) The court may require automatic periodic adjustments or modifications of child support. That portion of any decree that requires periodic adjustments or modifications of child support shall use the provisions in chapter 26.19 RCW as the basis for the adjustment or modification. Provisions in the decree for periodic adjustment or modification shall not conflict with RCW 26.09.170 except that the decree may require periodic adjustments or modifications of support more frequently than the time periods established pursuant to RCW 26.09.170.

(3) Upon motion of a party and without a substantial change of circumstances, the court shall modify the decree to comply with subsection (2) of this section as to installments accruing subsequent to entry of the court's order on the motion for modification.

(4) The adjustment or modification provision may be modified by the court due to economic hardship consistent with the provisions of RCW 26.09.170 (6)(a).

26.09.105. Child support--Medical support--Conditions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Whenever a child support order is entered or modified under this chapter, the court shall require both parents to provide medical support for any child named in the order as provided in this section.

(a) Medical support consists of:

(i) Health insurance coverage; and

(ii) Cash medical support.

(b) Cash medical support consists of:

(i) A parent's monthly payment toward the premium paid for coverage by either the other parent or the state, which represents the obligated parent's proportionate share of the premium paid, but no more than twenty-five percent of the obligated parent's basic support obligation; and

(ii) A parent's proportionate share of uninsured medical expenses.

(c) Under appropriate circumstances, the court may excuse one parent from the responsibility to provide health insurance coverage or the monthly payment toward the premium.

(d) The court shall always require both parents to contribute their proportionate share of uninsured medical expenses.

(2) Both parents share the obligation to provide medical support for the child or children specified in the order, by providing health insurance coverage or contributing a cash medical support obligation when appropriate, and paying a proportionate share of any uninsured medical expenses.

(3)(a) The court may specify how medical support must be provided by each parent under subsection (4) of this section.

(b) If the court does not specify how medical support will be provided or if neither parent provides proof that he or she is providing health insurance coverage for the child at the time the support order is entered, the division of child support or either parent may enforce a parent's obligation to provide medical support under RCW 26.18.170.

(4)(a) If there is sufficient evidence provided at the time the order is entered, the court may make a determination of which parent must provide coverage and which parent must contribute a sum certain amount as his or her monthly payment toward the premium.

(b) If both parents have available health insurance coverage that is accessible to the child at the time the support order is entered, the court has discretion to order the parent with better coverage to provide the health insurance coverage for the child and the other parent to pay a monthly payment toward the premium. In making the determination of which coverage is better, the court shall consider the needs of the child, the cost and extent of each parent's coverage, and the accessibility of the coverage.

(c) Each parent shall remain responsible for his or her proportionate share of uninsured medical expenses.

(5) The order must provide that if the parties' circumstances change, the parties' medical support obligations will be enforced as provided in RCW 26.18.170.

(6) A parent who is ordered to maintain or provide health insurance coverage may comply with that requirement by:

(a) Providing proof of accessible private insurance coverage for any child named in the order; or

(b) Providing coverage that can be extended to cover the child that is available to that parent through employment or that is union-related, if the cost of such coverage does not exceed twenty-five percent of that parent's basic child support obligation.

(7) The court may order a parent to provide health insurance coverage that exceeds twenty-five percent of that parent's basic support obligation if it is in the best interests of the child to provide coverage.

(8) If the child receives state-financed medical coverage through the department under chapter 74.09 RCW for which there is an assignment, the obligated parent shall pay a monthly payment toward the premium.

(9) Each parent is responsible for his or her proportionate share of uninsured medical expenses for the child or children covered by the support order.

(10) The parents must maintain health insurance coverage as required under this section until:

(a) Further order of the court;

(b) The child is emancipated, if there is no express language to the contrary in the order; or

(c) Health insurance is no longer available through the parents' employer or union and no conversion privileges exist to continue coverage following termination of employment.

(11) A parent who is required to extend health insurance coverage to a child under this section is liable for any covered health care costs for which the parent receives direct payment from an insurer.

(12) This section shall not be construed to limit the authority of the court to enter or modify support orders containing provisions for payment of uninsured health expenses, health care costs, or insurance premiums which are in addition to and not inconsistent with this section.

(13) A parent ordered to provide health insurance coverage must provide proof of such coverage or proof that such coverage is unavailable within twenty days of the entry of the order to:

(a) The other parent; or

(b) The department of social and health services if the parent has been notified or ordered to make support payments to the Washington state support registry.

(14) Every order requiring a parent to provide health care or insurance coverage must be entered in compliance with 1RCW 26.23.050 and be subject to direct enforcement as provided under chapter 26.18 RCW.

(15) When a parent is providing health insurance coverage at the time the order is entered, the premium shall be included in the worksheets for the calculation of child support under chapter 26.19 RCW.

(16) As used in this section:

(a) “Accessible” means health insurance coverage which provides primary care services to the child or children with reasonable effort by the custodian.

(b) “Cash medical support” means a combination of: (i) A parent's monthly payment toward the premium paid for coverage by either the other parent or the state, which represents the obligated parent's proportionate share of the premium paid, but no more than twenty-five percent of the obligated parent's basic support obligation; and (ii) a parent's proportionate share of uninsured medical expenses.

(c) “Health insurance coverage” does not include medical assistance provided under chapter 74.09 RCW.

(d) “Uninsured medical expenses” includes premiums, copays, deductibles, along with other health care costs not covered by insurance.

(e) “Obligated parent” means a parent ordered to provide health insurance coverage for the children.

(f) “Proportionate share” means an amount equal to a parent's percentage share of the combined monthly net income of both parents as computed when determining a parent's child support obligation under chapter 26.19 RCW.

(g) “Monthly payment toward the premium” means a parent's contribution toward premiums paid by the other parent or the state for insurance coverage for the child, which is based on the obligated parent's proportionate share of the premium paid, but no more than twenty-five percent of the obligated parent's basic support obligation.

(17) The department of social and health services has rule-making authority to enact rules in compliance with 45 C.F.R. Parts 302, 303, 304, 305, and 308.

26.09.110. Minor or dependent child -- Court appointed attorney to represent -- Payment of costs, fees, and disbursements

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may appoint an attorney to represent the interests of a minor or dependent child with respect to provision for the parenting plan in an action for dissolution of marriage or domestic partnership, legal separation, or declaration concerning the validity of a marriage or domestic partnership. The court shall enter an order for costs, fees, and disbursements in favor of the child's attorney. The order shall be made against either or both parents, except that, if both parties are indigent, the costs, fees, and disbursements shall be borne by the county.

26.09.135. Order or decree for child support--Compliance with RCW 26.23.050

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Every court order or decree establishing a child support obligation shall be entered in compliance with the provisions of RCW 26.23.050.

26.09.160. Failure to comply with decree or temporary injunction -- Obligation to make support or maintenance payments or permit contact with children not suspended -- Penalties

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The performance of parental functions and the duty to provide child support are distinct responsibilities in the care of a child. If a party fails to comply with a provision of a decree or temporary order of injunction, the obligation of the other party to make payments for support or maintenance or to permit contact with children is not suspended. An attempt by a parent, in either the negotiation or the performance of a parenting plan, to condition one aspect of the parenting plan upon another, to condition payment of child support upon an aspect of the parenting plan, to refuse to pay ordered child support, to refuse to perform the duties provided in the parenting plan, or to hinder the performance by the other parent of duties provided in the parenting plan, shall be deemed bad faith and shall be punished by the court by holding the party in contempt of court and by awarding to the aggrieved party reasonable attorneys' fees and costs incidental in bringing a motion for contempt of court.

(2) (a) A motion may be filed to initiate a contempt action to coerce a parent to comply with an order establishing residential provisions for a child. If the court finds there is reasonable cause to believe the parent has not complied with the order, the court may issue an order to show cause why the relief requested should not be granted.

(b) If, based on all the facts and circumstances, the court finds after hearing that the parent, in bad faith, has not complied with the order establishing residential provisions for the child, the court shall find the parent in contempt of court. Upon a finding of contempt, the court shall order:

(i) The noncomplying parent to provide the moving party additional time with the child. The additional time shall be equal to the time missed with the child, due to the parent's noncompliance;

(ii) The parent to pay, to the moving party, all court costs and reasonable attorneys' fees incurred as a result of the noncompliance, and any reasonable expenses incurred in locating or returning a child; and

(iii) The parent to pay, to the moving party, a civil penalty, not less than the sum of one hundred dollars.

The court may also order the parent to be imprisoned in the county jail, if the parent is presently able to comply with the provisions of the court-ordered parenting plan and is presently unwilling to comply. The parent may be imprisoned until he or she agrees to comply with the order, but in no event for more than one hundred eighty days.

(3) On a second failure within three years to comply with a residential provision of a court-ordered parenting plan, a motion may be filed to initiate contempt of court proceedings according to the procedure set forth in subsection (2)(a) and (b) of this section. On a finding of contempt under this subsection, the court shall order:

(a) The noncomplying parent to provide the other parent or party additional time with the child. The additional time shall be twice the amount of the time missed with the child, due to the parent's noncompliance;

(b) The noncomplying parent to pay, to the other parent or party, all court costs and reasonable attorneys' fees incurred as a result of the noncompliance, and any reasonable expenses incurred in locating or returning a child; and

(c) The noncomplying parent to pay, to the moving party, a civil penalty of not less than two hundred fifty dollars.

The court may also order the parent to be imprisoned in the county jail, if the parent is presently able to comply with the provisions of the court-ordered parenting plan and is presently unwilling to comply. The parent may be imprisoned until he or she agrees to comply with the order but in no event for more than one hundred eighty days.

(4) For purposes of subsections (1), (2), and (3) of this section, the parent shall be deemed to have the present ability to comply with the order establishing residential provisions unless he or she establishes otherwise by a preponderance of the evidence. The parent shall establish a reasonable excuse for failure to comply with the residential provision of a court-ordered parenting plan by a preponderance of the evidence.

(5) Any monetary award ordered under subsections (1), (2), and (3) of this section may be enforced, by the party to whom it is awarded, in the same manner as a civil judgment.

(6) Subsections (1), (2), and (3) of this section authorize the exercise of the court's power to impose remedial sanctions for contempt of court and is in addition to any other contempt power the court may possess.

(7) Upon motion for contempt of court under subsections (1) through (3) of this section, if the court finds the motion was brought without reasonable basis, the court shall order the moving party to pay to the nonmoving party, all costs, reasonable attorneys' fees, and a civil penalty of not less than one hundred dollars.

26.09.165. Court orders -- Required language

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

All court orders containing parenting plan provisions or orders of contempt, entered pursuant to RCW 26.09.160, shall include the following language:



WARNING: VIOLATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL PROVISIONS OF THIS ORDER WITH ACTUAL KNOWLEDGE OF ITS TERMS IS PUNISHABLE BY CONTEMPT OF COURT, AND MAY BE A CRIMINAL OFFENSE UNDER RCW 9A.40.060(2) or 9A.40.070(2). VIOLATION OF THIS ORDER MAY SUBJECT A VIOLATOR TO ARREST.

26.09.175. Modification of order of child support

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A proceeding for the modification of an order of child support shall commence with the filing of a petition and worksheets. The petition shall be in the form prescribed by the administrator for the courts. There shall be a fee of twenty dollars for the filing of a petition for modification of dissolution.

(2)(a) The petitioner shall serve upon the other party the summons, a copy of the petition, and the worksheets in the form prescribed by the administrator for the courts. If the modification proceeding is the first action filed in this state, service shall be made by personal service. If the decree to be modified was entered in this state, service shall be by personal service or by any form of mail requiring a return receipt. Proof of service shall be filed with the court.

(b) If the support obligation has been assigned to the state pursuant to RCW 74.20.330 or the state has a subrogated interest under RCW 74.20A.030, the summons, petition, and worksheets shall also be served on the attorney general; except that notice shall be given to the office of the prosecuting attorney for the county in which the action is filed in lieu of the office of the attorney general in those counties and in the types of cases as designated by the office of the attorney general by letter sent to the presiding superior court judge of that county.

(3) As provided for under RCW 26.09.170, the department of social and health services may file an action to modify or adjust an order of child support if:

(a) Public assistance money is being paid to or for the benefit of the child;

(b) A party to the order in a nonassistance case has requested a review; or

(c) Another state or jurisdiction has requested a modification of the order.

(4) A responding party's answer and worksheets shall be served and the answer filed within twenty days after service of the petition or sixty days if served out of state. A responding party's failure to file an answer within the time required shall result in entry of a default judgment for the petitioner.

(5) At any time after responsive pleadings are filed, any party may schedule the matter for hearing.

(6) Unless all parties stipulate to arbitration or the presiding judge authorizes oral testimony pursuant to subsection (7) of this section, a petition for modification of an order of child support shall be heard by the court on affidavits, the petition, answer, and worksheets only.

(7) A party seeking authority to present oral testimony on the petition to modify a support order shall file an appropriate motion not later than ten days after the time of notice of hearing. Affidavits and exhibits setting forth the reasons oral testimony is necessary to a just adjudication of the issues shall accompany the petition. The affidavits and exhibits must demonstrate the extraordinary features of the case. Factors which may be considered include, but are not limited to: (a) Substantial questions of credibility on a major issue; (b) insufficient or inconsistent discovery materials not correctable by further discovery; or (c) particularly complex circumstances requiring expert testimony.

(8) If testimony other than affidavit is required in any proceeding under this section, a court of this state shall permit a party or witness to be deposed or to testify under penalty of perjury by telephone, audiovisual means, or other electronic means, unless good cause is shown.

26.09.181. Procedure for determining permanent parenting plan

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) SUBMISSION OF PROPOSED PLANS. (a) In any proceeding under this chapter, except a modification, each party shall file and serve a proposed permanent parenting plan on or before the earliest date of:

(i) Thirty days after filing and service by either party of a notice for trial; or

(ii) One hundred eighty days after commencement of the action which one hundred eighty day period may be extended by stipulation of the parties.

(b) In proceedings for a modification of custody or a parenting plan, a proposed parenting plan shall be filed and served with the motion for modification and with the response to the motion for modification.

(c) No proposed permanent parenting plan shall be required after filing of an agreed permanent parenting plan, after entry of a final decree, or after dismissal of the cause of action.

(d) A party who files a proposed parenting plan in compliance with this section may move the court for an order of default adopting that party's parenting plan if the other party has failed to file a proposed parenting plan as required in this section.

(2) AMENDING PROPOSED PARENTING PLANS. Either party may file and serve an amended proposed permanent parenting plan according to the rules for amending pleadings.

(3) GOOD FAITH PROPOSAL. The parent submitting a proposed parenting plan shall attach a verified statement that the plan is proposed by that parent in good faith.

(4) AGREED PERMANENT PARENTING PLANS. The parents may make an agreed permanent parenting plan.

(5) MANDATORY SETTLEMENT CONFERENCE. Where mandatory settlement conferences are provided under court rule, the parents shall attend a mandatory settlement conference. The mandatory settlement conference shall be presided over by a judge or a court commissioner, who shall apply the criteria in RCW 26.09.187 and 26.09.191. The parents shall in good faith review the proposed terms of the parenting plans and any other issues relevant to the cause of action with the presiding judge or court commissioner. Facts and legal issues that are not then in dispute shall be entered as stipulations for purposes of final hearing or trial in the matter.

(6) TRIAL SETTING. Trial dates for actions involving minor children brought under this chapter shall receive priority.

(7) ENTRY OF FINAL ORDER. The final order or decree shall be entered not sooner than ninety days after filing and service.

This subsection does not apply to decrees of legal separation.

26.09.182. Permanent parenting plan -- Determination of relevant information

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Before entering a permanent parenting plan, the court shall determine the existence of any information and proceedings relevant to the placement of the child that are available in the judicial information system and databases.

26.09.184. Permanent parenting plan

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) OBJECTIVES. The objectives of the permanent parenting plan are to:

(a) Provide for the child's physical care;

(b) Maintain the child's emotional stability;

(c) Provide for the child's changing needs as the child grows and matures, in a way that minimizes the need for future modifications to the permanent parenting plan;

(d) Set forth the authority and responsibilities of each parent with respect to the child, consistent with the criteria in RCW 26.09.187 and 26.09.191;

(e) Minimize the child's exposure to harmful parental conflict;

(f) Encourage the parents, where appropriate under RCW 26.09.187 and 26.09.191, to meet their responsibilities to their minor children through agreements in the permanent parenting plan, rather than by relying on judicial intervention; and

(g) To otherwise protect the best interests of the child consistent with RCW 26.09.002.

(2) CONTENTS OF THE PERMANENT PARENTING PLAN. The permanent parenting plan shall contain provisions for resolution of future disputes between the parents, allocation of decision-making authority, and residential provisions for the child.

(3) CONSIDERATION IN ESTABLISHING THE PERMANENT PARENTING PLAN. In establishing a permanent parenting plan, the court may consider the cultural heritage and religious beliefs of a child.

(4) DISPUTE RESOLUTION. A process for resolving disputes, other than court action, shall be provided unless precluded or limited by RCW 26.09.187 or 26.09.191. A dispute resolution process may include counseling, mediation, or arbitration by a specified individual or agency, or court action. In the dispute resolution process:

(a) Preference shall be given to carrying out the parenting plan;

(b) The parents shall use the designated process to resolve disputes relating to implementation of the plan, except those related to financial support, unless an emergency exists;

(c) A written record shall be prepared of any agreement reached in counseling or mediation and of each arbitration award and shall be provided to each party;

(d) If the court finds that a parent has used or frustrated the dispute resolution process without good reason, the court shall award attorneys' fees and financial sanctions to the prevailing parent;

(e) The parties have the right of review from the dispute resolution process to the superior court; and

(f) The provisions of (a) through (e) of this subsection shall be set forth in the decree.

(5) ALLOCATION OF DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY.

(a) The plan shall allocate decision-making authority to one or both parties regarding the children's education, health care, and religious upbringing. The parties may incorporate an agreement related to the care and growth of the child in these specified areas, or in other areas, into their plan, consistent with the criteria in RCW 26.09.187 and 26.09.191. Regardless of the allocation of decision-making in the parenting plan, either parent may make emergency decisions affecting the health or safety of the child.

(b) Each parent may make decisions regarding the day-to-day care and control of the child while the child is residing with that parent.

(c) When mutual decision making is designated but cannot be achieved, the parties shall make a good-faith effort to resolve the issue through the dispute resolution process.

(6) RESIDENTIAL PROVISIONS FOR THE CHILD. The plan shall include a residential schedule which designates in which parent's home each minor child shall reside on given days of the year, including provision for holidays, birthdays of family members, vacations, and other special occasions, consistent with the criteria in RCW 26.09.187 and 26.09.191.

(7) PARENTS' OBLIGATION UNAFFECTED. If a parent fails to comply with a provision of a parenting plan or a child support order, the other parent's obligations under the parenting plan or the child support order are not affected. Failure to comply with a provision in a parenting plan or a child support order may result in a finding of contempt of court, under RCW 26.09.160.

(8) PROVISIONS TO BE SET FORTH IN PERMANENT PARENTING PLAN. The permanent parenting plan shall set forth the provisions of subsections (4)(a) through (c), (5)(b) and (c), and (7) of this section.

26.09.187. Criteria for establishing permanent parenting plan

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCESS. The court shall not order a dispute resolution process, except court action, when it finds that any limiting factor under RCW 26.09.191 applies, or when it finds that either parent is unable to afford the cost of the proposed dispute resolution process. If a dispute resolution process is not precluded or limited, then in designating such a process the court shall consider all relevant factors, including:

(a) Differences between the parents that would substantially inhibit their effective participation in any designated process;

(b) The parents' wishes or agreements and, if the parents have entered into agreements, whether the agreements were made knowingly and voluntarily; and

(c) Differences in the parents' financial circumstances that may affect their ability to participate fully in a given dispute resolution process.

(2) ALLOCATION OF DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY.

(a) AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE PARTIES. The court shall approve agreements of the parties allocating decision-making authority, or specifying rules in the areas listed in RCW 26.09.184(5)(a), when it finds that:

(i) The agreement is consistent with any limitations on a parent's decision-making authority mandated by RCW 26.09.191; and

(ii) The agreement is knowing and voluntary.

(b) SOLE DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY. The court shall order sole decision-making to one parent when it finds that:

(i) A limitation on the other parent's decision-making authority is mandated by RCW 26.09.191;

(ii) Both parents are opposed to mutual decision making;

(iii) One parent is opposed to mutual decision making, and such opposition is reasonable based on the criteria in (c) of this subsection.

(c) MUTUAL DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY. Except as provided in (a) and (b) of this subsection, the court shall consider the following criteria in allocating decision-making authority:

(i) The existence of a limitation under RCW 26.09.191;

(ii) The history of participation of each parent in decision making in each of the areas in RCW 26.09.184(5)(a);

(iii) Whether the parents have a demonstrated ability and desire to cooperate with one another in decision making in each of the areas in RCW 26.09.184(5)(a); and

(iv) The parents' geographic proximity to one another, to the extent that it affects their ability to make timely mutual decisions.

(3) RESIDENTIAL PROVISIONS.

(a) The court shall make residential provisions for each child which encourage each parent to maintain a loving, stable, and nurturing relationship with the child, consistent with the child's developmental level and the family's social and economic circumstances. The child's residential schedule shall be consistent with RCW 26.09.191. Where the limitations of RCW 26.09.191 are not dispositive of the child's residential schedule, the court shall consider the following factors:

(i) The relative strength, nature, and stability of the child's relationship with each parent;

(ii) The agreements of the parties, provided they were entered into knowingly and voluntarily;

(iii) Each parent's past and potential for future performance of parenting functions as defined in RCW 26.09.004(3), including whether a parent has taken greater responsibility for performing parenting functions relating to the daily needs of the child;

(iv) The emotional needs and developmental level of the child;

(v) The child's relationship with siblings and with other significant adults, as well as the child's involvement with his or her physical surroundings, school, or other significant activities;

(vi) The wishes of the parents and the wishes of a child who is sufficiently mature to express reasoned and independent preferences as to his or her residential schedule; and

(vii) Each parent's employment schedule, and shall make accommodations consistent with those schedules.

Factor (i) shall be given the greatest weight.

(b) Where the limitations of RCW 26.09.191 are not dispositive, the court may order that a child frequently alternate his or her residence between the households of the parents for brief and substantially equal intervals of time if such provision is in the best interests of the child. In determining whether such an arrangement is in the best interests of the child, the court may consider the parties geographic proximity to the extent necessary to ensure the ability to share performance of the parenting functions.

(c) For any child, residential provisions may contain any reasonable terms or conditions that facilitate the orderly and meaningful exercise of residential time by a parent, including but not limited to requirements of reasonable notice when residential time will not occur.

26.09.191. Restrictions in temporary or permanent parenting plans

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The permanent parenting plan shall not require mutual decision-making or designation of a dispute resolution process other than court action if it is found that a parent has engaged in any of the following conduct: (a) Willful abandonment that continues for an extended period of time or substantial refusal to perform parenting functions; (b) physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of a child; or (c) a history of acts of domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010(3) or an assault or sexual assault that causes grievous bodily harm or the fear of such harm or that results in a pregnancy.

(2)(a) The parent's residential time with the child shall be limited if it is found that the parent has engaged in any of the following conduct: (i) Willful abandonment that continues for an extended period of time or substantial refusal to perform parenting functions; (ii) physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of a child; (iii) a history of acts of domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010(3) or an assault or sexual assault that causes grievous bodily harm or the fear of such harm or that results in a pregnancy; or (iv) the parent has been convicted as an adult of a sex offense under:

(A) RCW 9A.44.076 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(B) RCW 9A.44.079 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(C) RCW 9A.44.086 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(D) RCW 9A.44.089;

(E) RCW 9A.44.093;

(F) RCW 9A.44.096;

(G) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2) if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(H) Chapter 9.68A RCW;

(I) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (a)(iv)(A) through (H) of this subsection;

(J) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (a)(iv)(A) through (H) of this subsection.

This subsection (2)(a) shall not apply when (c) or (d) of this subsection applies.

(b) The parent's residential time with the child shall be limited if it is found that the parent resides with a person who has engaged in any of the following conduct: (i) Physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of a child; (ii) a history of acts of domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010(3) or an assault or sexual assault that causes grievous bodily harm or the fear of such harm or that results in a pregnancy; or (iii) the person has been convicted as an adult or as a juvenile has been adjudicated of a sex offense under:

(A) RCW 9A.44.076 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(B) RCW 9A.44.079 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(C) RCW 9A.44.086 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(D) RCW 9A.44.089;

(E) RCW 9A.44.093;

(F) RCW 9A.44.096;

(G) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2) if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(H) Chapter 9.68A RCW;

(I) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (b)(iii)(A) through (H) of this subsection;

(J) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (b)(iii)(A) through (H) of this subsection.

This subsection (2)(b) shall not apply when (c) or (e) of this subsection applies.

(c) If a parent has been found to be a sexual predator under chapter 71.09 RCW or under an analogous statute of any other jurisdiction, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with a child that would otherwise be allowed under this chapter. If a parent resides with an adult or a juvenile who has been found to be a sexual predator under chapter 71.09 RCW or under an analogous statute of any other jurisdiction, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with the parent's child except contact that occurs outside that person's presence.

(d) There is a rebuttable presumption that a parent who has been convicted as an adult of a sex offense listed in (d)(i) through (ix) of this subsection poses a present danger to a child. Unless the parent rebuts this presumption, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with a child that would otherwise be allowed under this chapter:

(i) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2), provided that the person convicted was at least five years older than the other person;

(ii) RCW 9A.44.073;

(iii) RCW 9A.44.076, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(iv) RCW 9A.44.079, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(v) RCW 9A.44.083;

(vi) RCW 9A.44.086, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(vii) RCW 9A.44.100;

(viii) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (d)(i) through (vii) of this subsection;

(ix) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (d)(i) through (vii) of this subsection.

(e) There is a rebuttable presumption that a parent who resides with a person who, as an adult, has been convicted, or as a juvenile has been adjudicated, of the sex offenses listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection places a child at risk of abuse or harm when that parent exercises residential time in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person. Unless the parent rebuts the presumption, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with the parent's child except for contact that occurs outside of the convicted or adjudicated person's presence:

(i) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2), provided that the person convicted was at least five years older than the other person;

(ii) RCW 9A.44.073;

(iii) RCW 9A.44.076, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(iv) RCW 9A.44.079, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(v) RCW 9A.44.083;

(vi) RCW 9A.44.086, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(vii) RCW 9A.44.100;

(viii) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (e)(i) through (vii) of this subsection;

(ix) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (e)(i) through (vii) of this subsection.

(f) The presumption established in (d) of this subsection may be rebutted only after a written finding that the child was not conceived and subsequently born as a result of a sexual assault committed by the parent requesting residential time and that:

(i) If the child was not the victim of the sex offense committed by the parent requesting residential time, (A) contact between the child and the offending parent is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, and (B) the offending parent has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes such contact is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child; or

(ii) If the child was the victim of the sex offense committed by the parent requesting residential time, (A) contact between the child and the offending parent is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, (B) if the child is in or has been in therapy for victims of sexual abuse, the child's counselor believes such contact between the child and the offending parent is in the child's best interest, and (C) the offending parent has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes such contact is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child.

(g) The presumption established in (e) of this subsection may be rebutted only after a written finding that the child was not conceived and subsequently born as a result of a sexual assault committed by the parent requesting residential time and that:

(i) If the child was not the victim of the sex offense committed by the person who is residing with the parent requesting residential time, (A) contact between the child and the parent residing with the convicted or adjudicated person is appropriate and that parent is able to protect the child in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person, and (B) the convicted or adjudicated person has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes such contact is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child; or

(ii) If the child was the victim of the sex offense committed by the person who is residing with the parent requesting residential time, (A) contact between the child and the parent in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, (B) if the child is in or has been in therapy for victims of sexual abuse, the child's counselor believes such contact between the child and the parent residing with the convicted or adjudicated person in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person is in the child's best interest, and (C) the convicted or adjudicated person has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes contact between the parent and child in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child.

(h) If the court finds that the parent has met the burden of rebutting the presumption under (f) of this subsection, the court may allow a parent who has been convicted as an adult of a sex offense listed in (d)(i) through (ix) of this subsection to have residential time with the child supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such residential time. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the court finds, based on the evidence, that the supervisor is willing and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child.

(i) If the court finds that the parent has met the burden of rebutting the presumption under (g) of this subsection, the court may allow a parent residing with a person who has been adjudicated as a juvenile of a sex offense listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection to have residential time with the child in the presence of the person adjudicated as a juvenile, supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such residential time. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the court finds, based on the evidence, that the supervisor is willing and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child.

(j) If the court finds that the parent has met the burden of rebutting the presumption under (g) of this subsection, the court may allow a parent residing with a person who, as an adult, has been convicted of a sex offense listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection to have residential time with the child in the presence of the convicted person supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such residential time. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the court finds, based on the evidence, that the supervisor is willing and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child.

(k) A court shall not order unsupervised contact between the offending parent and a child of the offending parent who was sexually abused by that parent. A court may order unsupervised contact between the offending parent and a child who was not sexually abused by the parent after the presumption under (d) of this subsection has been rebutted and supervised residential time has occurred for at least two years with no further arrests or convictions of sex offenses involving children under chapter 9A.44 RCW, RCW 9A.64.020, or chapter 9.68A RCW and (i) the sex offense of the offending parent was not committed against a child of the offending parent, and (ii) the court finds that unsupervised contact between the child and the offending parent is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, after consideration of the testimony of a state-certified therapist, mental health counselor, or social worker with expertise in treating child sexual abuse victims who has supervised at least one period of residential time between the parent and the child, and after consideration of evidence of the offending parent's compliance with community supervision requirements, if any. If the offending parent was not ordered by a court to participate in treatment for sex offenders, then the parent shall obtain a psychosexual evaluation conducted by a certified sex offender treatment provider or a certified affiliate sex offender treatment provider indicating that the offender has the lowest likelihood of risk to reoffend before the court grants unsupervised contact between the parent and a child.

(l) A court may order unsupervised contact between the parent and a child which may occur in the presence of a juvenile adjudicated of a sex offense listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection who resides with the parent after the presumption under (e) of this subsection has been rebutted and supervised residential time has occurred for at least two years during which time the adjudicated juvenile has had no further arrests, adjudications, or convictions of sex offenses involving children under chapter 9A.44 RCW, RCW 9A.64.020, or chapter 9.68A RCW, and (i) the court finds that unsupervised contact between the child and the parent that may occur in the presence of the adjudicated juvenile is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, after consideration of the testimony of a state-certified therapist, mental health counselor, or social worker with expertise in treatment of child sexual abuse victims who has supervised at least one period of residential time between the parent and the child in the presence of the adjudicated juvenile, and after consideration of evidence of the adjudicated juvenile's compliance with community supervision or parole requirements, if any. If the adjudicated juvenile was not ordered by a court to participate in treatment for sex offenders, then the adjudicated juvenile shall obtain a psychosexual evaluation conducted by a certified sex offender treatment provider or a certified affiliate sex offender treatment provider indicating that the adjudicated juvenile has the lowest likelihood of risk to reoffend before the court grants unsupervised contact between the parent and a child which may occur in the presence of the adjudicated juvenile who is residing with the parent.

(m)(i) The limitations imposed by the court under (a) or (b) of this subsection shall be reasonably calculated to protect the child from the physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or harm that could result if the child has contact with the parent requesting residential time. The limitations shall also be reasonably calculated to provide for the safety of the parent who may be at risk of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or harm that could result if the parent has contact with the parent requesting residential time. The limitations the court may impose include, but are not limited to: Supervised contact between the child and the parent or completion of relevant counseling or treatment. If the court expressly finds based on the evidence that limitations on the residential time with the child will not adequately protect the child from the harm or abuse that could result if the child has contact with the parent requesting residential time, the court shall restrain the parent requesting residential time from all contact with the child.

(ii) The court shall not enter an order under (a) of this subsection allowing a parent to have contact with a child if the parent has been found by clear and convincing evidence in a civil action or by a preponderance of the evidence in a dependency action to have sexually abused the child, except upon recommendation by an evaluator or therapist for the child that the child is ready for contact with the parent and will not be harmed by the contact. The court shall not enter an order allowing a parent to have contact with the child in the offender's presence if the parent resides with a person who has been found by clear and convincing evidence in a civil action or by a preponderance of the evidence in a dependency action to have sexually abused a child, unless the court finds that the parent accepts that the person engaged in the harmful conduct and the parent is willing to and capable of protecting the child from harm from the person.

(iii) The court shall not enter an order under (a) of this subsection allowing a parent to have contact with a child if the parent has been found by clear and convincing evidence pursuant to RCW 26.26.0001 to have committed sexual assault, as defined in RCW 26.26.0001, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days of the sexual assault.

(iv) If the court limits residential time under (a) or (b) of this subsection to require supervised contact between the child and the parent, the court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between a child and a parent who has engaged in physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of the child unless the court finds based upon the evidence that the supervisor accepts that the harmful conduct occurred and is willing to and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing to or capable of protecting the child.

(n) If the court expressly finds based on the evidence that contact between the parent and the child will not cause physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or harm to the child and that the probability that the parent's or other person's harmful or abusive conduct will recur is so remote that it would not be in the child's best interests to apply the limitations of (a), (b), and (m)(i) and (iv) of this subsection, or if the court expressly finds that the parent's conduct did not have an impact on the child, then the court need not apply the limitations of (a), (b), and (m)(i) and (iv) of this subsection. The weight given to the existence of a protection order issued under chapter 26.50 RCW as to domestic violence is within the discretion of the court. This subsection shall not apply when (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), (l), and (m)(ii) of this subsection apply.

(3) A parent's involvement or conduct may have an adverse effect on the child's best interests, and the court may preclude or limit any provisions of the parenting plan, if any of the following factors exist:

(a) A parent's neglect or substantial nonperformance of parenting functions;

(b) A long-term emotional or physical impairment which interferes with the parent's performance of parenting functions as defined in RCW 26.09.004;

(c) A long-term impairment resulting from drug, alcohol, or other substance abuse that interferes with the performance of parenting functions;

(d) The absence or substantial impairment of emotional ties between the parent and the child;

(e) The abusive use of conflict by the parent which creates the danger of serious damage to the child's psychological development;

(f) A parent has withheld from the other parent access to the child for a protracted period without good cause; or

(g) Such other factors or conduct as the court expressly finds adverse to the best interests of the child.

(4) In cases involving allegations of limiting factors under subsection (2)(a)(ii) and (iii) of this section, both parties shall be screened to determine the appropriateness of a comprehensive assessment regarding the impact of the limiting factor on the child and the parties.

(5) In entering a permanent parenting plan, the court shall not draw any presumptions from the provisions of the temporary parenting plan.

(6) In determining whether any of the conduct described in this section has occurred, the court shall apply the civil rules of evidence, proof, and procedure.

(7) For the purposes of this section:

(a) “A parent's child” means that parent's natural child, adopted child, or stepchild; and

(b) “Social worker” means a person with a master's or further advanced degree from a social work educational program accredited and approved as provided in RCW 18.320.010.

26.09.194. Proposed temporary parenting plan -- Temporary order -- Amendment -- Vacation of order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A parent seeking a temporary order relating to parenting shall file and serve a proposed temporary parenting plan by motion. The other parent, if contesting the proposed temporary parenting plan, shall file and serve a responsive proposed parenting plan. Either parent may move to have a proposed temporary parenting plan entered as part of a temporary order. The parents may enter an agreed temporary parenting plan at any time as part of a temporary order. The proposed temporary parenting plan may be supported by relevant evidence and shall be accompanied by an affidavit or declaration which shall state at a minimum the following:

(a) The name, address, and length of residence with the person or persons with whom the child has lived for the preceding twelve months;

(b) The performance by each parent during the last twelve months of the parenting functions relating to the daily needs of the child;

(c) The parents' work and child-care schedules for the preceding twelve months;

(d) The parents' current work and child-care schedules; and

(e) Any of the circumstances set forth in RCW 26.09.191 that are likely to pose a serious risk to the child and that warrant limitation on the award to a parent of temporary residence or time with the child pending entry of a permanent parenting plan.

(2) At the hearing, the court shall enter a temporary parenting order incorporating a temporary parenting plan which includes:

(a) A schedule for the child's time with each parent when appropriate;

(b) Designation of a temporary residence for the child;

(c) Allocation of decision-making authority, if any. Absent allocation of decision-making authority consistent with RCW 26.09.187(2), neither party shall make any decision for the child other than those relating to day-to-day or emergency care of the child, which shall be made by the party who is present with the child;

(d) Provisions for temporary support for the child; and

(e) Restraining orders, if applicable, under RCW 26.09.060.

(3) A parent may make a motion for an order to show cause and the court may enter a temporary order, including a temporary parenting plan, upon a showing of necessity.

(4) A parent may move for amendment of a temporary parenting plan, and the court may order amendment to the temporary parenting plan, if the amendment conforms to the limitations of RCW 26.09.191 and is in the best interest of the child.

(5) If a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or dissolution of domestic partnership, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity is dismissed, any temporary order or temporary parenting plan is vacated.

26.09.197. Issuance of temporary parenting plan -- Criteria

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

After considering the affidavit required by RCW 26.09.194(1) and other relevant evidence presented, the court shall make a temporary parenting plan that is in the best interest of the child. In making this determination, the court shall give particular consideration to:

(1) The relative strength, nature, and stability of the child's relationship with each parent; and

(2) Which parenting arrangements will cause the least disruption to the child's emotional stability while the action is pending.

The court shall also consider the factors used to determine residential provisions in the permanent parenting plan.

26.09.210. Parenting plans -- Interview with child by court -- Advice of professional personnel

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may interview the child in chambers to ascertain the child's wishes as to the child's residential schedule in a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or domestic partnership, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity. The court may permit counsel to be present at the interview. The court shall cause a record of the interview to be made and to be made part of the record in the case.

The court may seek the advice of professional personnel whether or not they are employed on a regular basis by the court. The advice given shall be in writing and shall be made available by the court to counsel upon request. Counsel may call for cross-examination any professional personnel consulted by the court.

26.09.225. Access to child's education and health care records

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Each parent shall have full and equal access to the education and health care records of the child absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto the access requested by the other parent.

(2) Educational records are limited to academic, attendance, and disciplinary records of public and private schools in all grades kindergarten through twelve and any form of alternative school for all periods for which child support is paid or the child is the dependent in fact of the parent requesting access to the records.

(3) Educational records of postsecondary educational institutions are limited to enrollment and academic records necessary to determine, establish, or continue support ordered pursuant to RCW 26.19.090.

26.09.255. Remedies when a child is taken, enticed, or concealed

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A relative may bring civil action against any other relative if, with intent to deny access to a child by that relative of the child who has a right to physical custody of or visitation with the child or a parent with whom the child resides pursuant to a parenting plan order, the relative takes, entices, or conceals the child from that relative. The plaintiff may be awarded, in addition to any damages awarded by the court, the reasonable expenses incurred by the plaintiff in locating the child, including, but not limited to, investigative services and reasonable attorneys' fees.

(2) "Relative" means an ancestor, descendant, or sibling including a relative of the same degree through marriage, domestic partnership, or adoption, or a spouse or domestic partner.

26.09.260. Modification of parenting plan or custody decree

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (4), (5), (6), (8), and (10) of this section, the court shall not modify a prior custody decree or a parenting plan unless it finds, upon the basis of facts that have arisen since the prior decree or plan or that were unknown to the court at the time of the prior decree or plan, that a substantial change has occurred in the circumstances of the child or the nonmoving party and that the modification is in the best interest of the child and is necessary to serve the best interests of the child. The effect of a parent's military duties potentially impacting parenting functions shall not, by itself, be a substantial change of circumstances justifying a permanent modification of a prior decree or plan.

(2) In applying these standards, the court shall retain the residential schedule established by the decree or parenting plan unless:

(a) The parents agree to the modification;

(b) The child has been integrated into the family of the petitioner with the consent of the other parent in substantial deviation from the parenting plan;

(c) The child's present environment is detrimental to the child's physical, mental, or emotional health and the harm likely to be caused by a change of environment is outweighed by the advantage of a change to the child; or

(d) The court has found the nonmoving parent in contempt of court at least twice within three years because the parent failed to comply with the residential time provisions in the court-ordered parenting plan, or the parent has been convicted of custodial interference in the first or second degree under RCW 9A.40.060 or 9A.40.070.

(3) A conviction of custodial interference in the first or second degree under RCW 9A.40.060 or 9A.40.070 shall constitute a substantial change of circumstances for the purposes of this section.

(4) The court may reduce or restrict contact between the child and the parent with whom the child does not reside a majority of the time if it finds that the reduction or restriction would serve and protect the best interests of the child using the criteria in RCW 26.09.191.

(5) The court may order adjustments to the residential aspects of a parenting plan upon a showing of a substantial change in circumstances of either parent or of the child, and without consideration of the factors set forth in subsection (2) of this section, if the proposed modification is only a minor modification in the residential schedule that does not change the residence the child is scheduled to reside in the majority of the time and:

(a) Does not exceed twenty-four full days in a calendar year; or

(b) Is based on a change of residence of the parent with whom the child does not reside the majority of the time or an involuntary change in work schedule by a parent which makes the residential schedule in the parenting plan impractical to follow; or

(c) Does not result in a schedule that exceeds ninety overnights per year in total, if the court finds that, at the time the petition for modification is filed, the decree of dissolution or parenting plan does not provide reasonable time with the parent with whom the child does not reside a majority of the time, and further, the court finds that it is in the best interests of the child to increase residential time with the parent in excess of the residential time period in (a) of this subsection. However, any motion under this subsection (5)(c) is subject to the factors established in subsection (2) of this section if the party bringing the petition has previously been granted a modification under this same subsection within twenty-four months of the current motion. Relief granted under this section shall not be the sole basis for adjusting or modifying child support.

(6) The court may order adjustments to the residential aspects of a parenting plan pursuant to a proceeding to permit or restrain a relocation of the child. The person objecting to the relocation of the child or the relocating person's proposed revised residential schedule may file a petition to modify the parenting plan, including a change of the residence in which the child resides the majority of the time, without a showing of adequate cause other than the proposed relocation itself. A hearing to determine adequate cause for modification shall not be required so long as the request for relocation of the child is being pursued. In making a determination of a modification pursuant to relocation of the child, the court shall first determine whether to permit or restrain the relocation of the child using the procedures and standards provided in RCW 26.09.405 through 26.09.560. Following that determination, the court shall determine what modification pursuant to relocation should be made, if any, to the parenting plan or custody order or visitation order.

(7) A parent with whom the child does not reside a majority of the time and whose residential time with the child is subject to limitations pursuant to RCW 26.09.191 (2) or (3) may not seek expansion of residential time under subsection (5)(c) of this section unless that parent demonstrates a substantial change in circumstances specifically related to the basis for the limitation.

(8)(a) If a parent with whom the child does not reside a majority of the time voluntarily fails to exercise residential time for an extended period, that is, one year or longer, the court upon proper motion may make adjustments to the parenting plan in keeping with the best interests of the minor child.

(b) For the purposes of determining whether the parent has failed to exercise residential time for one year or longer, the court may not count any time periods during which the parent did not exercise residential time due to the effect of the parent's military duties potentially impacting parenting functions.

(9) A parent with whom the child does not reside a majority of the time who is required by the existing parenting plan to complete evaluations, treatment, parenting, or other classes may not seek expansion of residential time under subsection (5)(c) of this section unless that parent has fully complied with such requirements.

(10) The court may order adjustments to any of the nonresidential aspects of a parenting plan upon a showing of a substantial change of circumstances of either parent or of a child, and the adjustment is in the best interest of the child. Adjustments ordered under this section may be made without consideration of the factors set forth in subsection (2) of this section.

(11) If the parent with whom the child resides a majority of the time receives temporary duty, deployment, activation, or mobilization orders from the military that involve moving a substantial distance away from the parent's residence or otherwise would have a material effect on the parent's ability to exercise parenting functions and primary placement responsibilities, then:

(a) Any temporary custody order for the child during the parent's absence shall end no later than ten days after the returning parent provides notice to the temporary custodian, but shall not impair the discretion of the court to conduct an expedited or emergency hearing for resolution of the child's residential placement upon return of the parent and within ten days of the filing of a motion alleging an immediate danger of irreparable harm to the child. If a motion alleging immediate danger has not been filed, the motion for an order restoring the previous residential schedule shall be granted; and

(b) The temporary duty, activation, mobilization, or deployment and the temporary disruption to the child's schedule shall not be a factor in a determination of change of circumstances if a motion is filed to transfer residential placement from the parent who is a military service member.

(12) If a parent receives military temporary duty, deployment, activation, or mobilization orders that involve moving a substantial distance away from the military parent's residence or otherwise have a material effect on the military parent's ability to exercise residential time or visitation rights, at the request of the military parent, the court may delegate the military parent's residential time or visitation rights, or a portion thereof, to a child's family member, including a stepparent, or another person other than a parent, with a close and substantial relationship to the minor child for the duration of the military parent's absence, if delegating residential time or visitation rights is in the child's best interest. The court may not permit the delegation of residential time or visitation rights to a person who would be subject to limitations on residential time under RCW 26.09.191. The parties shall attempt to resolve disputes regarding delegation of residential time or visitation rights through the dispute resolution process specified in their parenting plan, unless excused by the court for good cause shown. Such a court-ordered temporary delegation of a military parent's residential time or visitation rights does not create separate rights to residential time or visitation for a person other than a parent.

(13) If the court finds that a motion to modify a prior decree or parenting plan has been brought in bad faith, the court shall assess the attorney's fees and court costs of the nonmoving parent against the moving party.

26.09.270. Child custody -- Temporary custody order, temporary parenting plan, or modification of custody decree -- Affidavits required

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A party seeking a temporary custody order or a temporary parenting plan or modification of a custody decree or parenting plan shall submit together with his or her motion, an affidavit setting forth facts supporting the requested order or modification and shall give notice, together with a copy of his or her affidavit, to other parties to the proceedings, who may file opposing affidavits. The court shall deny the motion unless it finds that adequate cause for hearing the motion is established by the affidavits, in which case it shall set a date for hearing on an order to show cause why the requested order or modification should not be granted.

26.09.280. Parenting plan or child support modification or enforcement -- Venue

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Every action or proceeding to change, modify, or enforce any final order, judgment, or decree entered in any dissolution or legal separation or declaration concerning the validity of a marriage or domestic partnership, whether under this chapter or prior law, regarding the parenting plan or child support for the minor children of the marriage or the domestic partnership may be brought in the county where the minor children are then residing, or in the court in which the final order, judgment, or decree was entered, or in the county where the parent or other person who has the care, custody, or control of the children is then residing.

26.09.430. Notice requirement

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Except as provided in RCW 26.09.460, a person with whom the child resides a majority of the time shall notify every other person entitled to residential time or visitation with the child under a court order if the person intends to relocate. Notice shall be given as prescribed in RCW 26.09.440 and 26.09.450.

26.09.440. Notice--Contents and delivery

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as provided in RCW 26.09.450 and 26.09.460, the notice of an intended relocation of the child must be given by:

(a) Personal service or any form of mail requiring a return receipt; and

(b) No less than:

(i) Sixty days before the date of the intended relocation of the child; or

(ii) No more than five days after the date that the person knows the information required to be furnished under subsection (2) of this section, if the person did not know and could not reasonably have known the information in sufficient time to provide the sixty-days' notice, and it is not reasonable to delay the relocation.

(2)(a) The notice of intended relocation of the child must include: (i) An address at which service of process may be accomplished during the period for objection; (ii) a brief statement of the specific reasons for the intended relocation of the child; and (iii) a notice to the nonrelocating person that an objection to the intended relocation of the child or to the relocating person's proposed revised residential schedule must be filed with the court and served on the opposing person within thirty days or the relocation of the child will be permitted and the residential schedule may be modified pursuant to RCW 26.09.500. The notice shall not be deemed to be in substantial compliance for purposes of RCW 26.09.470 unless the notice contains the following statement: “THE RELOCATION OF THE CHILD WILL BE PERMITTED AND THE PROPOSED REVISED RESIDENTIAL SCHEDULE MAY BE CONFIRMED UNLESS, WITHIN THIRTY DAYS, YOU FILE A PETITION AND MOTION WITH THE COURT TO BLOCK THE RELOCATION OR OBJECT TO THE PROPOSED REVISED RESIDENTIAL SCHEDULE AND SERVE THE PETITION AND MOTION ON THE PERSON PROPOSING RELOCATION AND ALL OTHER PERSONS ENTITLED BY COURT ORDER TO RESIDENTIAL TIME OR VISITATION WITH THE CHILD.”

(b) Except as provided in RCW 26.09.450 and 26.09.460, the following information shall also be included in every notice of intended relocation of the child, if available:

(i) The specific street address of the intended new residence, if known, or as much of the intended address as is known, such as city and state;

(ii) The new mailing address, if different from the intended new residence address;

(iii) The new home telephone number;

(iv) The name and address of the child's new school and day care facility, if applicable;

(v) The date of the intended relocation of the child; and

(vi) A proposal in the form of a proposed parenting plan for a revised schedule of residential time or visitation with the child, if any.

(3) A person required to give notice of an intended relocation of the child has a continuing duty to promptly update the information required with the notice as that new information becomes known.

26.09.450. Notice--Relocation within the same school district

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) When the intended relocation of the child is within the school district in which the child currently resides the majority of the time, the person intending to relocate the child, in lieu of notice prescribed in RCW 26.09.440, may provide actual notice by any reasonable means to every other person entitled to residential time or visitation with the child under a court order.

(2) A person who is entitled to residential time or visitation with the child under a court order may not object to the intended relocation of the child within the school district in which the child currently resides the majority of the time, but he or she retains the right to move for modification under RCW 26.09.260.

26.09.460. Limitation of notices

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) If a person intending to relocate the child is entering a domestic violence shelter due to the danger imposed by another person, notice may be delayed for twenty-one days. This section shall not be construed to compel the disclosure by any domestic violence shelter of information protected by confidentiality except as provided by RCW 70.123.075 or equivalent laws of the state in which the shelter is located.

(2) If a person intending to relocate the child is a participant in the address confidentiality program pursuant to chapter 40.24 RCW or has a court order which permits the party to withhold some or all of the information required by RCW 26.09.440(2)(b), the confidential or protected information is not required to be given with the notice.

(3) If a person intending to relocate the child is relocating to avoid a clear, immediate, and unreasonable risk to the health or safety of a person or the child, notice may be delayed for twenty-one days.

(4) A person intending to relocate the child who believes that his or her health or safety or the health or safety of the child would be unreasonably put at risk by notice or disclosure of certain information in the notice may request an ex parte hearing with the court to have all or part of the notice requirements waived. If the court finds that the health or safety of a person or a child would be unreasonably put at risk by notice or the disclosure of certain information in the notice, the court may:

(a) Order that the notice requirements be less than complete or waived to the extent necessary to protect confidentiality or the health or safety of a person or child; or

(b) Provide such other relief as the court finds necessary to facilitate the legitimate needs of the parties and the best interests of the child under the circumstances.

(5) This section does not deprive a person entitled to residential time or visitation with a child under a court order the opportunity to object to the intended relocation of the child or the proposed revised residential schedule before the relocation occurs.

26.09.470. Failure to give notice

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The failure to provide the required notice is grounds for sanctions, including contempt if applicable.

(2) In determining whether a person has failed to comply with the notice requirements for the purposes of this section, the court may consider whether:

(a) The person has substantially complied with the notice requirements;

(b) The court order in effect at the time of the relocation was issued prior to June 8, 2000, and the person substantially complied with the notice requirements, if any, in the existing order;

(c) A waiver of notice was granted;

(d) A person entitled to receive notice was substantially harmed; and

(e) Any other factor the court deems relevant.

(3) A person entitled to file an objection to the intended relocation of the child may file such objection whether or not the person has received proper notice.

26.09.480. Objection to relocation or proposed revised residential schedule

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A party objecting to the intended relocation of the child or the relocating parent's proposed revised residential schedule shall do so by filing the objection with the court and serving the objection on the relocating party and all other persons entitled by court order to residential time or visitation with the child by means of personal service or mailing by any form of mail requiring a return receipt to the relocating party at the address designated for service on the notice of intended relocation and to other parties requiring notice at their mailing address. The objection must be filed and served, including a three-day waiting period if the objection is served by mail, within thirty days of receipt of the notice of intended relocation of the child. The objection shall be in the form of: (a) A petition for modification of the parenting plan pursuant to relocation; or (b) other court proceeding adequate to provide grounds for relief.

(2) Unless the special circumstances described in RCW 26.09.460 apply, the person intending to relocate the child shall not, without a court order, change the principal residence of the child during the period in which a party may object. The order required under this subsection may be obtained ex parte. If the objecting party notes a court hearing to prevent the relocation of the child for a date not more than fifteen days following timely service of an objection to relocation, the party intending to relocate the child shall not change the principal residence of the child pending the hearing unless the special circumstances described in RCW 26.09.460(3) apply.

(3) The administrator for the courts shall develop a standard form, separate from existing dissolution or modification forms, for use in filing an objection to relocation of the child or objection of the relocating person's proposed revised residential schedule.

26.09.500. Failure to object

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except for good cause shown, if a person entitled to object to the relocation of the child does not file an objection with the court within thirty days after receipt of the relocation notice, then the relocation of the child shall be permitted.

(2) A nonobjecting person shall be entitled to the residential time or visitation with the child specified in the proposed residential schedule included with the relocation notice.

(3) Any person entitled to residential time or visitation with a child under a court order retains his or her right to move for modification under RCW 26.09.260.

(4) If a person entitled to object to the relocation of the child does not file an objection with the court within thirty days after receipt of the relocation notice, a person entitled to residential time with the child may not be held in contempt of court for any act or omission that is in compliance with the proposed revised residential schedule set forth in the notice given.

(5) Any party entitled to residential time or visitation with the child under a court order may, after thirty days have elapsed since the receipt of the notice, obtain ex parte and file with the court an order modifying the residential schedule in conformity with the relocating party's proposed residential schedule specified in the notice upon filing a copy of the notice and proof of service of such notice. A party may obtain ex parte and file with the court an order modifying the residential schedule in conformity with the proposed residential schedule specified in the notice before the thirty days have elapsed if the party files a copy of the notice, proof of service of such notice, and proof that no objection will be filed.

Chapter 26.10 Non Parental Actions for Child Custody

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.10.010. Intent

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

It is the intent of the legislature to reenact and continue the law relating to third-party actions involving custody of minor children in order to distinguish that body of law from the 11987 parenting act amendments to chapter 26.09 RCW, which previously contained these provisions.

26.10.015. Mandatory use of approved forms

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Effective January 1, 1992, a party shall not file any pleading with the clerk of the court in an action commenced under this chapter unless on forms approved by the administrator for the courts.

(2) The parties shall comply with requirements for submission to the court of forms as provided in RCW 26.18.220.

26.10.030. Child custody proceeding -- Commencement -- Notice -- Intervention

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as authorized for proceedings brought under chapter 13.34 RCW, or chapter 26.50 RCW in district or municipal courts, a child custody proceeding is commenced in the superior court by a person other than a parent, by filing a petition seeking custody of the child in the county where the child is permanently resident or where the child is found, but only if the child is not in the physical custody of one of its parents or if the petitioner alleges that neither parent is a suitable custodian. In proceedings in which the juvenile court has not exercised concurrent jurisdiction and prior to a child custody hearing, the court shall determine if the child is the subject of a pending dependency action.

(2) Notice of a child custody proceeding shall be given to the child's parent, guardian and custodian, who may appear and be heard and may file a responsive pleading. The court may, upon a showing of good cause, permit the intervention of other interested parties.

(3) The petitioner shall include in the petition the names of any adult members of the petitioner's household.

26.10.032. Child custody motion -- Affidavit required -- Notice -- Denial of motion -- Show cause hearing

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A party seeking a custody order shall submit, along with his or her motion, an affidavit declaring that the child is not in the physical custody of one of its parents or that neither parent is a suitable custodian and setting forth facts supporting the requested order. The party seeking custody shall give notice, along with a copy of the affidavit, to other parties to the proceedings, who may file opposing affidavits.

(2) The court shall deny the motion unless it finds that adequate cause for hearing the motion is established by the affidavits, in which case it shall set a date for hearing on an order to show cause why the requested order should not be granted.

26.10.034. Child custody petitions, orders, and decrees--Application of Indian child welfare act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Every petition filed in proceedings under this chapter shall contain a statement alleging whether the child is or may be an Indian child as defined in section 4 of this act. If the child is an Indian child, chapter 13.--RCW (the new chapter created in section 35 of this act) shall apply.

(2) Every order or decree entered in any proceeding under this chapter shall contain a finding that the federal Indian child welfare act or chapter 13.--RCW (the new chapter created in section 35 of this act) does or does not apply. Where there is a finding that the federal Indian child welfare act or chapter 13.--RCW (the new chapter created in section 35 of this act) does apply, the decree or order must also contain a finding that all notice and evidentiary requirements under the federal Indian child welfare act and chapter 13.--RCW (the new chapter created in section 35 of this act) have been satisfied.

26.10.040. Provisions for child support, custody, and visitation -- Federal tax exemption -- Continuing restraining orders -- Domestic violence or antiharassment protection orders -- Notice of modification or termination of restraining order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In entering an order under this chapter, the court shall consider, approve, or make provision for:

(a) Child custody, visitation, and the support of any child entitled to support;

(b) The allocation of the children as a federal tax exemption;

(c) Any necessary continuing restraining orders, including the provisions contained in RCW 9.41.800;

(d) A domestic violence protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW or an antiharassment protection order under chapter 10.14 RCW. The court may grant any of the relief provided in RCW 26.50.060 except relief pertaining to residential provisions for the children which provisions shall be provided for under this chapter, and any of the relief provided in RCW 10.14.080;

(e) Restraining orders issued under this section restraining or enjoining the person from molesting or disturbing another party, or from going onto the grounds of or entering the home, workplace, or school of the other party or the day care or school of any child, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, shall prominently bear on the front page of the order the legend: VIOLATION OF THIS ORDER WITH ACTUAL NOTICE OF ITS TERMS IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE UNDER CHAPTER 26.50 RCW AND WILL SUBJECT A VIOLATOR TO ARREST.

(2) The court shall order that any restraining order bearing a criminal offense legend, any domestic violence protection order, or any antiharassment protection order granted under this section, in addition to the law enforcement information sheet or proof of service of the order, be forwarded by the clerk of the court on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall enter the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. The order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(3) If a restraining order issued pursuant to this section is modified or terminated, the clerk of the court shall notify the law enforcement agency specified in the order on or before the next judicial day. Upon receipt of notice that an order has been terminated, the law enforcement agency shall remove the order from any computer-based criminal intelligence system.

26.10.045. Child support schedule

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A determination of child support shall be based upon the child support schedule and standards adopted under 1RCW 26.19.040.

26.10.050. Child support by parents--Apportionment of expense

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

In a custody proceeding, the court may order either or both parents owing a duty of support to any child of the marriage or the domestic partnership dependent upon either or both spouses or either or both domestic partners to pay an amount reasonable or necessary for the child's support.

26.10.070. Minor or dependent child -- Court appointed attorney to represent -- Payment of costs, fees, and disbursements

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may appoint an attorney to represent the interests of a minor or dependent child with respect to custody, support, and visitation. The court shall enter an order for costs, fees, and disbursements in favor of the child's attorney. The order shall be made against any or all parties, except that, if all parties are indigent, the costs, fees, and disbursements shall be borne by the county.

26.10.080. Payment of costs, attorney's fees, etc

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court from time to time, after considering the financial resources of all parties, may order a party to pay a reasonable amount for the cost to the other party of maintaining or defending any proceeding under this chapter and for reasonable attorney's fees or other professional fees in connection therewith, including sums for legal services rendered and costs incurred prior to the commencement of the proceeding or enforcement or modification proceedings after entry of judgment.

Upon any appeal, the appellate court may, in its discretion, order a party to pay for the cost to the other party of maintaining the appeal and attorney's fees in addition to statutory costs.

The court may order that the attorney's fees be paid directly to the attorney who may enforce the order in his or her name.

26.10.090. Failure to comply with decree or temporary injunction -- Obligation to make support payments or permit visitation not suspended -- Motion

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

If a party fails to comply with a provision of an order or temporary order of injunction, the obligation of the other party to make payments for support or to permit visitation is not suspended, but the party may move the court to grant an appropriate order.

26.10.100. Determination of custody -- Child's best interests

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court shall determine custody in accordance with the best interests of the child.

26.10.110. Temporary custody order -- Vacation of order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A party to a custody proceeding may move for a temporary custody order. The motion must be supported by an affidavit as provided in RCW 26.10.200. The court may award temporary custody after a hearing, or, if there is no objection, solely on the basis of the affidavits.

If a custody proceeding commenced under this chapter is dismissed, any temporary order is vacated.

26.10.115. Temporary orders--Support--Restraining orders--Domestic violence or antiharassment protection orders--Notice of modification or termination of restraining order--Preservation of support debt

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In a proceeding under this chapter either party may file a motion for temporary support of children entitled to support. The motion shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting forth the factual basis for the motion and the amount requested.

(2) In a proceeding under this chapter either party may file a motion for a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction, providing relief proper in the circumstances, and restraining or enjoining any person from:

(a) Molesting or disturbing the peace of the other party or of any child;

(b) Entering the family home or the home of the other party upon a showing of the necessity therefor;

(c) Knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location; and

(d) Removing a child from the jurisdiction of the court.

(3) Either party may request a domestic violence protection order under chapter 26.50 RCW or an antiharassment protection order under chapter 10.14 RCW on a temporary basis. The court may grant any of the relief provided in RCW 26.50.060 except relief pertaining to residential provisions for the children which provisions shall be provided for under this chapter, and any of the relief provided in RCW 10.14.080. Ex parte orders issued under this subsection shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days, or upon court order, not to exceed twenty-four days if necessary to ensure that all temporary motions in the case can be heard at the same time.

(4) In issuing the order, the court shall consider the provisions of RCW 9.41.800.

(5) The court may issue a temporary restraining order without requiring notice to the other party only if it finds on the basis of the moving affidavit or other evidence that irreparable injury could result if an order is not issued until the time for responding has elapsed.

(6) The court may issue a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction and an order for temporary support in such amounts and on such terms as are just and proper in the circumstances.

(7) Restraining orders issued under this section restraining or enjoining the person from molesting or disturbing another party, or from going onto the grounds of or entering the home, workplace, or school of the other party or the day care or school of any child, or prohibiting the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, shall prominently bear on the front page of the order the legend: VIOLATION OF THIS ORDER WITH ACTUAL NOTICE OF ITS TERMS IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE UNDER CHAPTER 26.50 RCW AND WILL SUBJECT A VIOLATOR TO ARREST.

(8) The court shall order that any temporary restraining order bearing a criminal offense legend, any domestic violence protection order, or any antiharassment protection order granted under this section be forwarded by the clerk of the court on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall enter the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. Entry into the computer-based criminal intelligence information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the order. The order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(9) If a restraining order issued pursuant to this section is modified or terminated, the clerk of the court shall notify the law enforcement agency specified in the order on or before the next judicial day. Upon receipt of notice that an order has been terminated, the law enforcement agency shall remove the order from any computer-based criminal intelligence system.

(10) A temporary order, temporary restraining order, or preliminary injunction:

(a) Does not prejudice the rights of a party or any child which are to be adjudicated at subsequent hearings in the proceeding;

(b) May be revoked or modified;

(c) Terminates when the final order is entered or when the motion is dismissed;

(d) May be entered in a proceeding for the modification of an existing order.

(11) A support debt owed to the state for public assistance expenditures which has been charged against a party pursuant to RCW 74.20A.040 and/or 74.20A.055 shall not be merged in, or otherwise extinguished by, the final decree or order, unless the office of support enforcement has been given notice of the final proceeding and an opportunity to present its claim for the support debt to the court and has failed to file an affidavit as provided in this subsection. Notice of the proceeding shall be served upon the office of support enforcement personally, or by certified mail, and shall be given no fewer than thirty days prior to the date of the final proceeding. An original copy of the notice shall be filed with the court either before service or within a reasonable time thereafter. The office of support enforcement may present its claim, and thereby preserve the support debt, by filing an affidavit setting forth the amount of the debt with the court, and by mailing a copy of the affidavit to the parties or their attorney prior to the date of the final proceeding.

26.10.120. Interview with child by court -- Advice of professional personnel

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may interview the child in chambers to ascertain the child's wishes as to his or her custodian and as to visitation privileges. The court may permit counsel to be present at the interview. The court shall cause a record of the interview to be made and to be made part of the record in the case.

The court may seek the advice of professional personnel whether or not they are employed on a regular basis by the court. The advice given shall be in writing and shall be made available by the court to counsel upon request. Counsel may call for cross-examination any professional personnel consulted by the court.

26.10.140. Hearing -- Record -- Expenses of witnesses

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Custody proceedings shall receive priority in being set for hearing.

A party may petition the court to authorize the payment of necessary travel and other expenses incurred by any witness whose presence at the hearing the court deems necessary to determine the best interests of the child.

The court without a jury shall determine questions of law and fact. If it finds that a public hearing may be detrimental to the child's best interests, the court may exclude the public from a custody hearing, but may admit any person who has a direct and legitimate interest in the work of the court.

If the court finds it necessary to protect the child's welfare that the record of any interview, report, investigation, or testimony in a custody proceeding be kept secret, the court may make an appropriate order sealing the record.

26.10.150. Access to child's education and medical records

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Each parent shall have full and equal access to the education and medical records of the child absent a court order to the contrary.

26.10.160. Visitation rights -- Limitations

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A parent not granted custody of the child is entitled to reasonable visitation rights except as provided in subsection (2) of this section.

(2)(a) Visitation with the child shall be limited if it is found that the parent seeking visitation has engaged in any of the following conduct: (i) Willful abandonment that continues for an extended period of time or substantial refusal to perform parenting functions; (ii) physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of a child; (iii) a history of acts of domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010(1) or an assault or sexual assault which causes grievous bodily harm or the fear of such harm; or (iv) the parent has been convicted as an adult of a sex offense under:

(A) RCW 9A.44.076 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(B) RCW 9A.44.079 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(C) RCW 9A.44.086 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(D) RCW 9A.44.089;

(E) RCW 9A.44.093;

(F) RCW 9A.44.096;

(G) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2) if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (d) of this subsection;

(H) Chapter 9.68A RCW;

(I) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (a)(iv)(A) through (H) of this subsection;

(J) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (a)(iv)(A) through (H) of this subsection.

This subsection (2)(a) shall not apply when (c) or (d) of this subsection applies.

(b) The parent's visitation with the child shall be limited if it is found that the parent resides with a person who has engaged in any of the following conduct: (i) Physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of a child; (ii) a history of acts of domestic violence as defined in RCW 26.50.010(1) or an assault or sexual assault that causes grievous bodily harm or the fear of such harm; or (iii) the person has been convicted as an adult or as a juvenile has been adjudicated of a sex offense under:

(A) RCW 9A.44.076 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(B) RCW 9A.44.079 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(C) RCW 9A.44.086 if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(D) RCW 9A.44.089;

(E) RCW 9A.44.093;

(F) RCW 9A.44.096;

(G) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2) if, because of the difference in age between the offender and the victim, no rebuttable presumption exists under (e) of this subsection;

(H) Chapter 9.68A RCW;

(I) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (b)(iii)(A) through (H) of this subsection;

(J) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (b)(iii)(A) through (H) of this subsection.

This subsection (2)(b) shall not apply when (c) or (e) of this subsection applies.

(c) If a parent has been found to be a sexual predator under chapter 71.09 RCW or under an analogous statute of any other jurisdiction, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with a child that would otherwise be allowed under this chapter. If a parent resides with an adult or a juvenile who has been found to be a sexual predator under chapter 71.09 RCW or under an analogous statute of any other jurisdiction, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with the parent's child except contact that occurs outside that person's presence.

(d) There is a rebuttable presumption that a parent who has been convicted as an adult of a sex offense listed in (d)(i) through (ix) of this subsection poses a present danger to a child. Unless the parent rebuts this presumption, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with a child that would otherwise be allowed under this chapter:

(i) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2), provided that the person convicted was at least five years older than the other person;

(ii) RCW 9A.44.073;

(iii) RCW 9A.44.076, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(iv) RCW 9A.44.079, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(v) RCW 9A.44.083;

(vi) RCW 9A.44.086, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(vii) RCW 9A.44.100;

(viii) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (d)(i) through (vii) of this subsection;

(ix) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (d)(i) through (vii) of this subsection.

(e) There is a rebuttable presumption that a parent who resides with a person who, as an adult, has been convicted, or as a juvenile has been adjudicated, of the sex offenses listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection places a child at risk of abuse or harm when that parent exercises visitation in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person. Unless the parent rebuts the presumption, the court shall restrain the parent from contact with the parent's child except for contact that occurs outside of the convicted or adjudicated person's presence:

(i) RCW 9A.64.020 (1) or (2), provided that the person convicted was at least five years older than the other person;

(ii) RCW 9A.44.073;

(iii) RCW 9A.44.076, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(iv) RCW 9A.44.079, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(v) RCW 9A.44.083;

(vi) RCW 9A.44.086, provided that the person convicted was at least eight years older than the victim;

(vii) RCW 9A.44.100;

(viii) Any predecessor or antecedent statute for the offenses listed in (e)(i) through (vii) of this subsection;

(ix) Any statute from any other jurisdiction that describes an offense analogous to the offenses listed in (e)(i) through (vii) of this subsection.

(f) The presumption established in (d) of this subsection may be rebutted only after a written finding that:

(i) If the child was not the victim of the sex offense committed by the parent requesting visitation, (A) contact between the child and the offending parent is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, and (B) the offending parent has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes such contact is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child; or

(ii) If the child was the victim of the sex offense committed by the parent requesting visitation, (A) contact between the child and the offending parent is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, (B) if the child is in or has been in therapy for victims of sexual abuse, the child's counselor believes such contact between the child and the offending parent is in the child's best interest, and (C) the offending parent has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes such contact is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child.

(g) The presumption established in (e) of this subsection may be rebutted only after a written finding that:

(i) If the child was not the victim of the sex offense committed by the person who is residing with the parent requesting visitation, (A) contact between the child and the parent residing with the convicted or adjudicated person is appropriate and that parent is able to protect the child in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person, and (B) the convicted or adjudicated person has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes such contact is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child; or

(ii) If the child was the victim of the sex offense committed by the person who is residing with the parent requesting visitation, (A) contact between the child and the parent in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, (B) if the child is in or has been in therapy for victims of sexual abuse, the child's counselor believes such contact between the child and the parent residing with the convicted or adjudicated person in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person is in the child's best interest, and (C) the convicted or adjudicated person has successfully engaged in treatment for sex offenders or is engaged in and making progress in such treatment, if any was ordered by a court, and the treatment provider believes contact between the parent and child in the presence of the convicted or adjudicated person is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child.

(h) If the court finds that the parent has met the burden of rebutting the presumption under (f) of this subsection, the court may allow a parent who has been convicted as an adult of a sex offense listed in (d)(i) through (ix) of this subsection to have visitation with the child supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such visitation. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the court finds, based on the evidence, that the supervisor is willing and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child.

(i) If the court finds that the parent has met the burden of rebutting the presumption under (g) of this subsection, the court may allow a parent residing with a person who has been adjudicated as a juvenile of a sex offense listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection to have visitation with the child in the presence of the person adjudicated as a juvenile, supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such visitation. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the court finds, based on the evidence, that the supervisor is willing and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child.

(j) If the court finds that the parent has met the burden of rebutting the presumption under (g) of this subsection, the court may allow a parent residing with a person who, as an adult, has been convicted of a sex offense listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection to have visitation with the child in the presence of the convicted person supervised by a neutral and independent adult and pursuant to an adequate plan for supervision of such visitation. The court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between the child and the parent unless the court finds, based on the evidence, that the supervisor is willing and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing or capable of protecting the child.

(k) A court shall not order unsupervised contact between the offending parent and a child of the offending parent who was sexually abused by that parent. A court may order unsupervised contact between the offending parent and a child who was not sexually abused by the parent after the presumption under (d) of this subsection has been rebutted and supervised visitation has occurred for at least two years with no further arrests or convictions of sex offenses involving children under chapter 9A.44 RCW, RCW 9A.64.020, or chapter 9.68A RCW and (i) the sex offense of the offending parent was not committed against a child of the offending parent, and (ii) the court finds that unsupervised contact between the child and the offending parent is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, after consideration of the testimony of a state-certified therapist, mental health counselor, or social worker with expertise in treating child sexual abuse victims who has supervised at least one period of visitation between the parent and the child, and after consideration of evidence of the offending parent's compliance with community supervision requirements, if any. If the offending parent was not ordered by a court to participate in treatment for sex offenders, then the parent shall obtain a psychosexual evaluation conducted by a certified sex offender treatment provider or a certified affiliate sex offender treatment provider indicating that the offender has the lowest likelihood of risk to reoffend before the court grants unsupervised contact between the parent and a child.

(l) A court may order unsupervised contact between the parent and a child which may occur in the presence of a juvenile adjudicated of a sex offense listed in (e)(i) through (ix) of this subsection who resides with the parent after the presumption under (e) of this subsection has been rebutted and supervised visitation has occurred for at least two years during which time the adjudicated juvenile has had no further arrests, adjudications, or convictions of sex offenses involving children under chapter 9A.44 RCW, RCW 9A.64.020, or chapter 9.68A RCW, and (i) the court finds that unsupervised contact between the child and the parent that may occur in the presence of the adjudicated juvenile is appropriate and poses minimal risk to the child, after consideration of the testimony of a state-certified therapist, mental health counselor, or social worker with expertise in treatment of child sexual abuse victims who has supervised at least one period of visitation between the parent and the child in the presence of the adjudicated juvenile, and after consideration of evidence of the adjudicated juvenile's compliance with community supervision or parole requirements, if any. If the adjudicated juvenile was not ordered by a court to participate in treatment for sex offenders, then the adjudicated juvenile shall obtain a psychosexual evaluation conducted by a certified sex offender treatment provider or a certified affiliate sex offender treatment provider indicating that the adjudicated juvenile has the lowest likelihood of risk to reoffend before the court grants unsupervised contact between the parent and a child which may occur in the presence of the adjudicated juvenile who is residing with the parent.

(m)(i) The limitations imposed by the court under (a) or (b) of this subsection shall be reasonably calculated to protect the child from the physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or harm that could result if the child has contact with the parent requesting visitation. If the court expressly finds based on the evidence that limitations on visitation with the child will not adequately protect the child from the harm or abuse that could result if the child has contact with the parent requesting visitation, the court shall restrain the person seeking visitation from all contact with the child.

(ii) The court shall not enter an order under (a) of this subsection allowing a parent to have contact with a child if the parent has been found by clear and convincing evidence in a civil action or by a preponderance of the evidence in a dependency action to have sexually abused the child, except upon recommendation by an evaluator or therapist for the child that the child is ready for contact with the parent and will not be harmed by the contact. The court shall not enter an order allowing a parent to have contact with the child in the offender's presence if the parent resides with a person who has been found by clear and convincing evidence in a civil action or by a preponderance of the evidence in a dependency action to have sexually abused a child, unless the court finds that the parent accepts that the person engaged in the harmful conduct and the parent is willing to and capable of protecting the child from harm from the person.

(iii) If the court limits visitation under (a) or (b) of this subsection to require supervised contact between the child and the parent, the court shall not approve of a supervisor for contact between a child and a parent who has engaged in physical, sexual, or a pattern of emotional abuse of the child unless the court finds based upon the evidence that the supervisor accepts that the harmful conduct occurred and is willing to and capable of protecting the child from harm. The court shall revoke court approval of the supervisor upon finding, based on the evidence, that the supervisor has failed to protect the child or is no longer willing to or capable of protecting the child.

(n) If the court expressly finds based on the evidence that contact between the parent and the child will not cause physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or harm to the child and that the probability that the parent's or other person's harmful or abusive conduct will recur is so remote that it would not be in the child's best interests to apply the limitations of (a), (b), and (m)(i) and (iii) of this subsection, or if the court expressly finds that the parent's conduct did not have an impact on the child, then the court need not apply the limitations of (a), (b), and (m)(i) and (iii) of this subsection. The weight given to the existence of a protection order issued under chapter 26.50 RCW as to domestic violence is within the discretion of the court. This subsection shall not apply when (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), (l), and (m)(ii) of this subsection apply.

(3) Any person may petition the court for visitation rights at any time including, but not limited to, custody proceedings. The court may order visitation rights for any person when visitation may serve the best interest of the child whether or not there has been any change of circumstances.

(4) The court may modify an order granting or denying visitation rights whenever modification would serve the best interests of the child. Modification of a parent's visitation rights shall be subject to the requirements of subsection (2) of this section.

(5) For the purposes of this section:

(a) “A parent's child” means that parent's natural child, adopted child, or stepchild; and

(b) “Social worker” means a person with a master's or further advanced degree from a social work educational program accredited and approved as provided in RCW 18.320.010.

26.10.170. Powers and duties of custodian -- Supervision by appropriate agency when necessary

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Except as otherwise agreed by the parties in writing at the time of the custody decree, the custodian may determine the child's upbringing, including education, health care, and religious training, unless the court after hearing, finds, upon motion by the noncustodial parent, that in the absence of a specific limitation of the custodian's authority, the child's physical, mental, or emotional health would be endangered.

If both parents or all contestants agree to the order, or if the court finds that in the absence of the order the child's physical, mental, or emotional health would be endangered, the court may order an appropriate agency which regularly deals with children to exercise continuing supervision over the case to assure that the custodial or visitation terms of the decree are carried out. Such order may be modified by the court at any time upon petition by either party.

26.10.180. Remedies when a child is taken, enticed, or concealed

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A relative may bring civil action against any other relative who, with intent to deny access to a child by another relative of the child who has a right to physical custody of or visitation with the child, takes, entices, or conceals the child from that relative. The plaintiff may be awarded, in addition to any damages awarded by the court, the reasonable expenses incurred by the plaintiff in locating the child, including, but not limited to, investigative services and reasonable attorneys' fees.

(2) "Relative" means an ancestor, descendant, or sibling including a relative of the same degree through marriage, domestic partnership, or adoption, or a spouse or domestic partner.

26.10.190. Petitions for modification and proceedings concerning relocation of child -- Assessment of attorneys' fees

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The court shall hear and review petitions for modifications of a parenting plan, custody order, visitation order, or other order governing the residence of a child, and conduct any proceedings concerning a relocation of the residence where the child resides a majority of the time, pursuant to chapter 26.09 RCW.

(2) If the court finds that a motion to modify a prior custody decree has been brought in bad faith, the court shall assess the attorney's fees and court costs of the custodian against the petitioner.

26.10.200. Temporary custody order or modification of custody decree -- Affidavits required

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A party seeking a temporary custody order or modification of a custody decree shall submit together with his or her motion, an affidavit setting forth facts supporting the requested order or modification and shall give notice, together with a copy of the affidavit, to other parties to the proceedings, who may file opposing affidavits. The court shall deny the motion unless it finds that adequate cause for hearing the motion is established by the affidavits, in which case it shall set a date for hearing on an order to show cause why the requested order or modification should not be granted.

Chapter 26.16. Husband and Wife- Rights and Liabilities- Community Property

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.16.125. Custody of children

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Henceforth the rights and responsibilities of the parents in the absence of misconduct shall be equal, and one parent shall be as fully entitled to the custody, control and earnings of the children as the other parent, and in case of one parent's death, the other parent shall come into full and complete control of the children and their estate .

Chapter 26.19. Child Support Schedule

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.19.050. Worksheets and instructions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The administrative office of the courts shall develop and adopt worksheets and instructions to assist the parties and courts in establishing the appropriate child support level and apportionment of support. The administrative office of the courts shall attempt to the greatest extent possible to make the worksheets and instructions understandable by persons who are not represented by legal counsel.

(2) The administrative office of the courts shall develop and adopt standards for the printing of worksheets and shall establish a process for certifying printed worksheets. The administrator may maintain a register of sources for approved worksheets.

(3) The administrative office of the courts should explore methods to assist pro se parties and judges in the courtroom to calculate support payments through automated software, equipment, or personal assistance.

26.19.065. Standards for establishing lower and upper limits on child support amounts

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Limit at forty-five percent of a parent's net income. Neither parent's child support obligation owed for all his or her biological or legal children may exceed forty-five percent of net income except for good cause shown.

(a) Each child is entitled to a pro rata share of the income available for support, but the court only applies the pro rata share to the children in the case before the court.

(b) Before determining whether to apply the forty-five percent limitation, the court must consider whether it would be unjust to apply the limitation after considering the best interests of the child and the circumstances of each parent. Such circumstances include, but are not limited to, leaving insufficient funds in the custodial parent's household to meet the basic needs of the child, comparative hardship to the affected households, assets or liabilities, and any involuntary limits on either parent's earning capacity including incarceration, disabilities, or incapacity.

(c) Good cause includes, but is not limited to, possession of substantial wealth, children with day care expenses, special medical need, educational need, psychological need, and larger families.

(2) Presumptive minimum support obligation. (a) When a parent's monthly net income is below one hundred twenty-five percent of the federal poverty guideline, a support order of not less than fifty dollars per child per month shall be entered unless the obligor parent establishes that it would be unjust to do so in that particular case. The decision whether there is a sufficient basis to deviate below the presumptive minimum payment must take into consideration the best interests of the child and the circumstances of each parent. Such circumstances can include leaving insufficient funds in the custodial parent's household to meet the basic needs of the child, comparative hardship to the affected households, assets or liabilities, and earning capacity.

(b) The basic support obligation of the parent making the transfer payment, excluding health care, day care, and special child-rearing expenses, shall not reduce his or her net income below the self-support reserve of one hundred twenty-five percent of the federal poverty level, except for the presumptive minimum payment of fifty dollars per child per month or when it would be unjust to apply the self-support reserve limitation after considering the best interests of the child and the circumstances of each parent. Such circumstances include, but are not limited to, leaving insufficient funds in the custodial parent's household to meet the basic needs of the child, comparative hardship to the affected households, assets or liabilities, and earning capacity. This section shall not be construed to require monthly substantiation of income.

(3) Income above twelve thousand dollars. The economic table is presumptive for combined monthly net incomes up to and including twelve thousand dollars. When combined monthly net income exceeds twelve thousand dollars, the court may exceed the presumptive amount of support set for combined monthly net incomes of twelve thousand dollars upon written findings of fact.

Chapter 26.26. Uniform Parentage Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.26.0001. Parental rights and responsibilities of sexual assault perpetrators and survivors

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) This section applies in cases when a person alleged or presumed to be a legal parent to a child is alleged to have committed a sexual assault that resulted in the victim of the assault becoming pregnant and subsequently giving birth to the child.

(2) For the purposes of this section, “sexual assault” means nonconsensual sexual penetration that results in pregnancy.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the fact that the person seeking parental rights or presumed to be a legal parent committed a sexual assault that resulted in the victim of the assault becoming pregnant and subsequently giving birth to the child may be proved by either:

(a) Evidence that the person seeking parental rights or presumed to be a legal parent was convicted of or pleaded guilty to a sexual assault under RCW 9A.44.040, 9A.44.050, 9A.44.060, or a comparable crime of sexual assault in any jurisdiction, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days after the sexual assault; or

(b) Clear, cogent, and convincing evidence that the person seeking parental rights or presumed to be a legal parent committed sexual assault, as defined in this section, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days after the sexual assault.

(4) An allegation that the child was born as the result of a sexual assault may be raised under this chapter:

(a) In a petition to adjudicate parentage; or

(b) In response to a petition to adjudicate parentage.

The pleading making the allegation must be filed in a petition or in a response to a petition in proceedings filed no later than four years after the birth of the child, except that (i) the pleading making the allegation that the child was born as a result of a sexual assault may be filed at any time in proceedings pursuant to RCW 26.26.525; or (ii) for a period of two years after the effective date of this section, a court may waive the time bar in cases in which a presumed, acknowledged, or adjudicated parent was found in a criminal or separate civil proceeding to have committed a sexual assault against the parent alleging that the child was born as a result of the sexual assault.

(5) If there is an allegation that the child was born as a result of a sexual assault against the child's parent by the person seeking parentage or presumed to be the parent of the child, the court must conduct a fact-finding hearing on the allegation.

(a) The court may not enter any temporary orders providing residential time or decision making to the alleged perpetrator prior to the fact-finding hearing on the sexual assault allegation unless both of the following criteria are satisfied: (i) The alleged perpetrator is a presumed parent of the child; and (ii) the court specifically finds that it would be in the best interests of the child if such temporary orders are entered.

(b) Prior to the fact-finding hearing, the court may order genetic testing to determine whether the alleged perpetrator is biologically related to the child. If genetic testing reveals that the alleged perpetrator is not biologically related to the child, the fact-finding hearing must be stricken.

(c) Fourteen days prior to the fact-finding hearing, the party alleging that the child was born as a result of a sexual assault shall submit affidavits setting forth facts supporting the allegation and shall give notice, together with a copy of the affidavit, to other parties to the proceedings, who may file opposing affidavits. Opposing affidavits must be submitted and served to other parties to the proceeding five days prior to the fact-finding hearing.

(d) The court shall determine on the record whether affidavits and documents submitted for the fact-finding hearing should be sealed.

(6) If, after the fact-finding hearing or after a bench trial, the court finds that the person seeking parental rights or presumed to be a legal parent committed sexual assault, pursuant to the standards set forth in subsection (3)(a) or (b) of this section, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days of the sexual assault the court must:

(a) Enter an order holding that the person seeking parental rights or presumed to be a legal parent is not a parent of the child, if such an order is requested by the child's legal parent or guardian; or

(b) Enter an order consistent with the relief requested by the child's legal parent or guardian, provided that the court determines that the relief requested is in the best interests of the child.

(7) Absent the express written consent of the child's legal parent or guardian, a person who is found to have committed a sexual assault, as defined in this section, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days of the sexual assault has:

(a) No right to an allocation of parental rights, including residential time or decision-making responsibilities for the child;

(b) No right to inheritance from the child; and

(c) No right to notification of, or standing to object to, the adoption of the child.

(8) If the court enters an order under subsection (6) of this section that is inconsistent with the information on the child's birth certificate, the court shall also order the birth certificate be amended in a manner that is consistent with the child's best interests and the wishes of the child's legal parent or guardian.

(9) If the court finds that the person seeking parentage or presumed to be the parent committed a sexual assault, as defined in this section, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days of the sexual assault, and the legal parent or guardian requests it, the court must order the person seeking parentage or presumed to be the parent to pay child support or birth-related costs or both.

(10) The legal parent or guardian may decline an order for child support or birth-related costs. If the legal parent or guardian declines an order for child support, and is either currently receiving public assistance or later applies for it for the child born as a result of the sexual assault, support enforcement agencies as defined in this chapter shall not file administrative or court proceedings to establish or collect child support, including medical support, from the person seeking parentage or presumed to be the parent who has been found to have committed a sexual assault, as defined in this section, against the child's parent, and that the child was born within three hundred twenty days of the sexual assault.

(11) If the court enters an order under subsection (10) of this section providing that no child support obligation may be established or collected from the person seeking parentage or presumed to be the parent who has been found to have committed a sexual assault, the court shall forward a copy of the order to the Washington state support registry.

(12) The court may order an award of attorneys' fees under this section on the same basis as attorneys' fees are awarded under RCW 26.09.140.

(13) Any party may move to close the fact-finding hearing and any related proceedings under this section to the public. If no party files such a motion, the court shall determine on its own initiative whether the fact-finding hearing and any related proceedings under this section should be closed to the public. Upon finding good cause for closing the proceeding, and if consistent with Article I, section 10 of the state Constitution, the court may: (a) Restrict admission to only those persons whom the court finds to have a direct interest in the case or in the work of the court, including witnesses deemed necessary to the disposition of the case; and (b) restrict persons who are admitted from disclosing any information obtained at the hearing that would identify the parties involved or the child.

26.26.260. Surrogate parenting--Custody of child

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

If a child is born to a surrogate mother pursuant to a surrogate parentage contract, and there is a dispute between the parties concerning custody of the child, the party having physical custody of the child may retain physical custody of the child until the superior court orders otherwise. The superior court shall award legal custody of the child based upon the factors listed in RCW 26.09.187(3) and 26.09.191.

Chapter 26.27. Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Article 1. General Provisions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.27.011. Short title

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

This chapter may be cited as the uniform child custody jurisdiction and enforcement act.

26.27.021. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter, unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) "Abandoned" means left without provision for reasonable and necessary care or supervision.

(2) "Child" means an individual who has not attained eighteen years of age.

(3) "Child custody determination" means a judgment, decree, parenting plan, or other order of a court providing for the legal custody, physical custody, or visitation with respect to a child. The term includes a permanent, temporary, initial, and modification order. The term does not include an order relating to child support or other monetary obligation of an individual.

(4) "Child custody proceeding" means a proceeding in which legal custody, physical custody, a parenting plan, or visitation with respect to a child is an issue. The term includes a proceeding for dissolution, divorce, separation, neglect, abuse, dependency, guardianship, paternity, termination of parental rights, and protection from domestic violence, in which the issue may appear. The term does not include a proceeding involving juvenile delinquency, emancipation proceedings under chapter 13.64 RCW, proceedings under chapter 13.32A RCW, or enforcement under Article 3.

(5) "Commencement" means the filing of the first pleading in a proceeding.

(6) "Court" means an entity authorized under the law of a state to establish, enforce, or modify a child custody determination.

(7) "Home state" means the state in which a child lived with a parent or a person acting as a parent for at least six consecutive months immediately before the commencement of a child custody proceeding. In the case of a child less than six months of age, the term means the state in which the child lived from birth with a parent or person acting as a parent. A period of temporary absence of a child, parent, or person acting as a parent is part of the period.

(8) "Initial determination" means the first child custody determination concerning a particular child.

(9) "Issuing court" means the court that makes a child custody determination for which enforcement is sought under this chapter.

(10) "Issuing state" means the state in which a child custody determination is made.

(11) "Modification" means a child custody determination that changes, replaces, supersedes, or is otherwise made after a previous determination concerning the same child, whether or not it is made by the court that made the previous determination.

(12) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.

(13) "Person acting as a parent" means a person, other than a parent, who:

(a) Has physical custody of the child or has had physical custody for a period of six consecutive months, including any temporary absence, within one year immediately before the commencement of a child custody proceeding; and

(b) Has been awarded legal custody by a court or claims a right to legal custody under the law of this state.

(14) "Physical custody" means the physical care and supervision of a child.

(15) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(16) "Tribe" means an Indian tribe or band, or Alaskan Native village, that is recognized by federal law or formally acknowledged by a state.

(17) "Warrant" means an order issued by a court authorizing law enforcement officers to take physical custody of a child.

26.27.041. Application to Indian tribes

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A child custody proceeding that pertains to an Indian child as defined in the federal Indian child welfare act, 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1901 et seq., is not subject to this chapter to the extent that it is governed by the federal Indian child welfare act.

(2) A court of this state shall treat a tribe as if it were a state of the United States for the purpose of applying Articles 1 and 2.

(3) A child custody determination made by a tribe under factual circumstances in substantial conformity with the jurisdictional standards of this chapter must be recognized and enforced under Article 3.

26.27.051. International application of chapter

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state shall treat a foreign country as if it were a state of the United States for the purpose of applying Articles 1 and 2.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (3) of this section, a child custody determination made in a foreign country under factual circumstances in substantial conformity with the jurisdictional standards of this chapter must be recognized and enforced under Article 3.

(3) A court of this state need not apply this chapter if the child custody law of a foreign country violates fundamental principles of human rights.

26.27.061. Effect of child custody determination

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A child custody determination made by a court of this state that had jurisdiction under this chapter binds all persons who have been served in accordance with the laws of this state or notified in accordance with RCW 26.27.081 or who have submitted to the jurisdiction of the court, and who have been given an opportunity to be heard. As to those persons, the determination is conclusive as to all decided issues of law and fact except to the extent the determination is modified.

26.27.081. Notice to persons outside state

Updated: 
August 10, 2017


(1) Notice required for the exercise of jurisdiction when a person is outside this state may be given in a manner prescribed for service of process by the law of the state in which the service is made or given in a manner reasonably calculated to give actual notice, and may be made in any of the following ways:

(a) Personal delivery outside this state in the manner prescribed for service of process within this state;

(b) By any form of mail addressed to the person to be served and requesting a receipt; or

(c) As directed by the court, including publication if other means of notification are ineffective.

(2) Proof of service outside this state may be made:

(a) By affidavit of the individual who made the service;

(b) In the manner prescribed by the law of this state or the law of the state in which the service is made; or

(c) As directed by the order under which the service is made.

If service is made by mail, proof may be a receipt signed by the addressee or other evidence of delivery to the addressee.

(3) Notice is not required for the exercise of jurisdiction with respect to a person who submits to the jurisdiction of the court.

26.27.091. Appearance and limited immunity

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, a party to a child custody proceeding, including a modification proceeding, or a petitioner or respondent in a proceeding to enforce or register a child custody determination, is not subject to personal jurisdiction in this state for another proceeding or purpose solely by reason of having participated, or of having been physically present for the purpose of participating, in the proceeding.

(2) A person who is subject to personal jurisdiction in this state on a basis other than physical presence is not immune from service of process in this state. A party present in this state who is subject to the jurisdiction of another state is not immune from service of process allowable under the laws of that state.

(3) The immunity granted by subsection (1) of this section does not extend to civil litigation based on acts unrelated to the participation in a proceeding under this chapter committed by an individual while present in this state.

26.27.101. Communication between courts

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state may communicate with a court in another state concerning a proceeding arising under this chapter.

(2) The court may allow the parties to participate in the communication. If the parties are not able to participate in the communication, they must be given the opportunity to present facts and legal arguments before a decision on jurisdiction is made.

(3) Communication between courts on schedules, calendars, court records, and similar matters may occur without informing the parties. A record need not be made of the communication.

(4) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (3) of this section, a record must be made of a communication under this section. The parties must be informed promptly of the communication and granted access to the record.

(5) For the purposes of this section, "record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

26.27.111. Taking testimony in another state

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In addition to other procedures available to a party, a party to a child custody proceeding may offer testimony of witnesses who are located in another state, including testimony of the parties and the child, by deposition or other means allowable in this state for testimony taken in another state. The court on its own motion may order that the testimony of a person be taken in another state and may prescribe the manner in which and the terms upon which the testimony is taken.

(2) A court of this state may permit an individual residing in another state to be deposed or to testify by telephone, audiovisual means, or other electronic means before a designated court or at another location in that state. A court of this state shall cooperate with courts of other states in designating an appropriate location for the deposition or testimony.

(3) Documentary evidence transmitted from another state to a court of this state by technological means that do not produce an original writing may not be excluded from evidence on an objection based on the means of transmission.

26.27.121. Cooperation between courts--Preservation of records

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state may request the appropriate court of another state to:

(a) Hold an evidentiary hearing;

(b) Order a person to produce or give evidence pursuant to procedures of that state;

(c) Order that an evaluation be made with respect to the custody of a child involved in a pending proceeding;

(d) Forward to the court of this state a certified copy of the transcript of the record of the hearing, the evidence otherwise presented, and any evaluation prepared in compliance with the request; and

(e) Order a party to a child custody proceeding or any person having physical custody of the child to appear in the proceeding with or without the child.

(2) Upon request of a court of another state, a court of this state may hold a hearing or enter an order described in subsection (1) of this section.

(3) Travel and other necessary and reasonable expenses incurred under subsections (1) and (2) of this section may be assessed against the parties according to the law of this state.

(4) A court of this state shall preserve the pleadings, orders, decrees, records of hearings, evaluations, and other pertinent records with respect to a child custody proceeding until the child attains eighteen years of age. Upon appropriate request by a court or law enforcement official of another state, the court shall forward a certified copy of those records.

Article 2. Jurisdiction

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.27.201. Initial child custody jurisdiction

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.231, a court of this state has jurisdiction to make an initial child custody determination only if:

(a) This state is the home state of the child on the date of the commencement of the proceeding, or was the home state of the child within six months before the commencement of the proceeding and the child is absent from this state but a parent or person acting as a parent continues to live in this state;

(b) A court of another state does not have jurisdiction under (a) of this subsection, or a court of the home state of the child has declined to exercise jurisdiction on the ground that this state is the more appropriate forum under RCW 26.27.261 or 26.27.271, and:

(i) The child and the child's parents, or the child and at least one parent or a person acting as a parent, have a significant connection with this state other than mere physical presence; and

(ii) Substantial evidence is available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training, and personal relationships;

(c) All courts having jurisdiction under (a) of this subsection have declined to exercise jurisdiction on the ground that a court of this state is the more appropriate forum to determine the custody of the child under RCW 26.27.261 or 26.27.271; or

(d) No court of any other state would have jurisdiction under the criteria specified in (a), (b), or (c) of this subsection.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section is the exclusive jurisdictional basis for making a child custody determination by a court of this state.

(3) Physical presence of, or personal jurisdiction over, a party or a child is not necessary or sufficient to make a child custody determination.

26.27.211. Exclusive, continuing jurisdiction

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.231, a court of this state that has made a child custody determination consistent with RCW 26.27.201 or 26.27.221 has exclusive, continuing jurisdiction over the determination until:

(a) A court of this state determines that neither the child, the child's parents, and any person acting as a parent do not have a significant connection with this state and that substantial evidence is no longer available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training, and personal relationships; or

(b) A court of this state or a court of another state determines that the child, the child's parents, and any person acting as a parent do not presently reside in this state.

(2) A court of this state that has made a child custody determination and does not have exclusive, continuing jurisdiction under this section may modify that determination only if it has jurisdiction to make an initial determination under RCW 26.27.201.

26.27.221. Jurisdiction to modify determination

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.231, a court of this state may not modify a child custody determination made by a court of another state unless a court of this state has jurisdiction to make an initial determination under RCW 26.27.201(1) (a) or (b) and:



(1) The court of the other state determines it no longer has exclusive, continuing jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.211 or that a court of this state would be a more convenient forum under RCW 26.27.261; or



(2) A court of this state or a court of the other state determines that the child, the child's parents, and any person acting as a parent do not presently reside in the other state.

26.27.231. Temporary emergency jurisdiction

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state has temporary emergency jurisdiction if the child is present in this state and the child has been abandoned or it is necessary in an emergency to protect the child because the child, or a sibling or parent of the child, is subjected to or threatened with abuse.

(2) If there is no previous child custody determination that is entitled to be enforced under this chapter and a child custody proceeding has not been commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221, a child custody determination made under this section remains in effect until an order is obtained from a court of a state having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221. If a child custody proceeding has not been or is not commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221, a child custody determination made under this section becomes a final determination, if it so provides and this state becomes the home state of the child.

(3) If there is a previous child custody determination that is entitled to be enforced under this chapter, or a child custody proceeding has been commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221, any order issued by a court of this state under this section must specify in the order a period that the court considers adequate to allow the person seeking an order to obtain an order from the state having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221. The order issued in this state remains in effect until an order is obtained from the other state within the period specified or the period expires.

(4) A court of this state that has been asked to make a child custody determination under this section, upon being informed that a child custody proceeding has been commenced in, or a child custody determination has been made by, a court of a state having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221, shall immediately communicate with the other court. A court of this state that is exercising jurisdiction pursuant to RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221, upon being informed that a child custody proceeding has been commenced in, or a child custody determination has been made by, a court of another state under a statute similar to this section shall immediately communicate with the court of that state to resolve the emergency, protect the safety of the parties and the child, and determine a period for the duration of the temporary order.

26.27.241. Notice -- Opportunity to be heard -- Joinder

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Before a child custody determination is made under this chapter, notice and an opportunity to be heard in accordance with the standards of RCW 26.27.081 must be given to: (a) All persons entitled to notice under the law of this state as in child custody proceedings between residents of this state; (b) any parent whose parental rights have not been previously terminated; and (c) any person having physical custody of the child.



(2) This chapter does not govern the enforceability of a child custody determination made without notice or an opportunity to be heard.



(3) The obligation to join a party and the right to intervene as a party in a child custody proceeding under this chapter are governed by the law of this state as in child custody proceedings between residents of this state.

26.27.251. Simultaneous proceedings

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.231, a court of this state may not exercise its jurisdiction under this article if, at the time of the commencement of the proceeding, a proceeding concerning the custody of the child has been commenced in a court of another state having jurisdiction substantially in conformity with this chapter, unless the proceeding has been terminated or is stayed by the court of the other state because a court of this state is a more convenient forum under RCW 26.27.261.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.231, a court of this state, before hearing a child custody proceeding, shall examine the court documents and other information supplied by the parties pursuant to RCW 26.27.281. If the court determines that a child custody proceeding has been commenced in a court in another state having jurisdiction substantially in accordance with this chapter, the court of this state shall stay its proceeding and communicate with the court of the other state. If the court of the state having jurisdiction substantially in accordance with this chapter does not determine that the court of this state is a more appropriate forum, the court of this state shall dismiss the proceeding.

(3) In a proceeding to modify a child custody determination, a court of this state shall determine whether a proceeding to enforce the determination has been commenced in another state. If a proceeding to enforce a child custody determination has been commenced in another state, the court may:

(a) Stay the proceeding for modification pending the entry of an order of a court of the other state enforcing, staying, denying, or dismissing the proceeding for enforcement;

(b) Enjoin the parties from continuing with the proceeding for enforcement; or

(c) Proceed with the modification under conditions it considers appropriate.

26.27.261. Inconvenient forum

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state which has jurisdiction under this chapter to make a child custody determination may decline to exercise its jurisdiction at any time if it determines that it is an inconvenient forum under the circumstances and that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum. The issue of inconvenient forum may be raised upon motion of a party, the court's own motion, or request of another court.

(2) Before determining whether it is an inconvenient forum, a court of this state shall consider whether it is appropriate for a court of another state to exercise jurisdiction. For this purpose, the court shall allow the parties to submit information and shall consider all relevant factors, including:

(a) Whether domestic violence has occurred and is likely to continue in the future and which state could best protect the parties and the child;

(b) The length of time the child has resided outside this state;

(c) The distance between the court in this state and the court in the state that would assume jurisdiction;

(d) The relative financial circumstances of the parties;

(e) Any agreement of the parties as to which state should assume jurisdiction;

(f) The nature and location of the evidence required to resolve the pending litigation, including testimony of the child;

(g) The ability of the court of each state to decide the issue expeditiously and the procedures necessary to present the evidence; and

(h) The familiarity of the court of each state with the facts and issues in the pending litigation.

(3) If a court of this state determines that it is an inconvenient forum and that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum, it shall stay the proceedings upon condition that a child custody proceeding be promptly commenced in another designated state and may impose any other condition the court considers just and proper.

(4) A court of this state may decline to exercise its jurisdiction under this chapter if a child custody determination is incidental to an action for dissolution or another proceeding while still retaining jurisdiction over the dissolution or other proceeding.

26.27.271. Jurisdiction declined by reason of conduct

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.231 or by other law of this state, if a court of this state has jurisdiction under this chapter because a person seeking to invoke its jurisdiction has engaged in unjustifiable conduct, the court shall decline to exercise its jurisdiction unless:

(a) The parents and all persons acting as parents have acquiesced in the exercise of jurisdiction;

(b) A court of the state otherwise having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221 determines that this state is a more appropriate forum under RCW 26.27.261; or

(c) No court of any other state would have jurisdiction under the criteria specified in RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221.

(2) If a court of this state declines to exercise its jurisdiction pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, it may fashion an appropriate remedy to ensure the safety of the child and prevent a repetition of the unjustifiable conduct, including staying the proceeding until a child custody proceeding is commenced in a court having jurisdiction under RCW 26.27.201 through 26.27.221.

(3) If a court dismisses a petition or stays a proceeding because it declines to exercise its jurisdiction pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, it shall assess against the party seeking to invoke its jurisdiction necessary and reasonable expenses including costs, communication expenses, attorneys' fees, investigative fees, expenses for witnesses, travel expenses, and child care during the course of the proceedings, unless the party from whom fees are sought establishes that the assessment would be clearly inappropriate. The court may not assess fees, costs, or expenses against this state unless authorized by law other than this chapter.

26.27.281. Information to be submitted to court

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Subject to laws providing for the confidentiality of procedures, addresses, and other identifying information, in a child custody proceeding, each party, in its first pleading or in an attached affidavit, shall give information, if reasonably ascertainable, under oath as to the child's present address or whereabouts, the places where the child has lived during the last five years, and the names and present addresses of the persons with whom the child has lived during that period. The pleading or affidavit must state whether the party:

(a) Has participated, as a party or witness or in any other capacity, in any other proceeding concerning the custody of or visitation with the child and, if so, identify the court, the case number, and the date of the child custody determination, if any;

(b) Knows of any proceeding that could affect the current proceeding, including proceedings for enforcement and proceedings relating to domestic violence, protective orders, termination of parental rights, and adoptions and, if so, identify the court, the case number, and the nature of the proceeding; and

(c) Knows the names and addresses of any person not a party to the proceeding who has physical custody of the child or claims rights of legal custody or physical custody of, or visitation with, the child and, if so, the names and addresses of those persons.

(2) If the information required by subsection (1) of this section is not furnished, the court, upon motion of a party or its own motion, may stay the proceeding until the information is furnished.

(3) If the declaration as to any of the items described in subsection (1)(a) through (c) of this section is in the affirmative, the declarant shall give additional information under oath as required by the court. The court may examine the parties under oath as to details of the information furnished and other matters pertinent to the court's jurisdiction and the disposition of the case.

(4) Each party has a continuing duty to inform the court of any proceeding in this or any other state that could affect the current proceeding.

(5) If a party alleges in an affidavit or a pleading under oath that the health, safety, or liberty of a party or child would be jeopardized by disclosure of identifying information, the information must be sealed and may not be disclosed to the other party or the public unless the court orders the disclosure to be made after a hearing in which the court takes into consideration the health, safety, or liberty of the party or child and determines that the disclosure is in the interest of justice.

26.27.291. Appearance of parties and child

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In a child custody proceeding in this state, the court may order a party to the proceeding who is in this state to appear before the court in person with or without the child. The court may order any person who is in this state and who has physical custody or control of the child to appear in person with the child.

(2) If a party to a child custody proceeding whose presence is desired by the court is outside this state, the court may order that a notice given pursuant to RCW 26.27.081 include a statement directing the party to appear in person with or without the child and informing the party that failure to appear may result in a decision adverse to the party.

(3) The court may enter any orders necessary to ensure the safety of the child and of any person ordered to appear under this section.

(4) If a party to a child custody proceeding who is outside this state is directed to appear under subsection (2) of this section or desires to appear personally before the court with or without the child, the court may require another party to pay reasonable and necessary travel and other expenses of the party so appearing and of the child.

Article 3. Enforcement

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.27.401. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this article, unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) "Petitioner" means a person who seeks enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination.

(2) "Respondent" means a person against whom a proceeding has been commenced for enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination.

26.27.411. Enforcement under Hague Convention

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Under this article a court of this state may enforce an order for the return of the child made under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction as if it were a child custody determination.

26.27.421. Duty to enforce

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state shall recognize and enforce a child custody determination of a court of another state if the latter court exercised jurisdiction in substantial conformity with this chapter or the determination was made under factual circumstances meeting the jurisdictional standards of this chapter and the determination has not been modified in accordance with this chapter.

(2) A court of this state may use any remedy available under other law of this state including writs of habeas corpus under chapter 7.36 RCW and enforcement proceedings under Title 26 RCW to enforce a child custody determination made by a court of another state. The remedies provided in this article are cumulative and do not affect the availability of other remedies to enforce a child custody determination.

26.27.431. Temporary visitation

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state that does not have jurisdiction to modify a child custody determination may issue a temporary order enforcing:

(a) A visitation schedule made by a court of another state; or

(b) The visitation provisions of a child custody determination of another state that does not provide for a specific visitation schedule.

(2) If a court of this state makes an order under subsection (1)(b) of this section, it shall specify in the order a period that it considers adequate to allow the petitioner to obtain an order from a court having jurisdiction under the criteria specified in Article 2. The order remains in effect until an order is obtained from the other court or the period expires.

26.27.441. Registration of child custody determination

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A child custody determination issued by a court of another state may be registered in this state, with or without a simultaneous request for enforcement, by sending to the appropriate court in this state:

(a) A letter or other document requesting registration;

(b) Two copies, including one certified copy, of the determination sought to be registered, and a statement under penalty of perjury that to the best of the knowledge and belief of the person seeking registration, the determination has not been modified; and

(c) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.281, the name and address of the person seeking registration and any parent or person acting as a parent who has been awarded custody or visitation in the child custody determination sought to be registered.

(2) On receipt of the documents required by subsection (1) of this section, the registering court shall:

(a) Cause the determination to be filed as a foreign judgment, together with one copy of any accompanying documents and information, regardless of their form; and

(b) Serve notice upon the persons named pursuant to subsection (1)(c) of this section and provide them with an opportunity to contest the registration in accordance with this section.

(3) The notice required by subsection (2)(b) of this section must state that:

(a) A registered determination is enforceable as of the date of the registration in the same manner as a determination issued by a court of this state;

(b) A hearing to contest the validity of the registered determination must be requested within twenty days after service of notice; and

(c) Failure to contest the registration will result in confirmation of the child custody determination and preclude further contest of that determination with respect to any matter that could have been asserted.

(4) A person seeking to contest the validity of a registered determination must request a hearing within twenty days after service of the notice. At that hearing, the court shall confirm the registered determination unless the person contesting registration establishes that:

(a) The issuing court did not have jurisdiction under Article 2;

(b) The child custody determination sought to be registered has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so under Article 2; or

(c) The person contesting registration was entitled to notice, but notice was not given in accordance with the standards of RCW 26.27.081, in the proceedings before the court that issued the determination for which registration is sought.

(5) If a timely request for a hearing to contest the validity of the registration is not made, the registration is confirmed as a matter of law and the person requesting registration and all persons served must be notified of the confirmation.

(6) Confirmation of a registered determination, whether by operation of law or after notice and hearing, precludes further contest of the determination with respect to any matter that could have been asserted at the time of registration.

26.27.451. Enforcement of registered determination

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A court of this state may grant any relief normally available under the law of this state to enforce a registered child custody determination made by a court of another state.

(2) A court of this state shall recognize and enforce, but may not modify, except in accordance with Article 2, a registered child custody determination of a court of another state.

26.27.461. Simultaneous proceedings

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

If a proceeding for enforcement under this article is commenced in a court of this state and the court determines that a proceeding to modify the determination is pending in a court of another state having jurisdiction to modify the determination under Article 2, the enforcing court shall immediately communicate with the modifying court. The proceeding for enforcement continues unless the enforcing court, after consultation with the modifying court, stays or dismisses the proceeding.

26.27.471. Expedited enforcement of child custody determination

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A petition under this article must be verified. Certified copies of all orders sought to be enforced and of any order confirming registration must be attached to the petition. A copy of a certified copy of an order may be attached instead of the original.

(2) A petition for enforcement of a child custody determination must state:

(a) Whether the court that issued the determination identified the jurisdictional basis it relied upon in exercising jurisdiction and, if so, what the basis was;

(b) Whether the determination for which enforcement is sought has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court whose decision must be enforced under this chapter and, if so, identify the court, the case number, and the nature of the proceeding;

(c) Whether any proceeding has been commenced that could affect the current proceeding, including proceedings relating to domestic violence, protective orders, termination of parental rights, and adoptions and, if so, identify the court, the case number, and the nature of the proceeding;

(d) The present physical address of the child and the respondent, if known;

(e) Whether relief in addition to the immediate physical custody of the child and attorneys' fees is sought, including a request for assistance from law enforcement officials and, if so, the relief sought; and

(f) If the child custody determination has been registered and confirmed under RCW 26.27.441, the date and place of registration.

(3) Upon the filing of a petition, the court shall issue an order directing the respondent to appear in person with or without the child at a hearing and may enter any order necessary to ensure the safety of the parties and the child. The hearing must be held on the next judicial day after service of the order unless that date is impossible. In that event, the court shall hold the hearing on the first judicial day possible. The court may extend the date of hearing at the request of the petitioner.

(4) An order issued under subsection (3) of this section must state the time and place of the hearing and advise the respondent that at the hearing the court will order that the petitioner may take immediate physical custody of the child and the payment of fees, costs, and expenses under RCW 26.27.511, and may schedule a hearing to determine whether further relief is appropriate, unless the respondent appears and establishes that:

(a) The child custody determination has not been registered and confirmed under RCW 26.27.441 and that:

(i) The issuing court did not have jurisdiction under Article 2;

(ii) The child custody determination for which enforcement is sought has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so under Article 2;

(iii) The respondent was entitled to notice, but notice was not given in accordance with the standards of RCW 26.27.081, in the proceedings before the court that issued the order for which enforcement is sought; or

(b) The child custody determination for which enforcement is sought was registered and confirmed under RCW 26.27.431, but has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court of a state having jurisdiction to do so under Article 2.

26.27.481. Service of petition and order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.27.501, the petition and order must be served, by any method authorized by the law of this state, upon the respondent and any person who has physical custody of the child.

26.27.491. Hearing and order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Unless the court issues a temporary emergency order pursuant to RCW 26.27.231, upon a finding that a petitioner is entitled to immediate physical custody of the child, the court shall order that the petitioner may take immediate physical custody of the child unless the respondent establishes that:

(a) The child custody determination has not been registered and confirmed under RCW 26.27.441 and that:

(i) The issuing court did not have jurisdiction under Article 2;

(ii) The child custody determination for which enforcement is sought has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court of a state having jurisdiction to do so under Article 2; or

(iii) The respondent was entitled to notice, but notice was not given in accordance with the standards of RCW 26.27.081, in the proceedings before the court that issued the order for which enforcement is sought; or

(b) The child custody determination for which enforcement is sought was registered and confirmed under RCW 26.27.441 but has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court of a state having jurisdiction to do so under Article 2.

(2) The court shall award the fees, costs, and expenses authorized under RCW 26.27.511 and may grant additional relief, including a request for the assistance of law enforcement officials, and set a further hearing to determine whether additional relief is appropriate.

(3) If a party called to testify refuses to answer on the ground that the testimony may be self-incriminating, the court may draw an adverse inference from the refusal.

(4) A privilege against disclosure of communications between spouses and a defense of immunity based on the relationship of husband and wife or parent and child may not be invoked in a proceeding under this article.

26.27.501. Authorization to take physical custody of child

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

An order under this chapter directing law enforcement to obtain physical custody of the child from the other parent or a third party holding the child may only be sought pursuant to a writ of habeas corpus under chapter 7.36 RCW.

26.27.511. Costs, fees, and expenses

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The court shall award the prevailing party, including a state, necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by or on behalf of the party, including costs, communication expenses, attorneys' fees, investigative fees, expenses for witnesses, travel expenses, and child care during the course of the proceedings, unless the party from whom fees or expenses are sought establishes that the award would be clearly inappropriate.

(2) The court may not assess fees, costs, or expenses against a state unless authorized by law other than this chapter.

26.27.521. Recognition and enforcement

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A court of this state shall accord full faith and credit to an order issued by another state and consistent with this chapter that enforces a child custody determination by a court of another state unless the order has been vacated, stayed, or modified by a court having jurisdiction to do so under Article 2.

26.27.531. Appeals

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

An appeal may be taken from a final order in a proceeding under this article in accordance with expedited appellate procedures in other civil cases relating to minor children. Unless the court enters a temporary emergency order under RCW 26.27.231, the enforcing court may not stay an order enforcing a child custody determination pending appeal.

26.27.541. Role of prosecutor or attorney general

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In a case arising under this chapter or involving the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the prosecutor or attorney general may take any lawful action, including resorting to a proceeding under this article or any other available civil proceeding to locate a child, obtain the return of a child, or enforce a child custody determination if there is:

(a) An existing child custody determination;

(b) A request to do so from a court in a pending child custody proceeding;

(c) A reasonable belief that a criminal statute has been violated; or

(d) A reasonable belief that the child has been wrongfully removed or retained in violation of the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.

(2) A prosecutor or attorney general acting under this section acts on behalf of the court and may not represent any party.

26.27.551. Role of law enforcement

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

At the request of a prosecutor or attorney general acting under RCW 26.27.541, a law enforcement officer may take any lawful action reasonably necessary to locate a child or a party and assist a prosecutor or attorney general with responsibilities under RCW 26.27.541.

26.27.561. Costs and expenses

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

If the respondent is not the prevailing party, the court may assess against the respondent all direct expenses and costs incurred by the prosecutor or attorney general and law enforcement officers under RCW 26.27.541 or 26.27.551.

Chapter 26.33. Adoption

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.33.370. Permanent care and custody of a child--Assumption, relinquishment, or transfer except by court order or statute, when prohibited-- Penalty

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Unless otherwise permitted by court order or statute, it is unlawful for any person, partnership, society, association, or corporation, except the parents, to assume the permanent care and custody of a child. Unless otherwise permitted by court order or statute, it is unlawful for any parent to relinquish or transfer to another person, partnership, society, association, or corporation the permanent care and custody of any child for adoption or any other purpose.

(2) Any relinquishment or transfer in violation of this section shall be void.

(3) Violation of this section is a gross misdemeanor.

Chapter 26.50. Domestic Violence Prevention

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.50.010. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings given them:

(1) “Court” includes the superior, district, and municipal courts of the state of Washington.

(2) “Dating relationship” means a social relationship of a romantic nature. Factors that the court may consider in making this determination include: (a) The length of time the relationship has existed; (b) the nature of the relationship; and (c) the frequency of interaction between the parties.

(3) “Domestic violence” means: (a) Physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or the infliction of fear of imminent physical harm, bodily injury or assault, between family or household members; (b) sexual assault of one family or household member by another; or (c) stalking as defined in RCW 9A.46.110 of one family or household member by another family or household member.

(4) “Electronic monitoring” has the same meaning as in RCW 9.94A.030.

(5) “Essential personal effects” means those items necessary for a person's immediate health, welfare, and livelihood. “Essential personal effects” includes but is not limited to clothing, cribs, bedding, documents, medications, and personal hygiene items.

(6) “Family or household members” means spouses, domestic partners, former spouses, former domestic partners, persons who have a child in common regardless of whether they have been married or have lived together at any time, adult persons related by blood or marriage, adult persons who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past, persons sixteen years of age or older who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past and who have or have had a dating relationship, persons sixteen years of age or older with whom a person sixteen years of age or older has or has had a dating relationship, and persons who have a biological or legal parent-child relationship, including stepparents and stepchildren and grandparents and grandchildren.

(7) “Judicial day” does not include Saturdays, Sundays, or legal holidays.

26.50.020. Commencement of action -- Jurisdiction -- Venue

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) Any person may seek relief under this chapter by filing a petition with a court alleging that the person has been the victim of domestic violence committed by the respondent. The person may petition for relief on behalf of himself or herself and on behalf of minor family or household members.

(b) Any person thirteen years of age or older may seek relief under this chapter by filing a petition with a court alleging that he or she has been the victim of violence in a dating relationship and the respondent is sixteen years of age or older.

(2)(a) A person under eighteen years of age who is sixteen years of age or older may seek relief under this chapter and is not required to seek relief by a guardian or next friend.

(b) A person under sixteen years of age who is seeking relief under subsection (1)(b) of this section is required to seek relief by a parent, guardian, guardian ad litem, or next friend.

(3) No guardian or guardian ad litem need be appointed on behalf of a respondent to an action under this chapter who is under eighteen years of age if such respondent is sixteen years of age or older.

(4) The court may, if it deems necessary, appoint a guardian ad litem for a petitioner or respondent who is a party to an action under this chapter.

(5) The courts defined in RCW 26.50.010 (4) have jurisdiction over proceedings under this chapter. The jurisdiction of district and municipal courts under this chapter shall be limited to enforcement of RCW 26.50.110(1), or the equivalent municipal ordinance, and the issuance and enforcement of temporary orders for protection provided for in RCW 26.50.070 if: (a) A superior court has exercised or is exercising jurisdiction over a proceeding under this title or chapter 13.34 RCW involving the parties; (b) the petition for relief under this chapter presents issues of residential schedule of and contact with children of the parties; or (c) the petition for relief under this chapter requests the court to exclude a party from the dwelling which the parties share. When the jurisdiction of a district or municipal court is limited to the issuance and enforcement of a temporary order, the district or municipal court shall set the full hearing provided for in RCW 26.50.050 in superior court and transfer the case. If the notice and order are not served on the respondent in time for the full hearing, the issuing court shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the superior court to extend the order for protection.

(6) An action under this chapter shall be filed in the county or the municipality where the petitioner resides, unless the petitioner has left the residence or household to avoid abuse. In that case, the petitioner may bring an action in the county or municipality of the previous or the new household or residence.

(7) A person's right to petition for relief under this chapter is not affected by the person leaving the residence or household to avoid abuse.

(8) For the purposes of this section “next friend” means any competent individual, over eighteen years of age, chosen by the minor and who is capable of pursuing the minor's stated interest in the action.

26.50.021. Actions on behalf of vulnerable adults -- Authority of department of social and health services -- Immunity from liability.

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The department of social and health services, in its discretion, may seek the relief provided in this chapter on behalf of and with the consent of any vulnerable adult as those persons are defined in RCW 74.34.020. Neither the department nor the state of Washington shall be liable for failure to seek relief on behalf of any persons under this section.

26.50.030. Petition for an order for protection -- Availability of forms and informational brochures -- Bond not required

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

There shall exist an action known as a petition for an order for protection in cases of domestic violence.

(1) A petition for relief shall allege the existence of domestic violence, and shall be accompanied by an affidavit made under oath stating the specific facts and circumstances from which relief is sought. Petitioner and respondent shall disclose the existence of any other litigation concerning the custody or residential placement of a child of the parties as set forth in RCW 26.27.281 and the existence of any other restraining, protection, or no-contact orders between the parties.

(2) A petition for relief may be made regardless of whether or not there is a pending lawsuit, complaint, petition, or other action between the parties except in cases where the court realigns petitioner and respondent in accordance with RCW 26.50.060(4).

(3) Within ninety days of receipt of the master copy from the administrative office of the courts, all court clerk's offices shall make available the standardized forms, instructions, and informational brochures required by RCW 26.50.035 and shall fill in and keep current specific program names and telephone numbers for community resources. Any assistance or information provided by clerks under this section does not constitute the practice of law and clerks are not responsible for incorrect information contained in a petition.

(4) No filing fee may be charged for proceedings under this section. Forms and instructional brochures shall be provided free of charge.

(5) A person is not required to post a bond to obtain relief in any proceeding under this section.


26.50.040. Fees not permitted -- Filing, service of process, certified copies

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

No fees for filing or service of process may be charged by a public agency to petitioners seeking relief under this chapter. Petitioners shall be provided the necessary number of certified copies at no cost.

26.50.050. Hearing -- Service -- Time

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall order a hearing which shall be held not later than fourteen days from the date of the order. The court may schedule a hearing by telephone pursuant to local court rule, to reasonably accommodate a disability, or in exceptional circumstances to protect a petitioner from further acts of domestic violence. The court shall require assurances of the petitioner's identity before conducting a telephonic hearing. Except as provided in RCW 26.50.085 and 26.50.123, personal service shall be made upon the respondent not less than five court days prior to the hearing. If timely personal service cannot be made, the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require an additional attempt at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication as provided in RCW 26.50.085 or service by mail as provided in RCW 26.50.123. The court shall not require more than two attempts at obtaining personal service and shall permit service by publication or by mail unless the petitioner requests additional time to attempt personal service. If the court permits service by publication or by mail, the court shall set the hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date of the order. The court may issue an ex parte order for protection pending the hearing as provided in RCW 26.50.070, 26.50.085, and 26.50.123.

26.50.055. Appointment of interpreter

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Pursuant to chapter 2.42 RCW, an interpreter shall be appointed for any party who, because of a hearing or speech impairment, cannot readily understand or communicate in spoken language.

(2) Pursuant to chapter 2.43 RCW, an interpreter shall be appointed for any party who cannot readily speak or understand the English language.

(3) The interpreter shall translate or interpret for the party in preparing forms, participating in the hearing and court-ordered assessments, and translating any orders.

26.50.060. Relief -- Duration -- Realignment of designation of parties -- Award of costs, service fees, and attorneys' fees

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Upon notice and after hearing, the court may provide relief as follows:

(a) Restrain the respondent from committing acts of domestic violence;

(b) Exclude the respondent from the dwelling that the parties share, from the residence, workplace, or school of the petitioner, or from the day care or school of a child;

(c) Prohibit the respondent from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location;

(d) On the same basis as is provided in chapter 26.09 RCW, the court shall make residential provision with regard to minor children of the parties. However, parenting plans as specified in chapter 26.09 RCW shall not be required under this chapter;

(e) Order the respondent to participate in a domestic violence perpetrator treatment program approved under RCW 26.50.150;

(f) Order other relief as it deems necessary for the protection of the petitioner and other family or household members sought to be protected, including orders or directives to a peace officer, as allowed under this chapter;

(g) Require the respondent to pay the administrative court costs and service fees, as established by the county or municipality incurring the expense and to reimburse the petitioner for costs incurred in bringing the action, including reasonable attorneys' fees;

(h) Restrain the respondent from having any contact with the victim of domestic violence or the victim's children or members of the victim's household;

(i) Restrain the respondent from harassing, following, keeping under physical or electronic surveillance, cyberstalking as defined in RCW 9.61.260, and using telephonic, audiovisual, or other electronic means to monitor the actions, location, or communication of a victim of domestic violence, the victim's children, or members of the victim's household. For the purposes of this subsection, “communication” includes both “wire communication” and “electronic communication” as defined in RCW 9.73.260;

(j) Require the respondent to submit to electronic monitoring. The order shall specify who shall provide the electronic monitoring services and the terms under which the monitoring must be performed. The order also may include a requirement that the respondent pay the costs of the monitoring. The court shall consider the ability of the respondent to pay for electronic monitoring;

(k) Consider the provisions of RCW 9.41.800;

(l) Order possession and use of essential personal effects. The court shall list the essential personal effects with sufficient specificity to make it clear which property is included. Personal effects may include pets. The court may order that a petitioner be granted the exclusive custody or control of any pet owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by the petitioner, respondent, or minor child residing with either the petitioner or respondent and may prohibit the respondent from interfering with the petitioner's efforts to remove the pet. The court may also prohibit the respondent from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of specified locations where the pet is regularly found; and

(m) Order use of a vehicle.

(2) If a protection order restrains the respondent from contacting the respondent's minor children the restraint shall be for a fixed period not to exceed one year. This limitation is not applicable to orders for protection issued under chapter 26.09, 26.10, or 26.26 RCW. With regard to other relief, if the petitioner has petitioned for relief on his or her own behalf or on behalf of the petitioner's family or household members or minor children, and the court finds that the respondent is likely to resume acts of domestic violence against the petitioner or the petitioner's family or household members or minor children when the order expires, the court may either grant relief for a fixed period or enter a permanent order of protection.

If the petitioner has petitioned for relief on behalf of the respondent's minor children, the court shall advise the petitioner that if the petitioner wants to continue protection for a period beyond one year the petitioner may either petition for renewal pursuant to the provisions of this chapter or may seek relief pursuant to the provisions of chapter 26.09 or 26.26 RCW.

(3) If the court grants an order for a fixed time period, the petitioner may apply for renewal of the order by filing a petition for renewal at any time within the three months before the order expires. The petition for renewal shall state the reasons why the petitioner seeks to renew the protection order. Upon receipt of the petition for renewal the court shall order a hearing which shall be not later than fourteen days from the date of the order. Except as provided in RCW 26.50.085, personal service shall be made on the respondent not less than five days before the hearing. If timely service cannot be made the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require additional attempts at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication as provided in RCW 26.50.085 or by mail as provided in RCW 26.50.123. If the court permits service by publication or mail, the court shall set the new hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date of the order. If the order expires because timely service cannot be made the court shall grant an ex parte order of protection as provided in RCW 26.50.070. The court shall grant the petition for renewal unless the respondent proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent will not resume acts of domestic violence against the petitioner or the petitioner's children or family or household members when the order expires. The court may renew the protection order for another fixed time period or may enter a permanent order as provided in this section. The court may award court costs, service fees, and reasonable attorneys' fees as provided in subsection (1)(g) of this section.

(4) In providing relief under this chapter, the court may realign the designation of the parties as “petitioner” and “respondent” where the court finds that the original petitioner is the abuser and the original respondent is the victim of domestic violence and may issue an ex parte temporary order for protection in accordance with RCW 26.50.070 on behalf of the victim until the victim is able to prepare a petition for an order for protection in accordance with RCW 26.50.030.

(5) Except as provided in subsection (4) of this section, no order for protection shall grant relief to any party except upon notice to the respondent and hearing pursuant to a petition or counter-petition filed and served by the party seeking relief in accordance with RCW 26.50.050.

(6) The court order shall specify the date the order expires if any. The court order shall also state whether the court issued the protection order following personal service, service by publication, or service by mail and whether the court has approved service by publication or mail of an order issued under this section.

(7) If the court declines to issue an order for protection or declines to renew an order for protection, the court shall state in writing on the order the particular reasons for the court's denial.

26.50.070. Ex parte temporary order for protection

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Where an application under this section alleges that irreparable injury could result from domestic violence if an order is not issued immediately without prior notice to the respondent, the court may grant an ex parte temporary order for protection, pending a full hearing, and grant relief as the court deems proper, including an order:

(a) Restraining any party from committing acts of domestic violence;

(b) Restraining any party from going onto the grounds of or entering the dwelling that the parties share, from the residence, workplace, or school of the other, or from the day care or school of a child until further order of the court;

(c) Prohibiting any party from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location;

(d) Restraining any party from interfering with the other's custody of the minor children or from removing the children from the jurisdiction of the court;

(e) Restraining any party from having any contact with the victim of domestic violence or the victim's children or members of the victim's household;

(f) Considering the provisions of RCW 9.41.800; and

(g) Restraining the respondent from harassing, following, keeping under physical or electronic surveillance, cyberstalking as defined in RCW 9.61.260, and using telephonic, audiovisual, or other electronic means to monitor the actions, location, or communication of a victim of domestic violence, the victim's children, or members of the victim's household. For the purposes of this subsection, “communication” includes both “wire communication” and “electronic communication” as defined in RCW 9.73.260.

(2) Irreparable injury under this section includes but is not limited to situations in which the respondent has recently threatened petitioner with bodily injury or has engaged in acts of domestic violence against the petitioner.

(3) The court shall hold an ex parte hearing in person or by telephone on the day the petition is filed or on the following judicial day.

(4) An ex parte temporary order for protection shall be effective for a fixed period not to exceed fourteen days or twenty-four days if the court has permitted service by publication under RCW 26.50.085 or by mail under RCW 26.50.123. The ex parte order may be reissued. A full hearing, as provided in this chapter, shall be set for not later than fourteen days from the issuance of the temporary order or not later than twenty-four days if service by publication or by mail is permitted. Except as provided in RCW 26.50.050, 26.50.085, and 26.50.123, the respondent shall be personally served with a copy of the ex parte order along with a copy of the petition and notice of the date set for the hearing.

(5) Any order issued under this section shall contain the date and time of issuance and the expiration date and shall be entered into a statewide judicial information system by the clerk of the court within one judicial day after issuance.

(6) If the court declines to issue an ex parte temporary order for protection the court shall state the particular reasons for the court's denial. The court's denial of a motion for an ex parte order of protection shall be filed with the court.

26.50.080. Issuance of order -- Assistance of peace officer -- Designation of appropriate law enforcement agency

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) When an order is issued under this chapter upon request of the petitioner, the court may order a peace officer to accompany the petitioner and assist in placing the petitioner in possession of those items indicated in the order or to otherwise assist in the execution of the order of protection. The order shall list all items that are to be included with sufficient specificity to make it clear which property is included. Orders issued under this chapter shall include a designation of the appropriate law enforcement agency to execute, serve, or enforce the order.

(2) Upon order of a court, a peace officer shall accompany the petitioner in an order of protection and assist in placing the petitioner in possession of all items listed in the order and to otherwise assist in the execution of the order.

26.50.085. Hearing reset after ex parte order -- Service by publication -- Circumstances

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) If the respondent was not personally served with the petition, notice of hearing, and ex parte order before the hearing, the court shall reset the hearing for twenty-four days from the date of entry of the order and may order service by publication instead of personal service under the following circumstances:

(a) The sheriff or municipal officer files an affidavit stating that the officer was unable to complete personal service upon the respondent. The affidavit must describe the number and types of attempts the officer made to complete service;

(b) The petitioner files an affidavit stating that the petitioner believes that the respondent is hiding from the server to avoid service. The petitioner's affidavit must state the reasons for the belief that the respondent is avoiding service;

(c) The server has deposited a copy of the summons, in substantially the form prescribed in subsection (3) of this section, notice of hearing, and the ex parte order of protection in the post office, directed to the respondent at the respondent's last known address, unless the server states that the server does not know the respondent's address; and

(d) The court finds reasonable grounds exist to believe that the respondent is concealing himself or herself to avoid service, and that further attempts to personally serve the respondent would be futile or unduly burdensome.

(2) The court shall reissue the temporary order of protection not to exceed another twenty-four days from the date of reissuing the ex parte protection order and order to provide service by publication.

(3) The publication shall be made in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the petition was brought and in the county of the last known address of the respondent once a week for three consecutive weeks. The newspaper selected must be one of the three most widely circulated papers in the county. The publication of summons shall not be made until the court orders service by publication under this section. Service of the summons shall be considered complete when the publication has been made for three consecutive weeks. The summons must be signed by the petitioner. The summons shall contain the date of the first publication, and shall require the respondent upon whom service by publication is desired, to appear and answer the petition on the date set for the hearing. The summons shall also contain a brief statement of the reason for the petition and a summary of the provisions under the ex parte order. The summons shall be essentially in the following form:

In the ......... court of the state of Washington for the county of .........

,

Petitioner

vs.

No. ......

,

Respondent

The state of Washington to ........... (respondent):

You are hereby summoned to appear on the .... day of ......, (year) ...., at .... a.m./p.m., and respond to the petition. If you fail to respond, an order of protection will be issued against you pursuant to the provisions of the domestic violence protection act, chapter 26.50 RCW, for a minimum of one year from the date you are required to appear. A temporary order of protection has been issued against you, restraining you from the following: (Insert a brief statement of the provisions of the ex parte order). A copy of the petition, notice of hearing, and ex parte order has been filed with the clerk of this court.

Petitioner

26.50.090. Order -- Service -- Fees

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) An order issued under this chapter shall be personally served upon the respondent, except as provided in subsections (6) and (8) of this section.

(2) The sheriff of the county or the peace officers of the municipality in which the respondent resides shall serve the respondent personally unless the petitioner elects to have the respondent served by a private party.

(3) If service by a sheriff or municipal peace officer is to be used, the clerk of the court shall have a copy of any order issued under this chapter forwarded on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order for service upon the respondent. Service of an order issued under this chapter shall take precedence over the service of other documents unless they are of a similar emergency nature.

(4) If the sheriff or municipal peace officer cannot complete service upon the respondent within ten days, the sheriff or municipal peace officer shall notify the petitioner. The petitioner shall provide information sufficient to permit notification.

(5) Returns of service under this chapter shall be made in accordance with the applicable court rules.

(6) If an order entered by the court recites that the respondent appeared in person before the court, the necessity for further service is waived and proof of service of that order is not necessary.

(7) Municipal police departments serving documents as required under this chapter may collect from respondents ordered to pay fees under RCW 26.50.060 the same fees for service and mileage authorized by RCW 36.18.040 to be collected by sheriffs.

(8) If the court previously entered an order allowing service of the notice of hearing and temporary order of protection by publication pursuant to RCW 26.50.085 or by mail pursuant to RCW 26.50.123, the court may permit service by publication or by mail of the order of protection issued under RCW 26.50.060. Service by publication must comply with the requirements of RCW 26.50.085 and service by mail must comply with the requirements of RCW 26.50.123. The court order must state whether the court permitted service by publication or by mail.


26.50.095. Order following service by publication

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Following completion of service by publication as provided in RCW 26.50.085 or by mail as provided in RCW 26.50.123, if the respondent fails to appear at the hearing, the court may issue an order of protection as provided in RCW 26.50.060. That order must be served pursuant to RCW 26.50.090, and forwarded to the appropriate law enforcement agency pursuant to RCW 26.50.100.

26.50.100. Order -- Transmittal to law enforcement agency -- Record in law enforcement information system -- Enforceability

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A copy of an order for protection granted under this chapter shall be forwarded by the clerk of the court on or before the next judicial day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall forthwith enter the order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. The order shall remain in the computer for the period stated in the order. The law enforcement agency shall only expunge from the computer-based criminal intelligence information system orders that are expired, vacated, or superseded. Entry into the law enforcement information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the order. The order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(2) The information entered into the computer-based criminal intelligence information system shall include notice to law enforcement whether the order was personally served, served by publication, or served by mail.

26.50.110. Violation of order -- Penalties

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) Whenever an order is granted under this chapter, chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, any temporary order for protection granted under chapter 7.40 RCW pursuant to chapter 74.34 RCW, or there is a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020, and the respondent or person to be restrained knows of the order, a violation of any of the following provisions of the order is a gross misdemeanor, except as provided in subsections (4) and (5) of this section:

(i) The restraint provisions prohibiting acts or threats of violence against, or stalking of, a protected party, or restraint provisions prohibiting contact with a protected party;

(ii) A provision excluding the person from a residence, workplace, school, or day care;

(iii) A provision prohibiting a person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location;

(iv) A provision prohibiting interfering with the protected party's efforts to remove a pet owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by the petitioner, respondent, or a minor child residing with either the petitioner or the respondent; or

(v) A provision of a foreign protection order specifically indicating that a violation will be a crime.

(b) Upon conviction, and in addition to any other penalties provided by law, the court:

(i) May require that the respondent submit to electronic monitoring. The court shall specify who shall provide the electronic monitoring services, and the terms under which the monitoring shall be performed. The order also may include a requirement that the respondent pay the costs of the monitoring. The court shall consider the ability of the convicted person to pay for electronic monitoring.

(ii) Shall impose a fine of fifteen dollars, in addition to any penalty or fine imposed, for a violation of a domestic violence protection order issued under this chapter. Revenue from the fifteen dollar fine must be remitted monthly to the state treasury for deposit in the domestic violence prevention account.

(2) A peace officer shall arrest without a warrant and take into custody a person whom the peace officer has probable cause to believe has violated an order issued under this chapter, chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, any temporary order for protection granted under chapter 7.40 RCW pursuant to chapter 74.34 RCW, or a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020, that restrains the person or excludes the person from a residence, workplace, school, or day care, or prohibits the person from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance of a location, if the person restrained knows of the order. Presence of the order in the law enforcement computer-based criminal intelligence information system is not the only means of establishing knowledge of the order.

(3) A violation of an order issued under this chapter, chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, or of a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020, shall also constitute contempt of court, and is subject to the penalties prescribed by law.

(4) Any assault that is a violation of an order issued under this chapter, chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, or of a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020, and that does not amount to assault in the first or second degree under RCW 9A.36.011 or 9A.36.021is a class C felony, and any conduct in violation of such an order that is reckless and creates a substantial risk of death or serious physical injury to another person is a class C felony.

(5) A violation of a court order issued under this chapter, chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, or of a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020, is a class C felony if the offender has at least two previous convictions for violating the provisions of an order issued under this chapter, chapter 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, or a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020. The previous convictions may involve the same victim or other victims specifically protected by the orders the offender violated.

(6) Upon the filing of an affidavit by the petitioner or any peace officer alleging that the respondent has violated an order granted under this chapter, chapter 7.92, 7.90, 9A.40, 9A.46, 9A.88, 9.94A, 10.99, 26.09, 26.10, 26.26, or 74.34 RCW, or a valid foreign protection order as defined in RCW 26.52.020, the court may issue an order to the respondent, requiring the respondent to appear and show cause within fourteen days why the respondent should not be found in contempt of court and punished accordingly. The hearing may be held in the court of any county or municipality in which the petitioner or respondent temporarily or permanently resides at the time of the alleged violation.

26.50.115. Enforcement of ex parte order -- Knowledge of order prerequisite to penalties -- Reasonable efforts to serve copy of order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) When the court issues an ex parte order pursuant to RCW 26.50.070 or an order of protection pursuant to RCW 26.50.060, the court shall advise the petitioner that the respondent may not be subjected to the penalties set forth in RCW 26.50.110 for a violation of the order unless the respondent knows of the order.

(2) When a peace officer investigates a report of an alleged violation of an order for protection issued under this chapter the officer shall attempt to determine whether the respondent knew of the existence of the protection order. If the law enforcement officer determines that the respondent did not or probably did not know about the protection order and the officer is provided a current copy of the order, the officer shall serve the order on the respondent if the respondent is present. If the respondent is not present, the officer shall make reasonable efforts to serve a copy of the order on the respondent. If the officer serves the respondent with the petitioner's copy of the order, the officer shall give petitioner a receipt indicating that petitioner's copy has been served on the respondent. After the officer has served the order on the respondent, the officer shall enforce prospective compliance with the order.

(3) Presentation of an unexpired, certified copy of a protection order with proof of service is sufficient for a law enforcement officer to enforce the order regardless of the presence of the order in the law enforcement computer-based criminal intelligence information system.

26.50.120. Violation of order -- Prosecuting attorney or attorney for municipality may be requested to assist -- Costs and attorney's fee

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

When a party alleging a violation of an order for protection issued under this chapter states that the party is unable to afford private counsel and asks the prosecuting attorney for the county or the attorney for the municipality in which the order was issued for assistance, the attorney shall initiate and prosecute a contempt proceeding if there is probable cause to believe that the violation occurred. In this action, the court may require the violator of the order to pay the costs incurred in bringing the action, including a reasonable attorney's fee.

26.50.123. Service by mail.

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) In circumstances justifying service by publication under RCW 26.50.085(1), if the serving party files an affidavit stating facts from which the court determines that service by mail is just as likely to give actual notice as service by publication and that the serving party is unable to afford the cost of service by publication, the court may order that service be made by mail. Such service shall be made by any person over eighteen years of age, who is competent to be a witness, other than a party, by mailing copies of the order and other process to the party to be served at his or her last known address or any other address determined by the court to be appropriate. Two copies shall be mailed, postage prepaid, one by ordinary first class mail and the other by a form of mail requiring a signed receipt showing when and to whom it was delivered. The envelopes must bear the return address of the sender.

(2) Proof of service under this section shall be consistent with court rules for civil proceedings.

(3) Service under this section may be used in the same manner and shall have the same jurisdictional effect as service by publication for purposes of this chapter. Service shall be deemed complete upon the mailing of two copies as prescribed in this section.

26.50.125. Service by publication or mailing -- Costs

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Except as provided in RCW 10.14.055, the court may permit service by publication or by mail under this chapter only if the petitioner pays the cost of publication or mailing unless the county legislative authority allocates funds for service of process by publication or by mail for indigent petitioners.

26.50.130. Order for protection--Modification or termination--Service--Transmittal

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Upon a motion with notice to all parties and after a hearing, the court may modify the terms of an existing order for protection or may terminate an existing order for protection.

(2) A respondent's motion to modify or terminate an order for protection that is permanent or issued for a fixed period exceeding two years must include a declaration setting forth facts supporting the requested order for termination or modification. The motion and declaration must be served according to subsection (7) of this section. The nonmoving parties to the proceeding may file opposing declarations. The court shall deny the motion unless it finds that adequate cause for hearing the motion is established by the declarations. If the court finds that the respondent established adequate cause, the court shall set a date for hearing the respondent's motion.

(3)(a) The court may not terminate an order for protection that is permanent or issued for a fixed period exceeding two years upon a motion of the respondent unless the respondent proves by a preponderance of the evidence that there has been a substantial change in circumstances such that the respondent is not likely to resume acts of domestic violence against the petitioner or those persons protected by the protection order if the order is terminated. In a motion by the respondent for termination of an order for protection that is permanent or issued for a fixed period exceeding two years, the petitioner bears no burden of proving that he or she has a current reasonable fear of imminent harm by the respondent.

(b) For the purposes of this subsection, a court shall determine whether there has been a “substantial change in circumstances” by considering only factors which address whether the respondent is likely to commit future acts of domestic violence against the petitioner or those persons protected by the protection order.

(c) In determining whether there has been a substantial change in circumstances the court may consider the following unweighted factors, and no inference is to be drawn from the order in which the factors are listed:

(i) Whether the respondent has committed or threatened domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or other violent acts since the protection order was entered;

(ii) Whether the respondent has violated the terms of the protection order, and the time that has passed since the entry of the order;

(iii) Whether the respondent has exhibited suicidal ideation or attempts since the protection order was entered;

(iv) Whether the respondent has been convicted of criminal activity since the protection order was entered;

(v) Whether the respondent has either acknowledged responsibility for the acts of domestic violence that resulted in entry of the protection order or successfully completed domestic violence perpetrator treatment or counseling since the protection order was entered;

(vi) Whether the respondent has a continuing involvement with drug or alcohol abuse, if such abuse was a factor in the protection order;

(vii) Whether the petitioner consents to terminating the protection order, provided that consent is given voluntarily and knowingly;

(viii) Whether the respondent or petitioner has relocated to an area more distant from the other party, giving due consideration to the fact that acts of domestic violence may be committed from any distance;

(ix) Other factors relating to a substantial change in circumstances.

(d) In determining whether there has been a substantial change in circumstances, the court may not base its determination solely on: (i) The fact that time has passed without a violation of the order; or (ii) the fact that the respondent or petitioner has relocated to an area more distant from the other party.

(e) Regardless of whether there is a substantial change in circumstances, the court may decline to terminate a protection order if it finds that the acts of domestic violence that resulted in the issuance of the protection order were of such severity that the order should not be terminated.

(4) The court may not modify an order for protection that is permanent or issued for a fixed period exceeding two years upon a motion of the respondent unless the respondent proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the requested modification is warranted. If the requested modification would reduce the duration of the protection order or would eliminate provisions in the protection order restraining the respondent from harassing, stalking, threatening, or committing other acts of domestic violence against the petitioner or the petitioner's children or family or household members or other persons protected by the order, the court shall consider the factors in subsection (3)(c) of this section in determining whether the protection order should be modified. Upon a motion by the respondent for modification of an order for protection that is permanent or issued for a fixed period exceeding two years, the petitioner bears no burden of proving that he or she has a current reasonable fear of imminent harm by the respondent.

(5) Upon a motion by a petitioner, the court may modify or terminate an existing order for protection. The court shall hear the motion without an adequate cause hearing.

(6) A court may require the respondent to pay court costs and service fees, as established by the county or municipality incurring the expense and to pay the petitioner for costs incurred in responding to a motion to terminate or modify a protection order, including reasonable attorneys' fees.

(7) Except as provided in RCW 26.50.085 and 26.50.123, a motion to modify or terminate an order for protection must be personally served on the nonmoving party not less than five court days prior to the hearing.

(a) If a moving party seeks to modify or terminate an order for protection that is permanent or issued for a fixed period exceeding two years, the sheriff of the county or the peace officers of the municipality in which the nonmoving party resides or a licensed process server shall serve the nonmoving party personally except when a petitioner is the moving party and elects to have the nonmoving party served by a private party.

(b) If the sheriff, municipal peace officer, or licensed process server cannot complete service upon the nonmoving party within ten days, the sheriff, municipal peace officer, or licensed process server shall notify the moving party. The moving party shall provide information sufficient to permit notification by the sheriff, municipal peace officer, or licensed process server.

(c) If timely personal service cannot be made, the court shall set a new hearing date and shall either require an additional attempt at obtaining personal service or permit service by publication as provided in RCW 26.50.085 or service by mail as provided in RCW 26.50.123.

(d) The court shall not require more than two attempts at obtaining personal service and shall permit service by publication or by mail unless the moving party requests additional time to attempt personal service.

(e) If the court permits service by publication or by mail, the court shall set the hearing date not later than twenty-four days from the date of the order permitting service by publication or by mail.

(8) Municipal police departments serving documents as required under this chapter may recover from a respondent ordered to pay fees under subsection (6) of this section the same fees for service and mileage authorized by RCW 36.18.040 to be collected by sheriffs.

[(9)] In any situation where an order is terminated or modified before its expiration date, the clerk of the court shall forward on or before the next judicial day a true copy of the modified order or the termination order to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the modified or termination order. Upon receipt of the order, the law enforcement agency shall promptly enter it in the law enforcement information system.

26.50.135. Residential placement or custody of a child -- Prerequisite

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Before granting an order under this chapter directing residential placement of a child or restraining or limiting a party's contact with a child, the court shall consult the judicial information system, if available, to determine the pendency of other proceedings involving the residential placement of any child of the parties for whom residential placement has been requested.

(2) Jurisdictional issues regarding out-of-state proceedings involving the custody or residential placement of any child of the parties shall be governed by the uniform child custody jurisdiction act, chapter 26.27 RCW.

26.50.150. Domestic violence perpetrator programs

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Any program that provides domestic violence treatment to perpetrators of domestic violence must be certified by the department of social and health services and meet minimum standards for domestic violence treatment purposes. The department of social and health services shall adopt rules for standards of approval of domestic violence perpetrator programs. The treatment must meet the following minimum qualifications:

(1) All treatment must be based upon a full, complete clinical intake including but not limited to: Current and past violence history; a lethality risk assessment; history of treatment from past domestic violence perpetrator treatment programs; a complete diagnostic evaluation; a substance abuse assessment; criminal history; assessment of cultural issues, learning disabilities, literacy, and special language needs; and a treatment plan that adequately and appropriately addresses the treatment needs of the individual.

(2) To facilitate communication necessary for periodic safety checks and case monitoring, the program must require the perpetrator to sign the following releases:

(a) A release for the program to inform the victim and victim's community and legal advocates that the perpetrator is in treatment with the program, and to provide information, for safety purposes, to the victim and victim's community and legal advocates;

(b) A release to prior and current treatment agencies to provide information on the perpetrator to the program; and

(c) A release for the program to provide information on the perpetrator to relevant legal entities including: Lawyers, courts, parole, probation, child protective services, and child welfare services.

(3) Treatment must be for a minimum treatment period defined by the secretary of the department by rule. The weekly treatment sessions must be in a group unless there is a documented, clinical reason for another modality. Any other therapies, such as individual, marital, or family therapy, substance abuse evaluations or therapy, medication reviews, or psychiatric interviews, may be concomitant with the weekly group treatment sessions described in this section but not a substitute for it.

(4) The treatment must focus primarily on ending the violence, holding the perpetrator accountable for his or her violence, and changing his or her behavior. The treatment must be based on nonvictim-blaming strategies and philosophies and shall include education about the individual, family, and cultural dynamics of domestic violence. If the perpetrator or the victim has a minor child, treatment must specifically include education regarding the effects of domestic violence on children, such as the emotional impacts of domestic violence on children and the long-term consequences that exposure to incidents of domestic violence may have on children.

(5) Satisfactory completion of treatment must be contingent upon the perpetrator meeting specific criteria, defined by rule by the secretary of the department, and not just upon the end of a certain period of time or a certain number of sessions.

(6) The program must have policies and procedures for dealing with reoffenses and noncompliance.

(7) All evaluation and treatment services must be provided by, or under the supervision of, qualified personnel.

(8) The secretary of the department may adopt rules and establish fees as necessary to implement this section.

(9) The department may conduct on-site monitoring visits as part of its plan for certifying domestic violence perpetrator programs and monitoring implementation of the rules adopted by the secretary of the department to determine compliance with the minimum qualifications for domestic violence perpetrator programs. The applicant or certified domestic violence perpetrator program shall cooperate fully with the department in the monitoring visit and provide all program and management records requested by the department to determine the program's compliance with the minimum certification qualifications and rules adopted by the department.

26.50.200. Title to real estate -- Effect

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Nothing in this chapter may affect the title to real estate: PROVIDED, That a judgment for costs or fees awarded under this chapter shall constitute a lien on real estate to the extent provided in chapter 4.56 RCW.

26.50.220. Parenting plan -- Designation of parent for other state and federal purposes

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Solely for the purposes of all other state and federal statutes which require a designation or determination of custody, a parenting plan shall designate the parent with whom the child is scheduled to reside a majority of the time as the custodian of the child. However, this designation shall not affect either parent's rights and responsibilities under the parenting plan. In the absence of such a designation, the parent with whom the child is scheduled to reside the majority of the time shall be deemed to be the custodian of the child for the purposes of such federal and state statutes.

Chapter 26.52. Foreign Protection Order Full Faith and Credit Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

26.52.020. Foreign protection orders--Validity

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

A foreign protection order is valid if the issuing court had jurisdiction over the parties and matter under the law of the state, territory, possession, tribe, or United States military tribunal. There is a presumption in favor of validity where an order appears authentic on its face.

A person under restraint must be given reasonable notice and the opportunity to be heard before the order of the foreign state, territory, possession, tribe, or United States military tribunal was issued, provided, in the case of ex parte orders, notice and opportunity to be heard was given as soon as possible after the order was issued, consistent with due process.

26.52.030. Foreign protection orders--Filing--Assistance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) A person entitled to protection who has a valid foreign protection order may file that order by presenting a certified, authenticated, or exemplified copy of the foreign protection order to a clerk of the court of a Washington court in which the person entitled to protection resides or to a clerk of the court of a Washington court where the person entitled to protection believes enforcement may be necessary. Any out-of-state department, agency, or court responsible for maintaining protection order records, may by facsimile or electronic transmission send a reproduction of the foreign protection order to the clerk of the court of Washington as long as it contains a facsimile or digital signature by any person authorized to make such transmission.

(2) Filing of a foreign protection order with a court and entry of the foreign protection order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants are not prerequisites for enforcement of the foreign protection order.

(3) The court shall accept the filing of a foreign protection order without a fee or cost.

(4) The clerk of the court shall provide information to a person entitled to protection of the availability of domestic violence, sexual abuse, and other services to victims in the community where the court is located and in the state.

(5) The clerk of the court shall assist the person entitled to protection in completing an information form that must include, but need not be limited to, the following:

(a) The name of the person entitled to protection and any other protected parties;

(b) The name and address of the person who is subject to the restraint provisions of the foreign protection order;

(c) The date the foreign protection order was entered;

(d) The date the foreign protection order expires;

(e) The relief granted under .......... (specify the relief awarded and citations thereto, and designate which of the violations are arrestable offenses);

(f) The judicial district and contact information for court administration for the court in which the foreign protection order was entered;

(g) The social security number, date of birth, and description of the person subject to the restraint provisions of the foreign protection order;

(h) Whether the person who is subject to the restraint provisions of the foreign protection order is believed to be armed and dangerous;

(i) Whether the person who is subject to the restraint provisions of the foreign protection order was served with the order, and if so, the method used to serve the order;

(j) The type and location of any other legal proceedings between the person who is subject to the restraint provisions and the person entitled to protection.

An inability to answer any of the above questions does not preclude the filing or enforcement of a foreign protection order.

(6) The clerk of the court shall provide the person entitled to protection with a copy bearing proof of filing with the court.

(7) Any assistance provided by the clerk under this section does not constitute the practice of law. The clerk is not liable for any incomplete or incorrect information that he or she is provided.

26.52.040. Filed foreign protection orders--Transmittal to law enforcement agency--Entry into law enforcement information system

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The clerk of the court shall forward a copy of a foreign protection order that is filed under this chapter on or before the next judicial day to the county sheriff along with the completed information form. The clerk may forward the foreign protection order to the county sheriff by facsimile or electronic transmission.

Upon receipt of a filed foreign protection order, the county sheriff shall immediately enter the foreign protection order into any computer-based criminal intelligence information system available in this state used by law enforcement agencies to list outstanding warrants. The foreign protection order must remain in the computer for the period stated in the order. The county sheriff shall only expunge from the computer-based criminal intelligence information system foreign protection orders that are expired, vacated, or superseded. Entry into the law enforcement information system constitutes notice to all law enforcement agencies of the existence of the foreign protection order. The foreign protection order is fully enforceable in any county in the state.

(2) The information entered into the computer-based criminal intelligence information system must include, if available, notice to law enforcement whether the foreign protection order was served and the method of service.

26.52.080. Child custody disputes

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Any disputes regarding provisions in foreign protection orders dealing with custody of children, residential placement of children, or visitation with children shall be resolved judicially. The proper venue and jurisdiction for such judicial proceedings shall be determined in accordance with chapter 26.27 RCW and in accordance with the parental kidnapping prevention act, 28 U.S.C. 1738A.

(2) A peace officer shall not remove a child from his or her current placement unless:

(a) A writ of habeas corpus to produce the child has been issued by a superior court of this state; or

(b) There is probable cause to believe that the child is abused or neglected and the child would be injured or could not be taken into custody if it were necessary to first obtain a court order pursuant to RCW 13.34.050.

Title 36. Counties

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 36.18. Fees of County Officers

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

36.18.020. Clerk's fees, surcharges

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) Revenue collected under this section is subject to division with the state under RCW 36.18.025 and with the county or regional law library fund under RCW 27.24.070, except as provided in subsection (5) of this section.

(2) Clerks of superior courts shall collect the following fees for their official services:

(a) In addition to any other fee required by law, the party filing the first or initial document in any civil action, including, but not limited to an action for restitution, adoption, or change of name, and any party filing a counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party claim in any such civil action, shall pay, at the time the document is filed, a fee of two hundred dollars except, in an unlawful detainer action under chapter 59.18 or 59.20 RCW for which the plaintiff shall pay a case initiating filing fee of forty-five dollars, or in proceedings filed under RCW 28A.225.030 alleging a violation of the compulsory attendance laws where the petitioner shall not pay a filing fee. The forty-five dollar filing fee under this subsection for an unlawful detainer action shall not include an order to show cause or any other order or judgment except a default order or default judgment in an unlawful detainer action.

(b) Any party, except a defendant in a criminal case, filing the first or initial document on an appeal from a court of limited jurisdiction or any party on any civil appeal, shall pay, when the document is filed, a fee of two hundred dollars.

(c) For filing of a petition for judicial review as required under RCW 34.05.514 a filing fee of two hundred dollars.

(d) For filing of a petition for unlawful harassment under RCW 10.14.040 a filing fee of fifty-three dollars.

(e) For filing the notice of debt due for the compensation of a crime victim under RCW 7.68.120(2)(a) a fee of two hundred dollars.

(f) In probate proceedings, the party instituting such proceedings, shall pay at the time of filing the first document therein, a fee of two hundred dollars.

(g) For filing any petition to contest a will admitted to probate or a petition to admit a will which has been rejected, or a petition objecting to a written agreement or memorandum as provided in RCW 11.96A.220, there shall be paid a fee of two hundred dollars.

(h) Upon conviction or plea of guilty, upon failure to prosecute an appeal from a court of limited jurisdiction as provided by law, or upon affirmance of a conviction by a court of limited jurisdiction, an adult defendant in a criminal case shall be liable for a fee of two hundred dollars.

(i) With the exception of demands for jury hereafter made and garnishments hereafter issued, civil actions and probate proceedings filed prior to midnight, July 1, 1972, shall be completed and governed by the fee schedule in effect as of January 1, 1972. However, no fee shall be assessed if an order of dismissal on the clerk's record be filed as provided by rule of the supreme court.

(3) No fee shall be collected when a petition for relinquishment of parental rights is filed pursuant to RCW 26.33.080 or for forms and instructional brochures provided under RCW 26.50.030.

(4) No fee shall be collected when an abstract of judgment is filed by the county clerk of another county for the purposes of collection of legal financial obligations.

(5)(a) Until July 1, 2017, in addition to the fees required to be collected under this section, clerks of the superior courts must collect surcharges as provided in this subsection (5) of which seventy-five percent must be remitted to the state treasurer for deposit in the judicial stabilization trust account and twenty-five percent must be retained by the county.

(b) On filing fees required to be collected under subsection (2)(b) of this section, a surcharge of thirty dollars must be collected.

(c) On all filing fees required to be collected under this section, except for fees required under subsection (2)(b), (d), and (h) of this section, a surcharge of forty dollars must be collected.

Title 59. Landlord and Tenant

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 59.18. Residential Landlord-Tenant Act

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

59.18.575. Victim protection--Notice to landlord--Termination of rental agreement--Procedures

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1)(a) If a tenant notifies the landlord in writing that he or she or a household member was a victim of an act that constitutes a crime of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking, and either (a)(i) or (ii) of this subsection applies, then subsection (2) of this section applies:

(i) The tenant or the household member has a valid order for protection under one or more of the following: Chapter 7.90, 26.50, or 26.26 RCW or RCW 9A.46.040, 9A.46.050, 10.14.080, 10.99.040 (2) or (3), or 26.09.050; or

(ii) The tenant or the household member has reported the domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking to a qualified third party acting in his or her official capacity and the qualified third party has provided the tenant or the household member a written record of the report signed by the qualified third party.

(b) When a copy of a valid order for protection or a written record of a report signed by a qualified third party, as required under (a) of this subsection, is made available to the landlord, the tenant may terminate the rental agreement and quit the premises without further obligation under the rental agreement or under chapter 59.18 RCW. However, the request to terminate the rental agreement must occur within ninety days of the reported act, event, or circumstance that gave rise to the protective order or report to a qualified third party. A record of the report to a qualified third party that is provided to the tenant or household member shall consist of a document signed and dated by the qualified third party stating: (i) That the tenant or the household member notified him or her that he or she was a victim of an act or acts that constitute a crime of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking; (ii) the time and date the act or acts occurred; (iii) the location where the act or acts occurred; (iv) a brief description of the act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking; and (v) that the tenant or household member informed him or her of the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act or acts. The record of the report provided to the tenant or household member shall not include the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking. The qualified third party shall keep a copy of the record of the report and shall note on the retained copy the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking. The record of the report to a qualified third party may be accomplished by completion of a form provided by the qualified third party, in substantially the following form:

..........

[Name of organization, agency, clinic, professional service provider]

I and/or my .......... (household member) am/is a victim of

... domestic violence as defined by RCW 26.50.010.

... sexual assault as defined by RCW 70.125.030.

... stalking as defined by RCW 9A.46.110.

... unlawful harassment as defined by RCW 59.18.570.

Briefly describe the incident of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking:

..........

..........

The incident(s) that I rely on in support of this declaration occurred on the following date(s) and time(s) and at the following location(s): ..........

The incident(s) that I rely on in support of this declaration were committed by the following person(s): ..........

..........

I state under penalty of perjury under the laws of the state of Washington that the foregoing is true and correct. Dated at .......... (city) ..., Washington, this ... day of ..., 20....

..........

Signature of Tenant or

Household Member

I verify that I have provided to the person whose signature appears above the statutes cited in RCW 59.18.575 and that the individual was a victim of an act that constitutes a crime of domestic violence, sexual assault, unlawful harassment, or stalking, and that the individual informed me of the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act.

Dated this ... day of ..., 20...

..........

Signature of authorized officer/employee of (Organization, agency, clinic, professional service provider)

(2) A tenant who terminates a rental agreement under this section is discharged from the payment of rent for any period following the last day of the month of the quitting date. The tenant shall remain liable for the rent for the month in which he or she terminated the rental agreement unless the termination is in accordance with RCW 59.18.200(1). Notwithstanding lease provisions that allow for forfeiture of a deposit for early termination, a tenant who terminates under this section is entitled to the return of the full deposit, subject to RCW 59.18.020 and 59.18.280. Other tenants who are parties to the rental agreement, except household members who are the victims of sexual assault, stalking, unlawful harassment, or domestic violence, are not released from their obligations under the rental agreement or other obligations under this chapter.

(3)(a) Notwithstanding any other provision under this section, if a tenant or a household member is a victim of sexual assault, stalking, or unlawful harassment by a landlord, the tenant may terminate the rental agreement and quit the premises without further obligation under the rental agreement or under this chapter prior to making a copy of a valid order for protection or a written record of a report signed by a qualified third party available to the landlord, provided that:

(i) The tenant must deliver a copy of a valid order for protection or written record of a report signed by a qualified third party to the landlord by mail, fax, or personal delivery by a third party within seven days of quitting the tenant's dwelling unit; and

(ii) A written record of a report signed by the qualified third party must be substantially in the form specified under subsection (1)(b) of this section. The record of the report provided to the landlord must not include the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act. On written request by the landlord, the qualified third party shall, within seven days, provide the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act to the landlord only if the alleged perpetrator was a person meeting the definition of the term “landlord” under RCW 59.18.570.

(b) A tenant who terminates his or her rental agreement under this subsection is discharged from the payment of rent for any period following the latter of: (i) The date the tenant vacates the unit; or (ii) the date the record of the report of the qualified third party and the written notice that the tenant has vacated are delivered to the landlord by mail, fax, or personal delivery by a third party. The tenant is entitled to a pro rata refund of any prepaid rent and must receive a full and specific statement of the basis for retaining any of the deposit together with any refund due in accordance with RCW 59.18.280.

(4) If a tenant or a household member is a victim of sexual assault, stalking, or unlawful harassment by a landlord, the tenant may change or add locks to the tenant's dwelling unit at the tenant's expense. If a tenant exercises his or her rights to change or add locks, the following rules apply:

(a) Within seven days of changing or adding locks, the tenant must deliver to the landlord by mail, fax, or personal delivery by a third party: (i) Written notice that the tenant has changed or added locks; and (ii) a copy of a valid order for protection or a written record of a report signed by a qualified third party. A written record of a report signed by a qualified third party must be substantially in the form specified under subsection (1)(b) of this section. The record of the report provided to the landlord must not include the name of the alleged perpetrator of the act. On written request by the landlord, the qualified third party shall, within seven days, provide the name of the alleged perpetrator to the landlord only if the alleged perpetrator was a person meeting the definition of the term “landlord” under RCW 59.18.570.

(b) After the tenant provides notice to the landlord that the tenant has changed or added locks, the tenant's rental agreement shall terminate on the ninetieth day after providing such notice, unless:

(i) Within sixty days of providing notice that the tenant has changed or added locks, the tenant notifies the landlord in writing that the tenant does not wish to terminate his or her rental agreement. If the perpetrator has been identified by the qualified third party and is no longer an employee or agent of the landlord or owner and does not reside at the property, the tenant shall provide the owner or owner's designated agent with a copy of the key to the new locks at the same time as providing notice that the tenant does not wish to terminate his or her rental agreement. A tenant who has a valid protection, antiharassment, or other protective order against the owner of the premises or against an employee or agent of the landlord or owner is not required to provide a key to the new locks until the protective order expires or the tenant vacates; or

(ii) The tenant exercises his or her rights to terminate the rental agreement under subsection (3) of this section within sixty days of providing notice that the tenant has changed or added locks.

(c) After a landlord receives notice that a tenant has changed or added locks to his or her dwelling unit under (a) of this subsection, the landlord may not enter the tenant's dwelling unit except as follows:

(i) In the case of an emergency, the landlord may enter the unit if accompanied by a law enforcement or fire official acting in his or her official capacity. If the landlord reasonably concludes that the circumstances require immediate entry into the unit, the landlord may, after notifying emergency services, use such force as necessary to enter the unit if the tenant is not present; or

(ii) The landlord complies with the requirements of RCW 59.18.150 and clearly specifies in writing the time and date that the landlord intends to enter the unit and the purpose for entering the unit. The tenant must make arrangements to permit access by the landlord.

(d) The exercise of rights to change or add locks under this subsection does not discharge the tenant from the payment of rent until the rental agreement is terminated and the tenant vacates the unit.

(e) The tenant may not change any locks to common areas and must make keys for new locks available to other household members.

(f) Upon vacating the dwelling unit, the tenant must deliver the key and all copies of the key to the landlord by mail or personal delivery by a third party.

(5) A tenant's remedies under this section do not preempt any other legal remedy available to the tenant.

(6) The provision of verification of a report under subsection (1)(b) of this section does not waive the confidential or privileged nature of the communication between a victim of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking with a qualified third party pursuant to RCW 5.60.060, 70.123.075, or 70.125.065. No record or evidence obtained from such disclosure may be used in any civil, administrative, or criminal proceeding against the victim unless a written waiver of applicable evidentiary privilege is obtained, except that the verification itself, and no other privileged information, under subsection (1)(b) of this section may be used in civil proceedings brought under this section.

Title 71. Mental Illness

Chapter 71.09. Sexually Violent Predators

71.09.020. Definitions

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.
(1) “Department” means the department of social and health services.
(2) “Health care facility” means any hospital, hospice care center, licensed or certified health care facility, health maintenance organization regulated under chapter 48.46 RCW, federally qualified health maintenance organization, federally approved renal dialysis center or facility, or federally approved blood bank.
(3) “Health care practitioner” means an individual or firm licensed or certified to engage actively in a regulated health profession.
(4) “Health care services” means those services provided by health professionals licensed pursuant to RCW 18.120.020(4).
(5) “Health profession” means those licensed or regulated professions set forth in RCW 18.120.020(4).
(6) “Less restrictive alternative” means court-ordered treatment in a setting less restrictive than total confinement which satisfies the conditions set forth in RCW 71.09.092. A less restrictive alternative may not include placement in the community protection program as pursuant to RCW 71A.12.230.
(7) “Likely to engage in predatory acts of sexual violence if not confined in a secure facility” means that the person more probably than not will engage in such acts if released unconditionally from detention on the sexually violent predator petition. Such likelihood must be evidenced by a recent overt act if the person is not totally confined at the time the petition is filed under RCW 71.09.030.
(8) “Mental abnormality” means a congenital or acquired condition affecting the emotional or volitional capacity which predisposes the person to the commission of criminal sexual acts in a degree constituting such person a menace to the health and safety of others.
(9) “Personality disorder” means an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time and leads to distress or impairment. Purported evidence of a personality disorder must be supported by testimony of a licensed forensic psychologist or psychiatrist.
(10) “Predatory” means acts directed towards: (a) Strangers; (b) individuals with whom a relationship has been established or promoted for the primary purpose of victimization; or (c) persons of casual acquaintance with whom no substantial personal relationship exists.
(11) “Prosecuting agency” means the prosecuting attorney of the county where the person was convicted or charged or the attorney general if requested by the prosecuting attorney, as provided in RCW 71.09.030.
(12) “Recent overt act” means any act, threat, or combination thereof that has either caused harm of a sexually violent nature or creates a reasonable apprehension of such harm in the mind of an objective person who knows of the history and mental condition of the person engaging in the act or behaviors.
(13) “Risk potential activity” or “risk potential facility” means an activity or facility that provides a higher incidence of risk to the public from persons conditionally released from the special commitment center. Risk potential activities and facilities include: Public and private schools, school bus stops, licensed day care and licensed preschool facilities, public parks, publicly dedicated trails, sports fields, playgrounds, recreational and community centers, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, public libraries, public and private youth camps, and others identified by the department following the hearings on a potential site required in RCW 71.09.315. For purposes of this chapter, “school bus stops” does not include bus stops established primarily for public transit.
(14) “Secretary” means the secretary of social and health services or the secretary's designee.
(15) “Secure community transition facility” means a residential facility for persons civilly committed and conditionally released to a less restrictive alternative under this chapter. A secure community transition facility has supervision and security, and either provides or ensures the provision of sex offender treatment services. Secure community transition facilities include but are not limited to the facility established pursuant to RCW 71.09.250(1)(a)(i) and any community-based facilities established under this chapter and operated by the secretary or under contract with the secretary.
(16) “Secure facility” means a residential facility for persons civilly confined under the provisions of this chapter that includes security measures sufficient to protect the community. Such facilities include total confinement facilities, secure community transition facilities, and any residence used as a court-ordered placement under RCW 71.09.096.
(17) “Sexually violent offense” means an act committed on, before, or after July 1, 1990, that is: (a) An act defined in Title 9A RCW as rape in the first degree, rape in the second degree by forcible compulsion, rape of a child in the first or second degree, statutory rape in the first or second degree, indecent liberties by forcible compulsion, indecent liberties against a child under age fourteen, incest against a child under age fourteen, or child molestation in the first or second degree; (b) a felony offense in effect at any time prior to July 1, 1990, that is comparable to a sexually violent offense as defined in (a) of this subsection, or any federal or out-of-state conviction for a felony offense that under the laws of this state would be a sexually violent offense as defined in this subsection; (c) an act of murder in the first or second degree, assault in the first or second degree, assault of a child in the first or second degree, kidnapping in the first or second degree, burglary in the first degree, residential burglary, or unlawful imprisonment, which act, either at the time of sentencing for the offense or subsequently during civil commitment proceedings pursuant to this chapter, has been determined beyond a reasonable doubt to have been sexually motivated, as that term is defined in RCW 9.94A.030; or (d) an act as described in chapter 9A.28 RCW, that is an attempt, criminal solicitation, or criminal conspiracy to commit one of the felonies designated in (a), (b), or (c) of this subsection.
(18) “Sexually violent predator” means any person who has been convicted of or charged with a crime of sexual violence and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the person likely to engage in predatory acts of sexual violence if not confined in a secure facility.
(19) “Total confinement facility” means a secure facility that provides supervision and sex offender treatment services in a total confinement setting. Total confinement facilities include the special commitment center and any similar facility designated as a total confinement facility by the secretary.
(20) “Treatment” means the sex offender specific treatment program at the special commitment center or a specific course of sex offender treatment pursuant to RCW 71.09.092 (1) and (2).

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Title 71A. Developmental Disabilities

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 71A. 10. General Provisions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

71A.10.020. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

As used in this title, the following terms have the meanings indicated unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) “Assessment” means an evaluation is provided by the department to determine:

(a) If the individual meets functional and financial criteria for medicaid services; and

(b) The individual's support needs for service determination.

(2) “Community residential support services,” or “community support services,” and “in-home services” means one or more of the services listed in RCW 71A.12.040.

(3) “Crisis stabilization services” means services provided to persons with developmental disabilities who are experiencing behaviors that jeopardize the safety and stability of their current living situation. Crisis stabilization services include:

(a) Temporary intensive services and supports, typically not to exceed sixty days, to prevent psychiatric hospitalization, institutional placement, or other out-of-home placement; and

(b) Services designed to stabilize the person and strengthen their current living situation so the person may continue to safely reside in the community during and beyond the crisis period.

(4) “Department” means the department of social and health services.

(5) “Developmental disability” means a disability attributable to intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or another neurological or other condition of an individual found by the secretary to be closely related to an intellectual disability or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with intellectual disabilities, which disability originates before the individual attains age eighteen, which has continued or can be expected to continue indefinitely, and which constitutes a substantial limitation to the individual. By January 1, 1989, the department shall promulgate rules which define neurological or other conditions in a way that is not limited to intelligence quotient scores as the sole determinant of these conditions, and notify the legislature of this action.

(6) “Eligible person” means a person who has been found by the secretary under RCW 71A.16.040 to be eligible for services.

(7) “Habilitative services” means those services provided by program personnel to assist persons in acquiring and maintaining life skills and to raise their levels of physical, mental, social, and vocational functioning. Habilitative services include education, training for employment, and therapy.

(8) “Legal representative” means a parent of a person who is under eighteen years of age, a person's legal guardian, a person's limited guardian when the subject matter is within the scope of the limited guardianship, a person's attorney-at-law, a person's attorney-in-fact, or any other person who is authorized by law to act for another person.

(9) “Notice” or “notification” of an action of the secretary means notice in compliance with RCW 71A.10.060.

(10) “Residential habilitation center” means a state-operated facility for persons with developmental disabilities governed by chapter 71A.20 RCW.

(11) “Respite services” means relief for families and other caregivers of people with disabilities, typically not to exceed ninety days, to include both in-home and out-of-home respite care on an hourly and daily basis, including twenty-four hour care for several consecutive days. Respite care workers provide supervision, companionship, and personal care services temporarily replacing those provided by the primary caregiver of the person with disabilities. Respite care may include other services needed by the client, including medical care which must be provided by a licensed health care practitioner.

(12) “Secretary” means the secretary of social and health services or the secretary's designee.

(13) “Service” or “services” means services provided by state or local government to carry out this title.

(14) “Service request list” means a list of eligible persons who have received an assessment for service determination and their assessment shows that they meet the eligibility requirements for the requested service but were denied access due to funding limits.

(15) “State-operated living alternative” means programs for community residential services which may include assistance with activities of daily living, behavioral, habilitative, interpersonal, protective, medical, nursing, and mobility supports to individuals who have been assessed by the department as meeting state and federal requirements for eligibility in home and community-based waiver programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. State-operated living alternatives are operated and staffed with state employees.

(16) “Supported living” means community residential services and housing which may include assistance with activities of daily living, behavioral, habilitative, interpersonal, protective, medical, nursing, and mobility supports provided to individuals with disabilities who have been assessed by the department as meeting state and federal requirements for eligibility in home and community-based waiver programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. Supported living services are provided under contracts with private agencies or with individuals who are not state employees.

(17) “Vacancy” means an opening at a residential habilitation center, which when filled, would not require the center to exceed its biennially budgeted capacity.

Title 74. Public Assistance

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

Chapter 74.34. Abuse of Vulnerable Adults

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

74.34.020. Definitions

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) “Abandonment” means action or inaction by a person or entity with a duty of care for a vulnerable adult that leaves the vulnerable person without the means or ability to obtain necessary food, clothing, shelter, or health care.

(2) “Abuse” means the willful action or inaction that inflicts injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or punishment on a vulnerable adult. In instances of abuse of a vulnerable adult who is unable to express or demonstrate physical harm, pain, or mental anguish, the abuse is presumed to cause physical harm, pain, or mental anguish. Abuse includes sexual abuse, mental abuse, physical abuse, and personal exploitation of a vulnerable adult, and improper use of restraint against a vulnerable adult which have the following meanings:

(a) “Sexual abuse” means any form of nonconsensual sexual conduct, including but not limited to unwanted or inappropriate touching, rape, sodomy, sexual coercion, sexually explicit photographing, and sexual harassment. Sexual abuse also includes any sexual conduct between a staff person, who is not also a resident or client, of a facility or a staff person of a program authorized under chapter 71A.12 RCW, and a vulnerable adult living in that facility or receiving service from a program authorized under chapter 71A.12 RCW, whether or not it is consensual.

(b) “Physical abuse” means the willful action of inflicting bodily injury or physical mistreatment. Physical abuse includes, but is not limited to, striking with or without an object, slapping, pinching, choking, kicking, shoving, or prodding.

(c) “Mental abuse” means a willful verbal or nonverbal action that threatens, humiliates, harasses, coerces, intimidates, isolates, unreasonably confines, or punishes a vulnerable adult. Mental abuse may include ridiculing, yelling, or swearing.

(d) “Personal exploitation” means an act of forcing, compelling, or exerting undue influence over a vulnerable adult causing the vulnerable adult to act in a way that is inconsistent with relevant past behavior, or causing the vulnerable adult to perform services for the benefit of another.

(e) “Improper use of restraint” means the inappropriate use of chemical, physical, or mechanical restraints for convenience or discipline or in a manner that: (i) Is inconsistent with federal or state licensing or certification requirements for facilities, hospitals, or programs authorized under chapter 71A.12 RCW; (ii) is not medically authorized; or (iii) otherwise constitutes abuse under this section.

(3) “Chemical restraint” means the administration of any drug to manage a vulnerable adult's behavior in a way that reduces the safety risk to the vulnerable adult or others, has the temporary effect of restricting the vulnerable adult's freedom of movement, and is not standard treatment for the vulnerable adult's medical or psychiatric condition.

(4) “Consent” means express written consent granted after the vulnerable adult or his or her legal representative has been fully informed of the nature of the services to be offered and that the receipt of services is voluntary.

(5) “Department” means the department of social and health services.

(6) “Facility” means a residence licensed or required to be licensed under chapter 18.20 RCW, assisted living facilities; chapter 18.51 RCW, nursing homes; chapter 70.128 RCW, adult family homes; chapter 72.36 RCW, soldiers' homes; or chapter 71A.20 RCW, residential habilitation centers; or any other facility licensed or certified by the department.

(7) “Financial exploitation” means the illegal or improper use, control over, or withholding of the property, income, resources, or trust funds of the vulnerable adult by any person or entity for any person's or entity's profit or advantage other than for the vulnerable adult's profit or advantage. “Financial exploitation” includes, but is not limited to:

(a) The use of deception, intimidation, or undue influence by a person or entity in a position of trust and confidence with a vulnerable adult to obtain or use the property, income, resources, or trust funds of the vulnerable adult for the benefit of a person or entity other than the vulnerable adult;

(b) The breach of a fiduciary duty, including, but not limited to, the misuse of a power of attorney, trust, or a guardianship appointment, that results in the unauthorized appropriation, sale, or transfer of the property, income, resources, or trust funds of the vulnerable adult for the benefit of a person or entity other than the vulnerable adult; or

(c) Obtaining or using a vulnerable adult's property, income, resources, or trust funds without lawful authority, by a person or entity who knows or clearly should know that the vulnerable adult lacks the capacity to consent to the release or use of his or her property, income, resources, or trust funds.

(8) “Financial institution” has the same meaning as in RCW 30A.22.040 and 30A.22.041. For purposes of this chapter only, “financial institution” also means a “broker-dealer” or “investment adviser” as defined in RCW 21.20.005.

(9) “Hospital” means a facility licensed under chapter 70.41, 71.12, or 72.23 RCW and any employee, agent, officer, director, or independent contractor thereof.

(10) “Incapacitated person” means a person who is at a significant risk of personal or financial harm under RCW 11.88.010(1) (a), (b), (c), or (d).

(11) “Individual provider” means a person under contract with the department to provide services in the home under chapter 74.09 or 74.39A RCW.

(12) “Interested person” means a person who demonstrates to the court's satisfaction that the person is interested in the welfare of the vulnerable adult, that the person has a good faith belief that the court's intervention is necessary, and that the vulnerable adult is unable, due to incapacity, undue influence, or duress at the time the petition is filed, to protect his or her own interests.

(13)(a) “Isolate” or “isolation” means to restrict a vulnerable adult's ability to communicate, visit, interact, or otherwise associate with persons of his or her choosing. Isolation may be evidenced by acts including but not limited to:

(i) Acts that prevent a vulnerable adult from sending, making, or receiving his or her personal mail, electronic communications, or telephone calls; or

(ii) Acts that prevent or obstruct the vulnerable adult from meeting with others, such as telling a prospective visitor or caller that a vulnerable adult is not present, or does not wish contact, where the statement is contrary to the express wishes of the vulnerable adult.

(b) The term “isolate” or “isolation” may not be construed in a manner that prevents a guardian or limited guardian from performing his or her fiduciary obligations under chapter 11.92 RCW or prevents a hospital or facility from providing treatment consistent with the standard of care for delivery of health services.

(14) “Mandated reporter” is an employee of the department; law enforcement officer; social worker; professional school personnel; individual provider; an employee of a facility; an operator of a facility; an employee of a social service, welfare, mental health, adult day health, adult day care, home health, home care, or hospice agency; county coroner or medical examiner; Christian Science practitioner; or health care provider subject to chapter 18.130 RCW.

(15) “Mechanical restraint” means any device attached or adjacent to the vulnerable adult's body that he or she cannot easily remove that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to his or her body. “Mechanical restraint” does not include the use of devices, materials, or equipment that are (a) medically authorized, as required, and (b) used in a manner that is consistent with federal or state licensing or certification requirements for facilities, hospitals, or programs authorized under chapter 71A.12 RCW.

(16) “Neglect” means (a) a pattern of conduct or inaction by a person or entity with a duty of care that fails to provide the goods and services that maintain physical or mental health of a vulnerable adult, or that fails to avoid or prevent physical or mental harm or pain to a vulnerable adult; or (b) an act or omission by a person or entity with a duty of care that demonstrates a serious disregard of consequences of such a magnitude as to constitute a clear and present danger to the vulnerable adult's health, welfare, or safety, including but not limited to conduct prohibited under RCW 9A.42.100.

(17) “Permissive reporter” means any person, including, but not limited to, an employee of a financial institution, attorney, or volunteer in a facility or program providing services for vulnerable adults.

(18) “Physical restraint” means the application of physical force without the use of any device, for the purpose of restraining the free movement of a vulnerable adult's body. “Physical restraint” does not include (a) briefly holding without undue force a vulnerable adult in order to calm or comfort him or her, or (b) holding a vulnerable adult's hand to safely escort him or her from one area to another.

(19) “Protective services” means any services provided by the department to a vulnerable adult with the consent of the vulnerable adult, or the legal representative of the vulnerable adult, who has been abandoned, abused, financially exploited, neglected, or in a state of self-neglect. These services may include, but are not limited to case management, social casework, home care, placement, arranging for medical evaluations, psychological evaluations, day care, or referral for legal assistance.

(20) “Self-neglect” means the failure of a vulnerable adult, not living in a facility, to provide for himself or herself the goods and services necessary for the vulnerable adult's physical or mental health, and the absence of which impairs or threatens the vulnerable adult's well-being. This definition may include a vulnerable adult who is receiving services through home health, hospice, or a home care agency, or an individual provider when the neglect is not a result of inaction by that agency or individual provider.

(21) “Social worker” means:

(a) A social worker as defined in RCW 18.320.010(2); or

(b) Anyone engaged in a professional capacity during the regular course of employment in encouraging or promoting the health, welfare, support, or education of vulnerable adults, or providing social services to vulnerable adults, whether in an individual capacity or as an employee or agent of any public or private organization or institution.

(22) “Vulnerable adult” includes a person:

(a) Sixty years of age or older who has the functional, mental, or physical inability to care for himself or herself; or

(b) Found incapacitated under chapter 11.88 RCW; or

(c) Who has a developmental disability as defined under RCW 71A.10.020; or

(d) Admitted to any facility; or

(e) Receiving services from home health, hospice, or home care agencies licensed or required to be licensed under chapter 70.127 RCW; or

(f) Receiving services from an individual provider; or

(g) Who self-directs his or her own care and receives services from a personal aide under chapter 74.39 RCW.

(23) “Vulnerable adult advocacy team” means a team of three or more persons who coordinate a multidisciplinary process, in compliance with this act and the protocol governed by section 13 of this act, for preventing, identifying, investigating, prosecuting, and providing services related to abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation of vulnerable adults.

74.34.110. Protection of vulnerable adults--Petition for protective order

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

An action known as a petition for an order for protection of a vulnerable adult in cases of abandonment, abuse, financial exploitation, or neglect is created.

(1) A vulnerable adult, or interested person on behalf of the vulnerable adult, may seek relief from abandonment, abuse, financial exploitation, or neglect, or the threat thereof, by filing a petition for an order for protection in superior court.

(2) A petition shall allege that the petitioner, or person on whose behalf the petition is brought, is a vulnerable adult and that the petitioner, or person on whose behalf the petition is brought, has been abandoned, abused, financially exploited, or neglected, or is threatened with abandonment, abuse, financial exploitation, or neglect by respondent.

(3) A petition shall be accompanied by affidavit made under oath, or a declaration signed under penalty of perjury, stating the specific facts and circumstances which demonstrate the need for the relief sought. If the petition is filed by an interested person, the affidavit or declaration must also include a statement of why the petitioner qualifies as an interested person.

(4) A petition for an order may be made whether or not there is a pending lawsuit, complaint, petition, or other action pending that relates to the issues presented in the petition for an order for protection.

(5) Within ninety days of receipt of the master copy from the administrative office of the courts, all court clerk's offices shall make available the standardized forms and instructions required by RCW 74.34.115.

(6) Any assistance or information provided by any person, including, but not limited to, court clerks, employees of the department, and other court facilitators, to another to complete the forms provided by the court in subsection (5) of this section does not constitute the practice of law.

(7) A petitioner is not required to post bond to obtain relief in any proceeding under this section.

(8) An action under this section shall be filed in the county where the vulnerable adult resides; except that if the vulnerable adult has left or been removed from the residence as a result of abandonment, abuse, financial exploitation, or neglect, or in order to avoid abandonment, abuse, financial exploitation, or neglect, the petitioner may bring an action in the county of either the vulnerable adult's previous or new residence.

(9) No filing fee may be charged to the petitioner for proceedings under this section. Standard forms and written instructions shall be provided free of charge.

74.34.120. Protection of vulnerable adults--Hearing

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

(1) The court shall order a hearing on a petition under RCW 74.34.110 not later than fourteen days from the date of filing the petition.

(2) Personal service shall be made upon the respondent not less than six court days before the hearing. When good faith attempts to personally serve the respondent have been unsuccessful, the court shall permit service by mail or by publication.

(3) When a petition under RCW 74.34.110 is filed by someone other than the vulnerable adult, notice of the petition and hearing must be personally served upon the vulnerable adult not less than six court days before the hearing. In addition to copies of all pleadings filed by the petitioner, the petitioner shall provide a written notice to the vulnerable adult using the standard notice form developed under RCW 74.34.115. When good faith attempts to personally serve the vulnerable adult have been unsuccessful, the court shall permit service by mail, or by publication if the court determines that personal service and service by mail cannot be obtained.

(4) If timely service under subsections (2) and (3) of this section cannot be made, the court shall continue the hearing date until the substitute service approved by the court has been satisfied.

(5)(a) A petitioner may move for temporary relief under chapter 7.40 RCW. The court may continue any temporary order for protection granted under chapter 7.40 RCW until the hearing on a petition under RCW 74.34.110 is held.

(b) Written notice of the request for temporary relief must be provided to the respondent, and to the vulnerable adult if someone other than the vulnerable adult filed the petition. A temporary protection order may be granted without written notice to the respondent and vulnerable adult if it clearly appears from specific facts shown by affidavit or declaration that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage would result to the vulnerable adult before the respondent and vulnerable adult can be served and heard, or that show the respondent and vulnerable adult cannot be served with notice, the efforts made to serve them, and the reasons why prior notice should not be required.

74.34.130. Protection of vulnerable adults--Judicial relief

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The court may order relief as it deems necessary for the protection of the vulnerable adult, including, but not limited to the following:

(1) Restraining respondent from committing acts of abandonment, abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation against the vulnerable adult;

(2) Excluding the respondent from the vulnerable adult's residence for a specified period or until further order of the court;

(3) Prohibiting contact with the vulnerable adult by respondent for a specified period or until further order of the court;

(4) Prohibiting the respondent from knowingly coming within, or knowingly remaining within, a specified distance from a specified location;

(5) Requiring an accounting by respondent of the disposition of the vulnerable adult's income or other resources;

(6) Restraining the transfer of the respondent's and/or vulnerable adult's property for a specified period not exceeding ninety days; and

(7) Requiring the respondent to pay a filing fee and court costs, including service fees, and to reimburse the petitioner for costs incurred in bringing the action, including a reasonable attorney's fee.

Any relief granted by an order for protection, other than a judgment for costs, shall be for a fixed period not to exceed five years. The clerk of the court shall enter any order for protection issued under this section into the judicial information system.

74.34.150. Protection of vulnerable adults--Department may seek relief

Updated: 
August 10, 2017

The department of social and health services, in its discretion, may seek relief under RCW 74.34.110 through 74.34.140 on behalf of and with the consent of any vulnerable adult. When the department has reason to believe a vulnerable adult lacks the ability or capacity to consent, the department, in its discretion, may seek relief under RCW 74.34.110 through 74.34.140 on behalf of the vulnerable adult. Neither the department of social and health services nor the state of Washington shall be liable for seeking or failing to seek relief on behalf of any persons under this section.