Legal Information: Minnesota

Statutes: Minnesota

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Updated: 
May 11, 2022

609.341. Definitions

Subdivision 1. Scope. For the purposes of sections 609.341 to 609.351, the terms in this section have the meanings given them.

Subd. 2. Actor. “Actor” means a person accused of criminal sexual conduct.

Subd. 3. Force. “Force” means either: (1) the infliction by the actor of bodily harm; or (2) the attempted infliction, or threatened infliction by the actor of bodily harm or commission or threat of any other crime by the actor against the complainant or another, which causes the complainant to reasonably believe that the actor has the present ability to execute the threat.

Subd. 4. Consent. (a) “Consent” means words or overt actions by a person indicating a freely given present agreement to perform a particular sexual act with the actor. Consent does not mean the existence of a prior or current social relationship between the actor and the complainant or that the complainant failed to resist a particular sexual act.

(b) A person who is mentally incapacitated or physically helpless as defined by this section cannot consent to a sexual act.

(c) Corroboration of the victim’s testimony is not required to show lack of consent.

Subd. 5. Intimate parts. “Intimate parts” includes the primary genital area, groin, inner thigh, buttocks, or breast of a human being.

Subd. 6. Mentally impaired. “Mentally impaired” means that a person, as a result of inadequately developed or impaired intelligence or a substantial psychiatric disorder of thought or mood, lacks the judgment to give a reasoned consent to sexual contact or to sexual penetration.

Subd. 7. Mentally incapacitated. “Mentally incapacitated” means:

(1) that a person under the influence of alcohol, a narcotic, anesthetic, or any other substance, administered to that person without the person’s agreement, lacks the judgment to give a reasoned consent to sexual contact or sexual penetration; or

(2) that a person is under the influence of any substance or substances to a degree that renders them incapable of consenting or incapable of appreciating, understanding, or controlling the person’s conduct.

Subd. 8. Personal injury. “Personal injury” means bodily harm as defined in section 609.02, subdivision 7, or severe mental anguish or pregnancy.

Subd. 9. Physically helpless. “Physically helpless” means that a person is (a) asleep or not conscious, (b) unable to withhold consent or to withdraw consent because of a physical condition, or (c) unable to communicate nonconsent and the condition is known or reasonably should have been known to the actor.

Subd. 10. Current or recent position of authority. “Current or recent position of authority” includes but is not limited to any person who is a parent or acting in the place of a parent and charged with or assumes any of a parent’s rights, duties or responsibilities to a child, or a person who is charged with or assumes any duty or responsibility for the health, welfare, or supervision of a child, either independently or through another, no matter how brief, at the time of or within 120 days immediately preceding the act. For the purposes of subdivision 11, “current or recent position of authority” includes a psychotherapist.

Subd. 11. Sexual contact. (a) “Sexual contact,” for the purposes of sections 609.343, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (e), and subdivision 1a, clauses (a) to (f) and (i), and 609.345, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (d) and (i), and subdivision 1a, clauses (a) to (e), (h), and (i), includes any of the following acts committed without the complainant’s consent, except in those cases where consent is not a defense, and committed with sexual or aggressive intent:

(i) the intentional touching by the actor of the complainant’s intimate parts, or

(ii) the touching by the complainant of the actor’s, the complainant’s, or another’s intimate parts effected by a person in a current or recent position of authority, or by coercion, or by inducement if the complainant is under 14 years of age or mentally impaired, or

(iii) the touching by another of the complainant’s intimate parts effected by coercion or by a person in a current or recent position of authority, or

(iv) in any of the cases above, the touching of the clothing covering the immediate area of the intimate parts, or

(v) the intentional touching with seminal fluid or sperm by the actor of the complainant’s body or the clothing covering the complainant’s body.

(b) “Sexual contact,” for the purposes of sections 609.343, subdivision 1a, clauses (g) and (h), 609.345, subdivision 1a, clauses (f) and (g), and 609.3458, includes any of the following acts committed with sexual or aggressive intent:

(i) the intentional touching by the actor of the complainant’s intimate parts;

(ii) the touching by the complainant of the actor’s, the complainant’s, or another’s intimate parts;

(iii) the touching by another of the complainant’s intimate parts;

(iv) in any of the cases listed above, touching of the clothing covering the immediate area of the intimate parts; or

(v) the intentional touching with seminal fluid or sperm by the actor of the complainant’s body or the clothing covering the complainant’s body.

(c) “Sexual contact with a person under 14” means the intentional touching of the complainant’s bare genitals or anal opening by the actor’s bare genitals or anal opening with sexual or aggressive intent or the touching by the complainant’s bare genitals or anal opening of the actor’s or another’s bare genitals or anal opening with sexual or aggressive intent.

Subd. 12. Sexual penetration. “Sexual penetration” means any of the following acts committed without the complainant’s consent, except in those cases where consent is not a defense, whether or not emission of semen occurs:

(1) sexual intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anal intercourse; or

(2) any intrusion however slight into the genital or anal openings:

(i) of the complainant’s body by any part of the actor’s body or any object used by the actor for this purpose;

(ii) of the complainant’s body by any part of the body of the complainant, by any part of the body of another person, or by any object used by the complainant or another person for this purpose, when effected by a person in a current or recent position of authority, or by coercion, or by inducement if the child is under 14 years of age or mentally impaired; or

(iii) of the body of the actor or another person by any part of the body of the complainant or by any object used by the complainant for this purpose, when effected by a person in a current or recent position of authority, or by coercion, or by inducement if the child is under 14 years of age or mentally impaired.

Subd. 13. Complainant. “Complainant” means a person alleged to have been subjected to criminal sexual conduct, but need not be the person who signs the complaint.

Subd. 14. Coercion. “Coercion” means the use by the actor of words or circumstances that cause the complainant reasonably to fear the infliction of bodily harm upon the complainant or another, or the use by the actor of confinement, or superior size or strength, against the complainant to accomplish the act. Proof of coercion does not require proof of a specific act or threat.

Subd. 15. Significant relationship. “Significant relationship” means a situation in which the actor is:

(1) the complainant’s parent, stepparent, or guardian;

(2) any of the following persons related to the complainant by blood, marriage, or adoption: brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister, first cousin, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, grandparent, great-grandparent, great-uncle, great-aunt;

(3) an adult who jointly resides intermittently or regularly in the same dwelling as the complainant and who is not the complainant’s spouse; or

(4) an adult who is or was involved in a significant romantic or sexual relationship with the parent of a complainant.

Subd. 16. Patient. “Patient” means a person who seeks or obtains psychotherapeutic services.

Subd. 17. Psychotherapist. “Psychotherapist” means a person who is or purports to be a physician, psychologist, nurse, chemical dependency counselor, social worker, marriage and family therapist, licensed professional counselor, or other mental health service provider; or any other person, whether or not licensed by the state, who performs or purports to perform psychotherapy.

Subd. 18. Psychotherapy. “Psychotherapy” means the professional treatment, assessment, or counseling of a mental or emotional illness, symptom, or condition.

Subd. 19. Emotionally dependent. “Emotionally dependent” means that the nature of the former patient’s emotional condition and the nature of the treatment provided by the psychotherapist are such that the psychotherapist knows or has reason to know that the former patient is unable to withhold consent to sexual contact or sexual penetration by the psychotherapist.

Subd. 20. Therapeutic deception. “Therapeutic deception” means a representation by a psychotherapist that sexual contact or sexual penetration by the psychotherapist is consistent with or part of the patient’s treatment.

Subd. 21. Special transportation. “Special transportation service” means motor vehicle transportation provided on a regular basis by a public or private entity or person that is intended exclusively or primarily to serve individuals who are vulnerable adults or disabled. Special transportation service includes, but is not limited to, service provided by buses, vans, taxis, and volunteers driving private automobiles.

Subd. 22. Predatory crime. “Predatory crime” means a felony violation of section 609.185 (first-degree murder), 609.19 (second-degree murder), 609.195 (third-degree murder), 609.20 (first-degree manslaughter), 609.205 (second-degree manslaughter), 609.221 (first-degree assault), 609.222 (second-degree assault), 609.223 (third-degree assault), 609.24 (simple robbery), 609.245 (aggravated robbery), 609.25 (kidnapping), 609.255 (false imprisonment), 609.498 (tampering with a witness), 609.561 (first-degree arson), or 609.582, subdivision 1 (first-degree burglary).

Subd. 23. Secure treatment facility. “Secure treatment facility” has the meaning given in sections 253B.02, subdivision 18a, and 253D.02, subdivision 13.

Subd. 24. Prohibited occupational relationship. A “prohibited occupational relationship” exists when the actor is in one of the following occupations and the act takes place under the specified circumstances:

(1) the actor performed massage or other bodywork for hire, the sexual penetration or sexual contact occurred during or immediately before or after the actor performed or was hired to perform one of those services for the complainant, and the sexual penetration or sexual contact was nonconsensual; or

(2) the actor and the complainant were in one of the following occupational relationships at the time of the act. Consent by the complainant is not a defense:

(i) the actor was a psychotherapist, the complainant was the actor’s patient, and the sexual penetration or sexual contact occurred during a psychotherapy session or during a period of time when the psychotherapist-patient relationship was ongoing;

(ii) the actor was a psychotherapist and the complainant was the actor’s former patient who was emotionally dependent on the actor;

(iii) the actor was or falsely impersonated a psychotherapist, the complainant was the actor’s patient or former patient, and the sexual penetration or sexual contact occurred by means of therapeutic deception;

(iv) the actor was or falsely impersonated a provider of medical services to the complainant and the sexual penetration or sexual contact occurred by means of deception or false representation that the sexual penetration or sexual contact was for a bona fide medical purpose;

(v) the actor was or falsely impersonated a member of the clergy, the complainant was not married to the actor, the complainant met with the actor in private seeking or receiving religious or spiritual advice, aid, or comfort from the actor, and the sexual penetration or sexual contact occurred during the course of the meeting or during a period of time when the meetings were ongoing;

(vi) the actor provided special transportation service to the complainant and the sexual penetration or sexual contact occurred during or immediately before or after the actor transported the complainant;

(vii) the actor was or falsely impersonated a peace officer, as defined in section 626.84, the actor physically or constructively restrained the complainant or the complainant did not reasonably feel free to leave the actor’s presence, and the sexual penetration or sexual contact was not pursuant to a lawful search or lawful use of force;

(viii) the actor was an employee, independent contractor, or volunteer of a state, county, city, or privately operated adult or juvenile correctional system, or secure treatment facility, or treatment facility providing services to clients civilly committed as mentally ill and dangerous, sexually dangerous persons, or sexual psychopathic personalities, including but not limited to jails, prisons, detention centers, or work release facilities, and the complainant was a resident of a facility or under supervision of the correctional system;

(ix) the complainant was enrolled in a secondary school and:

(A) the actor was a licensed educator employed or contracted to provide service for the school at which the complainant was a student;

(B) the actor was age 18 or older and at least 48 months older than the complainant and was employed or contracted to provide service for the secondary school at which the complainant was a student; or

(C) the actor was age 18 or older and at least 48 months older than the complainant, and was a licensed educator employed or contracted to provide services for an elementary, middle, or secondary school;

(x) the actor was a caregiver, facility staff person, or person providing services in a facility, and the complainant was a vulnerable adult who was a resident, patient, or client of the facility who was impaired in judgment or capacity by mental or emotional dysfunction or undue influence; or

(xi) the actor was a caregiver, facility staff person, or person providing services in a facility, and the complainant was a resident, patient, or client of the facility. This clause does not apply if a consensual sexual personal relationship existed prior to the caregiving relationship or if the actor was a personal care attendant.

Subd. 25. Caregiver. “Caregiver” has the meaning given in section 609.232, subdivision 2.

Subd. 26. Facility. “Facility” has the meaning given in section 609.232, subdivision 3.Subd. 27. Vulnerable adult. “Vulnerable adult” has the meaning given in section 609.232, subdivision 11.

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