Even if you do not qualify for an order of protection, the abuser may have committed a crime. If you call the police, they may arrest him/her for a crime and they may issue a restraining order through the criminal courts. Remember that even if you do have an order of protection, you can still report him/her to the police if you believe s/he committed a crime against you.
If the abuser has misused technology in a way that you believe may be a crime, go to our Abuse Using Technology section to learn what types of behaviors are covered under criminal state laws.
What are some crimes that the abuser may have committed in New York?
If the abuser is arrested for a crime, do I get a criminal court order of protection?
What are the differences between a criminal court order of protection and a family court order of protection?
If I am the victim of a crime, where can I find additional help in New York?
Here is a list of some possible crimes in New York that the abuser may have committed. You can click on the links to read the legal definition of the crime in our NY Statutes page:
- Assault (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree)
- Harassment (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Aggravated harassment (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation
- Strangulation (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Identity theft (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree)
- Disorderly conduct
- Unlawful surveillance (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Dissemination of an unlawful surveillance image (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Menacing (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree)
- Reckless endangerment (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Reckless endangerment of property (harm to your things or property)
- Stalking (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree, 4th degree)
- Rape (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree)
- Sexual abuse (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree)
- Sexual misconduct
- Forcible touching
- Unlawful imprisonment (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Kidnapping (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Labor trafficking (includes sex trafficking)
- Custodial interference (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Coercion (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Criminal trespass (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree)
- Criminal mischief (1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree, 4th degree)
- Grand larceny (3rd degree, 4th degree)
- Promoting a suicide attempt
- False personation
- Criminal impersonation (1st degree, 2nd degree)
- Aggravated identity theft
Usually, yes, although this may vary from county to county. If the abuser has committed a crime against you and is arrested and criminally charged, an order of protection may be issued on your behalf as early as the first time the abuser is brought in front of the judge (the arraignment). In criminal court, the person who "petitions" for the order of protection is the State of New York, represented by the district attorney. The victim of the crime is often referred to as the "victim" or the "complaining witness" (commonly abbreviated "CW"). The person against whom the order of protection is issued is called the "defendant."
Often times, the order of protection can be extended from court date to court date and it may be continued by the judge even if the victim asks that it be dismissed. The order of protection might be mailed to you since it is likely that you will not be present for the criminal court dates. To be certain as to whether or not an order of protection was issued by the criminal court judge on your behalf, you may want to call the district attorney handling the case to find out. If the abuser is convicted or pleads guilty, you may get a final order of protection that can last for multiple years depending on the crime and other factors.
Although both orders of protection can order that the abuser stay away from you and stop abusing you, there are some differences between the two:
- In family court, you are the person initiating the case (a "party" in the case) and you can choose to continue with your case or withdraw it. If you are a low-income person, you can likely get a lawyer appointed to represent you free of charge (or you can hire a private lawyer or use a legal services organization). In criminal court, the People of the State of New York (represented by the district attorney) is the party who is bringing the criminal case and you may not have control over whether the case and the order of protection continue or are dropped.
- In family court, you may have to be present on each court date for the order of protection to continue. In criminal court, you might only have to be present if the case goes to trial but not at other court dates.
- To get a criminal court order, there must have been an arrest and a criminal charge whereas in family court, there does not need to be an arrest or criminal charge to get an order of protection.
- A family court order of protection can do more than a criminal court order in terms of the relief that can be granted (such as temporary child support or temporary custody).
- Since a family court order of protection can be issued for 5 years if there are "aggravating circumstances,"1 a family court order of protection can often last longer than a criminal court order of protection. (Check the section entitled What types of orders of protection are there? How long can they last? for the definition of aggravating circumstances).
- Criminal cases require a higher level of proof of the abuse than civil court cases require.
1 NY Fam Ct Act § 842
The New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence has a resource guide designed to help domestic violence victims find their way through the criminal justice system in New York State and learn ways to increase their safety. It is available in English here.
You can find information on Crime Victims Compensation on the Office of Victim Services website.
If you are a victim of domestic violence and have been charged with a crime, you can go to our Battered Women Charged with Crimes page.
Other organizations for victims of crime are listed on our National Organizations - Crime Victims page.