Legal Information: North Dakota

Statutes: North Dakota

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Statutes: North Dakota

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The statutes below are current through the 2017 Regular Session of the 65th Legislative Assembly. Please check to make sure there have been no changes since this time. You can see these statutes and others on line at the ND Legislative website.

TITLE 12.1. Criminal Code

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Chapter 12.1-17. Assaults--Threats--Coercion--Harassment

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

12.1-17-01. Simple assault

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A person is guilty of an offense if that person:

a. Willfully causes bodily injury to another human being; or

b. Negligently causes bodily injury to another human being by means of a firearm, destructive device, or other weapon, the use of which against a human being is likely to cause death or serious bodily injury.

2. The offense is:

a. A class C felony when the victim is a peace officer or correctional institution employee acting in an official capacity, which the actor knows to be a fact; an employee of the state hospital acting in the course and scope of employment, which the actor knows to be a fact, and the actor is an individual committed to or detained at the state hospital pursuant to chapter 25-03.3; a person engaged in a judicial proceeding; or a member of a municipal or volunteer fire department or emergency medical services personnel unit or emergency department worker in the performance of the member's duties.

b. A class B misdemeanor for the first offense when the victim is an actor's family or household member as defined in subsection 4 of section 14-07.1-01 and a class A misdemeanor for a second or subsequent offense when the victim is an actor's family or household member as defined in subsection 4 of section 14-07.1-01 and the actor has a prior conviction for simple assault under this section or an assault offense under section 12.1-17-01.1 or 12.1-17-02 involving the commission of domestic violence as defined in subsection 2 of section 14-07.1-01. For purposes of this subdivision, a prior conviction includes a conviction of any assault offense in which a finding of domestic violence was made under a law or ordinance of another state which is equivalent to this subdivision.

c. A class B misdemeanor except as provided in subdivision a or b.

12.1-17-01.1. Assault

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A person is guilty of a class A misdemeanor, except if the victim is under the age of twelve years in which case the offense is a class C felony, if that person:

1. Willfully causes substantial bodily injury to another human being; or

2. Negligently causes substantial bodily injury to another human being by means of a firearm, destructive device, or other weapon, the use of which against a human being is likely to cause death or serious bodily injury.

12.1-17-07. Harassment

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A person is guilty of an offense if, with intent to frighten or harass another, the person:

a. Communicates in writing or by electronic communication a threat to inflict injury on any person, to any person's reputation, or to any property;

b. Makes a telephone call anonymously or in offensively coarse language;

c. Makes repeated telephone calls or other electronic communication, whether or not a conversation ensues, with no purpose of legitimate communication; or

d. Communicates a falsehood in writing or by electronic communication and causes mental anguish.

2. The offense is a class A misdemeanor if it is under subdivision a of subsection 1 or subsection 4. Otherwise it is a class B misdemeanor.

3. Any offense defined herein and committed by use of electronic communication may be deemed to have been committed at either the place at which the electronic communication was made or at the place where the electronic communication was received.

4. A person is guilty of an offense if the person initiates communication with a 911 emergency line, public safety answering point, or an emergency responder communication system with the intent to annoy or harass another person or a public safety agency or who makes a false report to a public safety agency.

a. Intent to annoy or harass is established by proof of one or more calls with no legitimate emergency purpose.

b. Upon conviction of a violation of this subsection, a person is also liable for all costs incurred by any unnecessary emergency response.

5. Any offense defined herein is deemed communicated in writing if it is transmitted electronically, by electronic mail, facsimile, or other similar means. Electronic communication means transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photo-electronic, or photo-optical system.

12.1-17-07.1. Stalking

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. As used in this section:

a. “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct consisting of two or more acts evidencing a continuity of purpose. The term does not include constitutionally protected activity.

b. “Immediate family” means a spouse, parent, child, or sibling. The term also includes any other individual who regularly resides in the household or who within the prior six months regularly resided in the household.

c. “Stalk” means :

(1) To engage in an intentional course of conduct directed at a specific person which frightens, intimidates, or harasses that person and which serves no legitimate purpose. The course of conduct may be directed toward that person or a member of that person's immediate family and must cause a reasonable person to experience fear, intimidation, or harassment; or

(2) The unauthorized tracking of the person's movements or location through the use of a global positioning system or other electronic means that would cause a reasonable person to be frightened, intimidated, or harassed and which serves no legitimate purpose.

2. A person may not intentionally stalk another person.

3. In any prosecution under this section, it is not a defense that the actor was not given actual notice that the person did not want the actor to contact or follow the person; nor is it a defense that the actor did not intend to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person. An attempt to contact or follow a person after being given actual notice that the person does not want to be contacted or followed is prima facie evidence that the actor intends to stalk that person.

4. In any prosecution under this section, it is a defense that a private investigator licensed under chapter 43-30 or a peace officer licensed under chapter 12-63 was acting within the scope of employment.

5. If a person claims to have been engaged in a constitutionally protected activity, the court shall determine the validity of the claim as a matter of law and, if found valid, shall exclude evidence of the activity.

6. a. A person who violates this section is guilty of a class C felony if:

(1) The person previously has been convicted of violating section 12.1-17-01, 12.1-17-01.1, 12.1-17-02, 12.1-17-04, 12.1-17-05, or 12.1-17-07, or a similar offense from another court in North Dakota, a court of record in the United States, or a tribal court, involving the victim of the stalking;

(2) The stalking violates a court order issued under chapter 14-07.1 protecting the victim of the stalking, if the person had notice of the court order; or

(3) The person previously has been convicted of violating this section.

b. If subdivision a does not apply, a person who violates this section is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

12.1-17-07.2. Distribution of intimate images without or against consent--Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. As used in this section:

a. “Distribute” means selling, exhibiting, displaying, wholesaling, retailing, providing, giving, granting admission to, providing access to, or otherwise transferring or presenting an image to another individual, with or without consideration.

b. “Hosting company” means a person that provides services or facilities for storing or distributing content over the internet without editorial or creative alteration of the content.

c. “Intimate image” means any visual depiction, photograph, film, video, recording, picture, or computer or computer-generated image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means, that depicts:

(1) Exposed human male or female genitals or pubic area, with less than an opaque covering;

(2) A female breast with less than an opaque covering, or any portion of the female breast below the top of the areola; or

(3) The individual engaged in any sexually explicit conduct.

d. “Service provider” means an internet service provider, including a person who leases or rents a wire or cable for the transmission of data.

e. “Sexually explicit conduct” means actual or simulated:

(1) Sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex;

(2) Masturbation;

(3) Bestiality;

(4) Sadistic or masochistic activities;

(5) Exhibition of the genitals, pubic region, buttocks, or female breast of any individual;

(6) Visual depiction of nudity or partial nudity;

(7) Fondling or touching of the genitals, pubic region, buttocks, or female breast; or

(8) Explicit representation of the defecation or urination functions.

f. “Simulated sexually explicit conduct” means a feigned or pretended act of sexually explicit conduct that duplicates, within the perception of an average person, the appearance of an actual act of sexually explicit conduct.

2. A person commits the offense of distribution of intimate images if the person knowingly or intentionally distributes to any third party any intimate image of an individual eighteen years of age or older, if:

a. The person knows that the depicted individual has not given consent to the person to distribute the intimate image;

b. The intimate image was created by or provided to the person under circumstances in which the individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy; and

c. Actual emotional distress or harm is caused to the individual as a result of the distribution under this section.

3. This section does not apply to:

a. Lawful practices of law enforcement agencies;

b. Prosecutorial agency functions;

c. The reporting of a criminal offense;

d. Court proceedings or any other judicial proceeding;

e. Lawful and generally accepted medical practices and procedures;

f. An intimate image if the individual portrayed in the image voluntarily allows public exposure of the image; or

g. An intimate image that is portrayed in a lawful commercial setting.

4. This section also does not apply to:

a. An internet service provider or interactive computer service, as defined in 47 U.S.C. 230(f)(2);

b. A provider of an electronic communications service, as defined in 18 U.S.C. 2510;

c. A telecommunications service, information service, or mobile service, as defined in 47 U.S.C. 153, including a commercial mobile service, as defined in 47 U.S.C. 332(d);

d. A cable operator, as defined in 47 U.S.C. 552, if:

(1) The distribution of an intimate image by the cable operator occurs only incidentally through the operator's function of:

(a) Transmitting or routing data from one person to another person; or

(b) Providing a connection between one person and another person;

(2) The operator does not intentionally aid or abet in the distribution of the intimate image; and

(3) The operator does not knowingly receive from or through a person who distributes the intimate image a fee greater than the fee generally charged by the operator, as a specific condition for permitting the person to distribute the intimate image; or

e. A hosting company, if:

(1) The distribution of an intimate image by the hosting company occurs only incidentally through the hosting company's function of providing data storage space or data caching to a person;

(2) The hosting company does not intentionally engage, aid, or abet in the distribution of the intimate image; and

(3) The hosting company does not knowingly receive from or through a person who distributes the intimate image a fee greater than the fee generally charged by the provider, as a specific condition for permitting the person to distribute, store, or cache the intimate image.

5. Distribution of an intimate image is a class A misdemeanor.

Chapter 12.1-18. Kidnapping

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

12.1-18-05. Removal of child from state in violation of custody decree--Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Any person who intentionally removes, causes the removal of, or detains the person's own child under the age of eighteen years outside this state with the intent to deny another person's rights in violation of an existing custody decree is guilty of a class C felony. Detaining the child outside this state in violation of the custody decree for more than seventy-two hours is prima facie evidence that the person charged intended to violate the custody decree at the time of removal.

Chapter 12.1-20. Sex Offenses

12.1-20-07. Sexual assault

1. A person who knowingly has sexual contact with another person, or who causes another person to have sexual contact with that person, is guilty of an offense if:
a. That person knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the contact is offensive to the other person;
b. That person knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the other person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders that other person incapable of understanding the nature of that other person's conduct;
c. That person or someone with that person's knowledge has substantially impaired the victim's power to appraise or control the victim's conduct, by administering or employing without the victim's knowledge intoxicants, a controlled substance as defined in chapter 19-03.1, or other means for the purpose of preventing resistance;
d. The other person is in official custody or detained in a hospital, prison, or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over that other person;
e. The other person is a minor, fifteen years of age or older, and the actor is the other person's parent, guardian, or is otherwise responsible for general supervision of the other person's welfare; or
f. The other person is a minor, fifteen years of age or older, and the actor is an adult.
2. The offense is :
a. A class C felony if the actor's conduct violates subdivision b, c, d, or e of subsection 1, or subdivision f of subsection 1 if the adult is at least twenty-two years of age; or
b. A class A misdemeanor if the actor's conduct violates subdivision f of subsection 1 if the adult is at least eighteen years of age and not twenty-two years of age or older, or if the actor's conduct violates subdivision a of subsection 1.
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Chapter 12.1-23 Theft and Related Offenses

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

12.1-23-10. Definitions for theft and related offenses

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In this chapter:

1. “Dealer in property” means a person who buys or sells property as a business.

2. “Deception” means:

a. Creating or reinforcing a false impression as to fact, law, status, value, intention, or other state of mind; or obtaining or attempting to obtain public assistance by concealing a material fact, making a false statement or representation, impersonating another, concealing the transfer of property without adequate consideration, or using any other fraudulent method; but deception as to a person’s intention to perform a promise may not be inferred from the fact alone that the person did not substantially perform the promise unless it is part of a continuing scheme to defraud;

b. Preventing another from acquiring information which would affect his judgment of a transaction;

c. Failing to correct a false impression which the actor previously created or reinforced, or which he knows to be influencing another to whom he stands in a fiduciary or confidential relationship;

d. Failing to correct an impression which the actor previously created or reinforced and which the actor knows to have become false due to subsequent events;

e. Failing to disclose a lien, adverse claim, or other impediment to the enjoyment of property which he transfers or encumbers in consideration for the property obtained or in order to continue to deprive another of his property, whether such impediment is or is not valid, or is or is not a matter of official record;

f. Using a credit card, charge plate, or any other instrument which purports to evidence an undertaking to pay for property or services delivered or rendered to or upon the order of a designated person or bearer (1) where such instrument has been stolen, forged, revoked, or canceled, or where for any other reason its use by the actor is unauthorized, and (2) where the actor does not have the intention and ability to meet all obligations to the issuer arising out of his use of the instrument; or

g. Any other scheme to defraud. The term “deception” does not, however, include falsifications as to matters having no pecuniary significance, or puffing by statements unlikely to deceive ordinary persons in the group addressed. “Puffing” means an exaggerated commendation of wares in communications addressed to the public or to a class or group.

3. “Deprive” means:

a. To withhold property or to cause it to be withheld either permanently or under such circumstances that a major portion of its economic value, or its use and benefit, has, in fact, been appropriated;

b. To withhold property or to cause it to be withheld with the intent to restore it only upon the payment of a reward or other compensation; or

c. To dispose of property or use it or transfer any interest in it under circumstances that make its restoration, in fact, unlikely.

4. “Fiduciary” means a trustee, guardian, executor, administrator, receiver, or any other person acting in a fiduciary capacity, or any person carrying on fiduciary functions on behalf of a corporation, limited liability company, or other organization which is a fiduciary.

5. “Financial institution” means a bank, insurance company, credit union, safety deposit company, savings and loan association, investment trust, or other organization held out to the public as a place of deposit of funds or medium of savings or collective investment.

6. “Obtain” means:

a. In relation to property, to bring about a transfer or purported transfer of an interest in the property, whether to the actor or another.

b. In relation to services, to secure performance thereof.

7. “Property” means any money, tangible or intangible personal property, property (whether real or personal) the location of which can be changed (including things growing on, affixed to, or found in land and documents although the rights represented thereby have no physical location), contract right, chose-in-action, interest in or claim to wealth, credit, or any other article or thing of value of any kind. “Property” also means real property the location of which cannot be moved if the offense involves transfer or attempted transfer of an interest in the property.

8. “Property of another” means property in which a person other than the actor or in which a government has an interest which the actor is not privileged to infringe without consent, regardless of the fact that the actor also has an interest in the property and regardless of the fact that the other person or government might be precluded from civil recovery because the property was used in an unlawful transaction or was subject to forfeiture as contraband. Property in possession of the actor shall not be deemed property of another who has a security interest therein, even if legal title is in the creditor pursuant to a conditional sales contract or other security agreement. “Owner” means any person or a government with an interest in property such that it is “property of another” as far as the actor is concerned.

9. “Receiving” means acquiring possession, control, or title, or lending on the security of the property.

10. “Services” means labor, professional service, transportation, telephone, mail or other public service, gas, electricity and other public utility services, accommodations in hotels, restaurants, or elsewhere, admission to exhibitions, and use of vehicles or other property.

11. “Stolen” means property which has been the subject of theft or robbery or a vehicle which is received from a person who is then in violation of section 12.1-23-06.

12. “Threat” means an expressed purpose, however communicated, to:

a. Cause bodily injury in the future to the person threatened or to any other person;

b. Cause damage to property;

c. Subject the person threatened or any other person to physical confinement or restraint;

d. Engage in other conduct constituting a crime;

e. Accuse anyone of a crime;

f. Expose a secret or publicize an asserted fact, whether true or false, tending to subject a person living or deceased, to hatred, contempt, or ridicule or to impair another’s credit or business repute;

g. Reveal any information sought to be concealed by the person threatened;

h. Testify or provide information or withhold testimony or information with respect to another’s legal claim or defense;

i. Take or withhold official action as a public servant, or cause a public servant to take or withhold official action;

j. Bring about or continue a strike, boycott, or other similar collective action to obtain property or deprive another of his property which is not demanded or received for the benefit of the group which the actor purports to represent;

k. Cause anyone to be dismissed from his employment, unless the property is demanded or obtained for lawful union purposes; or

l. Do any other act which would not in itself substantially benefit the actor or a group he represents but which is calculated to harm another person in a substantial manner with respect to his health, safety, business, employment, calling, career, financial condition, reputation, or personal relationship.

Upon a charge of theft, the receipt of property in consideration for taking or withholding official action shall be deemed to be theft by threat regardless of whether the owner voluntarily parted with his property or himself initiated the scheme.

13. “Traffic” means:

a. To sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of to another person; or

b. To buy, receive, possess, or obtain control of, with intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of to another person.

12.1-23-11. Unauthorized use of personal identifying information — Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. As used in this section, “personal identifying information” means any of the following information:

a. An individual’s name;

b. An individual’s address;

c. An individual’s telephone number;

d. The operator’s license information assigned to an individual by the department of transportation under section 39-06-14;

e. An individual’s social security number;

f. An individual’s employer or place of employment;

g. An identification number assigned to the individual by the individual’s employer;

h. The maiden name of the individual’s mother;

i. An individual’s financial institution account number, credit card number, or debit card number;

j. An individual’s birth, death, or marriage certificate;

k. An individual’s health insurance policy number or subscriber identification number or any unique identifier used by a health insurer to identify the individual;

l. The nondriver color photo identification card information assigned to the individual by the department of transportation under section 39-06-03.1;

m. An individual’s digitized or other electronic signature.

n. An individual’s photograph or computerized image;

o. An individual’s electronic mail address; or

p. An individual’s username and password of any digital service or computer system.

2. An individual is guilty of an offense if the individual uses or attempts to use any personal identifying information of another individual, living or deceased, to obtain credit, money, goods, services, or anything else of value without the authorization or consent of the other individual. The offense is a class B felony if the credit, money, goods, services, or anything else of value exceeds one thousand dollars in value, otherwise the offense is a class C felony. A second or subsequent offense is a class A felony.

3. A person is guilty of an offense if the person uses or attempts to use any personal identifying information of an individual, living or deceased, without the authorization or consent of the individual, in order to interfere with or initiate a contract or service for a person other than that individual, to obtain or continue employment, to gain access to personal identifying information of another individual, or to commit an offense in violation of the laws of this state, regardless of whether there is any actual economic loss to the individual. A first offense under this subsection is a class A misdemeanor. A second or subsequent offense under this subsection is a class C felony.

4. A violation of this section, of a law of another state, or of federal law that is equivalent to this section and which resulted in a plea or finding of guilt must be considered a prior offense. The prior offense must be alleged in the complaint, information, or indictment. The plea or finding of guilt for the prior offense must have occurred before the date of the commission of the offense or offenses charged in the complaint, information, or indictment.

5. A prosecution for a violation of this section must be commenced within six years after discovery by the victim of the offense of the facts constituting the violation.

6. When a person commits violations of this section in more than one county involving either one or more victims or the commission of acts constituting an element of the offense, the multiple offenses may be consolidated for commencement of prosecution in any county where one of the offenses was committed.

Chapter 12.1-31. Miscellaneous Offenses

12.1-31-01.2. Sexual assault restraining order--Penalty

1. For purposes of this section:
a. “Second or subsequent violation of a protection order” means two or more violations of protection orders.
b. “Sexual assault” means nonconsensual sexual contact as defined in section 12.1-20-07.
2. An individual who is the victim of sexual assault or the parent, stepparent, or guardian of a minor who reasonably believes the minor is a victim of sexual assault may seek a sexual assault restraining order from a court of competent jurisdiction in the manner provided in this section.
3. A petition for relief must allege facts sufficient to show the name of the alleged victim, the name of the individual who committed the sexual assault, and that the individual committed the sexual assault. An affidavit made under oath stating the specific facts and circumstances supporting the relief sought must accompany the petition.
4. If the petition for relief alleges reasonable grounds to believe an individual has committed sexual assault, the court, pending a full hearing, may grant a temporary sexual assault restraining order.
5. A temporary restraining order may be entered only against the individual named in the petition. The order must include prohibiting the individual from:
a. Harassing, stalking, or threatening the individual requesting the order;
b. Appearing at the individual's residence, school, and place of employment; and
c. Contacting the individual requesting the order.
6. The court may grant a sexual assault restraining order prohibiting the respondent from contacting, harassing, stalking, or threatening the applicant, and from appearing at the applicant's residence, school, and place of employment if:
a. An individual files a petition under subsection 3;
b. The sheriff serves the respondent with a copy of the temporary restraining order issued under subsections 4 and 5, and with notice of the time and place of the hearing;
c. The court sets a hearing for not later than fourteen days after issuance of the temporary restraining order unless the time period is extended upon written consent of the parties, or upon a showing the respondent has not been served with a copy of the temporary restraining order despite the exercise of due diligence; and
d. The court finds after the hearing there are reasonable grounds to believe the respondent committed sexual assault.
7. A restraining order may be issued only against the individual named in the petition. Relief granted by the restraining order may not exceed a period of two years. The restraining order may be served on the respondent by publication pursuant to rule 4 of the North Dakota Rules of Civil Procedure.
8. A sexual assault restraining order must contain a conspicuous notice to the respondent providing:
a. The specific conduct that constitutes a violation of the order;
b. Notice that violation of the restraining order is punishable as a class A misdemeanor; and
c. Notice that a peace officer may arrest the respondent without a warrant and take the respondent into custody if the peace officer has probable cause to believe the respondent has violated an order issued under this section.
9. If the respondent knows of an order issued under subsections 4 and 5, or subsection 6, violation of the order is a class A misdemeanor and also constitutes contempt of court. A second or subsequent violation of a protection order is a class C felony. If the existence of an order issued under subsection 3, or subsections 4 and 5 can be verified by a peace officer, the officer, without a warrant, may arrest and take into custody an individual whom the peace officer has probable cause to believe has violated the order.
10. The clerk of court shall transmit a copy of a restraining order by the close of the business day on which the order was granted to the local law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the residence of the alleged victim of sexual assault. Each appropriate law enforcement agency may make available to its officers current information as to the existence and status of any restraining order involving sexual assault.
11. Notwithstanding subsection 5 of section 11-16-05, a state's attorney may advise and assist an individual in the preparation of documents necessary to secure a restraining order under this section.
12. Fees for filing and service of process may not be charged to the petitioner in a proceeding seeking relief due to sexual assault under section 12.1-20-07.

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Chapter 12.1-31.2. Disorderly Conduct Restraining Order

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

12.1-31.2-01. Disorderly conduct restraining order--Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. “Disorderly conduct” means intrusive or unwanted acts, words, or gestures that are intended to adversely affect the safety, security, or privacy of another person. For the purposes of this section, disorderly conduct includes human trafficking or attempted human trafficking as defined in this title. Disorderly conduct does not include constitutionally protected activity.
2. A person who is a victim of disorderly conduct or the parent or guardian of a minor who is a victim of disorderly conduct may seek a disorderly conduct restraining order from any court of competent jurisdiction in the manner provided in this section.
3. A petition for relief must allege facts sufficient to show the name of the alleged victim, the name of the individual engaging in the disorderly conduct, and that the individual engaged in disorderly conduct. An affidavit made under oath stating the specific facts and circumstances supporting the relief sought must accompany the petition.
4. If the petition for relief alleges reasonable grounds to believe that an individual has engaged in disorderly conduct, the court, pending a full hearing, may grant a temporary disorderly conduct restraining order ordering the individual to cease or avoid the disorderly conduct or to have no contact with the person requesting the order. A temporary restraining order may be entered only against the individual named in the petition. The court may issue the temporary restraining order without giving notice to the respondent. Unless otherwise terminated by the court, the temporary restraining order is in effect until a restraining order issued under subsection 5 is served.
5. The court may grant a disorderly conduct restraining order ordering the respondent to cease or avoid the disorderly conduct or to have no contact with the applicant if:
a. A person files a petition under subsection 3;
b. The sheriff serves the respondent with a copy of the temporary restraining order issued under subsection 4 and with notice of the time and place of the hearing;
c. The court sets a hearing for not later than fourteen days after issuance of the temporary restraining order unless the time period is extended upon written consent of the parties, or upon a showing that the respondent has not been served with a copy of the temporary restraining order despite the exercise of due diligence; and
d. The court finds after the hearing that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the respondent has engaged in disorderly conduct. If a person claims to have been engaged in a constitutionally protected activity, the court shall determine the validity of the claim as a matter of law and, if found valid, shall exclude evidence of the activity.
6. A restraining order may be issued only against the individual named in the petition. Relief granted by the restraining order may not exceed a period of two years. The restraining order may be served on the respondent by publication pursuant to rule 4 of the North Dakota Rules of Civil Procedure.
7. A disorderly conduct restraining order must contain a conspicuous notice to the respondent providing:
a. The specific conduct that constitutes a violation of the order;
b. Notice that violation of the restraining order is punishable by imprisonment of up to one year or a fine of up to two thousand dollars or both; and
c. Notice that a peace officer may arrest the respondent without a warrant and take the respondent into custody if the peace officer has probable cause to believe the respondent has violated an order issued under this section.
8. If the respondent knows of an order issued under subsection 4 or 5, violation of the order is a class A misdemeanor. If the existence of an order issued under subsection 3 or 4 can be verified by a peace officer, the officer, without a warrant, may arrest and take into custody an individual whom the peace officer has probable cause to believe has violated the order.
9. Whenever a restraining order is issued, extended, modified, or terminated under this section, the court shall transmit the order electronically to the bureau. Unless the order is a temporary order under subsection 4, the bureau shall enter the order electronically in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency. The sheriff of the county in which the order was issued shall maintain and respond to inquiries regarding the order in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency, pursuant to bureau and federal requirements. Whenever a restraining order is issued, the clerk of court shall forward a copy of the order to the local law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the residence of the protected party by the close of business on the day the restraining order is issued. Once the bureau, after consultation with the state court administrator, determines and implements an electronic method to notify the sheriff of the county that issued the order, the clerk of court's requirement to forward the order to a law enforcement agency will be satisfied.
10. Notwithstanding subsection 5 of section 11-16-05, a state's attorney may advise and assist any person in the preparation of documents necessary to secure a restraining order under this section.
11. Fees for filing and service of process may not be charged to the petitioner in any proceeding seeking relief due to domestic violence under this chapter.

12.1-31.2-02. Order prohibiting contact

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. If an individual who is charged with or arrested for a crime of violence or threat of violence, stalking, harassment, or a sex offense is released from custody before arraignment or trial, the court authorizing the release of the individual shall consider and may issue an order prohibiting the individual from having contact with the victim. The order must contain the court's directives and must inform the individual that any violation of the order constitutes a criminal offense. The state's attorney shall provide a copy of the order to the victim. The court shall determine at the time of the individual's arraignment whether an order issued pursuant to this section will be extended. If the court issues an order pursuant to this section before the time the individual is charged, the order expires at the individual's arraignment or within seventy-two hours of issuance if charges against the individual are not filed.
2. If the court has probable cause to believe that the individual charged or arrested is likely to use, display, or threaten to use a firearm or dangerous weapon as defined in section 12.1-01-04 in any further act of violence, the court shall require that the individual surrender for safekeeping any firearm or specified dangerous weapon in or subject to the individual's immediate possession or control, to the sheriff of the county or chief of police of the city in which the individual resides.
3. Whenever an order prohibiting contact is issued, modified, extended, or terminated under this section, the clerk of court shall forward a copy of the order within one business day to the appropriate law enforcement agency specified in the order. Upon receipt of the copy of the order, the law enforcement agency shall enter the order in the central warrant information system and the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency.
a. Once the bureau, after consultation with the state court administrator, determines and implements a method to transmit electronically to the bureau an order prohibiting contact, the court electronically shall send the full text of the order as issued, modified, extended, or terminated in accordance with this section and any data fields identified by the bureau. This electronic submission will fulfill the law enforcement agency's requirement to enter the order in the central warrant information system, but will not fulfill its requirement to enter, maintain, and respond to inquiries regarding the order in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency.
b. Once the bureau, after consultation with the state court administrator, determines and implements an electronic method to notify law enforcement about the order, the clerk of court's requirement to forward the order to the law enforcement agency will be satisfied.
c. Once the bureau, after consultation with the director of state radio, determines and implements a method to enter the order into the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency, the bureau shall enter the order electronically in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency. This electronic entry will fulfill the law enforcement agency's requirement to enter the order in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency, but will not fulfill its requirement to maintain and respond to inquiries regarding the order in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency.
4. An individual who violates a court order issued under this section is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
5. A law enforcement officer shall arrest an individual without a warrant if the officer determines there is probable cause that the individual has committed the offense of violating an order prohibiting contact under this section, whether or not the violation was committed in the presence of the officer. A law enforcement officer who acts in good faith on probable cause and without malice is immune from any civil or criminal liability for making an arrest under this subsection.

Chapter 12.1-32. Penalties and Sentencing

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

12.1-32-01. Classification of offenses--Penalties

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Offenses are divided into seven classes, which are denominated and subject to maximum penalties, as follows:
1. Class AA felony, for which a maximum penalty of life imprisonment without parole may be imposed. The court must designate whether the life imprisonment sentence imposed is with or without an opportunity for parole. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12-59-05, a person found guilty of a class AA felony and who receives a sentence of life imprisonment with parole, shall not be eligible to have that person's sentence considered by the parole board for thirty years, less sentence reduction earned for good conduct, after that person's admission to the penitentiary.
2. Class A felony, for which a maximum penalty of twenty years' imprisonment, a fine of twenty thousand dollars, or both, may be imposed.
3. Class B felony, for which a maximum penalty of ten years' imprisonment, a fine of twenty thousand dollars, or both, may be imposed.
4. Class C felony, for which a maximum penalty of five years' imprisonment, a fine of ten thousand dollars, or both, may be imposed.
5. Class A misdemeanor, for which a maximum penalty of imprisonment for three hundred sixty days, a fine of three thousand dollars, or both, may be imposed.
6. Class B misdemeanor, for which a maximum penalty of thirty days' imprisonment, a fine of one thousand five hundred dollars, or both, may be imposed.
7. Infraction, for which a maximum fine of one thousand dollars may be imposed. Any person convicted of an infraction who has, within one year prior to commission of the infraction of which the person was convicted, been previously convicted of an offense classified as an infraction may be sentenced as though convicted of a class B misdemeanor. If the prosecution contends that the infraction is punishable as a class B misdemeanor, the complaint shall specify that the offense is a misdemeanor.
This section shall not be construed to forbid sentencing under section 12.1-32-09, relating to extended sentences.

Chapter 12.1-41. Uniform Act on Prevention of and Remedies for HumanTrafficking

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

12.1-41-02. Trafficking an individual

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A person commits the offense of trafficking an individual if the person knowingly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, receives, provides, obtains, isolates, maintains, or entices an individual in furtherance of:

a. Forced labor in violation of section 12.1-41-03; or

b. Sexual servitude in violation of section 12.1-41-04.

2. Trafficking an individual who is an adult is a class A felony.

3. Trafficking an individual who is a minor is a class AA felony.

TITLE 14. Domestic Relations and Persons

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Chapter 14-05. Divorce

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-05-03. Causes for divorce

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Divorces may be granted for any of the following causes:

1. Adultery.

2. Extreme cruelty.

3. Willful desertion.

4. Willful neglect.

5. Abuse of alcohol or controlled substances.

6. Conviction of felony.

7. Irreconcilable differences.

14-05-05. Extreme cruelty defined

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Extreme cruelty is the infliction by one party to the marriage of grievous bodily injury or grievous mental suffering upon the other.

14-05-06. Desertion defined

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Willful desertion is the voluntary separation of one of the married parties from the other with intent to desert:

1. Persistent refusal to have reasonable matrimonial intercourse as husband and wife when health or physical condition does not make such refusal reasonably necessary, or the refusal of either party to dwell in the same house with the other party when there is no just cause for such refusal, is desertion.

2. When one party is induced by the stratagem or fraud of the other party to leave the family dwelling place or to be absent, and during such absence the offending party departs with intent to desert the other, it is desertion by the party committing the stratagem or fraud and not by the other.

3. Departure or absence of one party from the family dwelling place caused by cruelty or by threats of bodily harm from which danger reasonably would be apprehended from the other is not desertion by the absent party, but it is desertion by the other party.

4. Separation by consent, with or without the understanding that one of the parties will apply for a divorce, is not desertion.

5. Absence or separation, proper in itself, becomes desertion whenever the intent to desert is fixed during such absence or separation.

6. Consent to a separation is a revocable act, and if one of the parties afterwards in good faith seeks a reconciliation and restoration but the other refuses it, such refusal is desertion.

7. If one party deserts the other and before the expiration of the statutory period required to make the desertion a cause of divorce returns and offers in good faith to fulfill the marriage contract and solicits condonation, the desertion is cured. If the other party refuses such offer and condonation, the refusal must be deemed and treated as desertion by such party from the time of the refusal.

14-05-07. Willful neglect defined

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Willful neglect is the failure of either spouse to provide for the common necessaries of life for the other party, when that spouse has the ability to do so and the party alleging neglect does not have the ability, or when a spouse fails to provide by reason of idleness, profligacy, or dissipation.

14-05-08. Abuse of alcohol or controlled substances defined

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Abuse of alcohol or controlled substances is that degree of use which disqualifies the person a great portion of the time from properly attending to business or which reasonably would inflict a course of great mental anguish upon the innocent party. For purposes of this chapter, “controlled substance” means a substance as defined in section 19-03.1-01.

14-05-09. Desertion, neglect, intemperance--Duration

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Willful desertion, willful neglect, or habitual intemperance must continue for one year before either is a ground for a divorce.

14-05-09.1. Irreconcilable differences defined

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Irreconcilable differences are those grounds which are determined by the court to be substantial reasons for not continuing the marriage and which make it appear that the marriage should be dissolved.

14-05-10. Denial of divorce

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Divorces must be denied upon showing:

1. Condonation; or

2. Limitation and lapse of time.

14-05-13. Condonation defined--Requisites

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Condonation is the conditional forgiveness of a matrimonial offense constituting a cause of divorce. The following requirements are necessary to condonation:

1. A knowledge on the part of the condoner of the facts constituting the cause of divorce;

2. Reconciliation and remission of the offense by the injured party; and

3. Restoration of the offending party to all marital rights.

Condonation implies a condition subsequent that the forgiving party must be treated with conjugal kindness. When the cause of divorce consists of a course of offensive conduct, or arises in cases of cruelty from successive acts of ill treatment, which aggregately may constitute the offense, cohabitation, or passive endurance, or conjugal kindness shall not be evidence of condonation of any of the acts constituting such cause, unless accompanied by an express agreement to condone. In such cases, condonation can be made only after the cause of divorce has become complete as to the acts complained of. A fraudulent concealment by the condonee of facts constituting a different cause of divorce from the one condoned and existing at the time of condonation avoids such condonation.

14-05-14. Revocation of condonation

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Condonation is revoked and the original cause of divorce revived:

1. When the condonee commits acts constituting a like or other cause of divorce; or

2. When the condonee is guilty of great conjugal unkindness, not amounting to a cause of divorce, but sufficiently habitual and gross to show that the conditions of condonation had not been accepted in good faith or not fulfilled.

14-05-17. Residence requirements

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A separation or divorce may not be granted unless the plaintiff in good faith has been a resident of the state for six months next preceding commencement of the action. If the plaintiff has not been a resident of this state for the six months preceding commencement of the action, a separation or divorce may be granted if the plaintiff in good faith has been a resident of this state for the six months immediately preceding entry of the decree of separation or divorce.

14-05-22. Parental rights and responsibilities--Costs

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. In an action for divorce, the court, before or after judgment, may give direction for parenting rights and responsibilities of the children of the marriage and may vacate or modify the same at any time. Any award or change of primary parental responsibilities must be made in accordance with the provisions of chapter 14-09.

2. After making an award of primary residential responsibility, the court, upon request of the other parent, shall grant such rights of parenting time as will enable the child to maintain a parent-child relationship that will be beneficial to the child, unless the court finds, after a hearing, that such rights of parenting time are likely to endanger the child's physical or emotional health.

14-05-23. Temporary support, attorney's fees, and parental rights and responsibilities

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

During any time in which an action for separation or divorce is pending, the court, upon application of a party, may issue an order requiring a party to pay such support as may be necessary for the support of a party and minor children of the parties and for the payment of attorney's fees. The court in the order may make an order concerning parental rights and responsibilities concerning the children of the parties. The order may be issued and served in accordance with the North Dakota Rules of Court. The court may include in the order a provision for domestic violence protection provided the party has submitted a verified application for the order which is sufficient to meet the criteria defined in subsection 2 of section 14-07.1-01. A violation of the protection provision of the order is subject to the penalties established in section 14-07.1-06 and the arrest procedures authorized in section 14-07.1-11.

14-05-24.1. Spousal support

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Taking into consideration the circumstances of the parties, the court may require one party to pay spousal support to the other party for a limited period of time in accordance with this section. The court may modify its spousal support orders.

2. Unless otherwise agreed to by the parties in writing, spousal support is terminated upon the remarriage of the spouse receiving support. Immediately upon remarriage, the spouse receiving support shall provide notice of the remarriage to the payor spouse at the last known address of the payor spouse.

3. Unless otherwise agreed to by the parties in writing, upon an order of the court based upon a preponderance of the evidence that the spouse receiving support has been habitually cohabiting with another individual in a relationship analogous to a marriage for one year or more, the court shall terminate spousal support.

4. Subsections 2 and 3 do not apply to rehabilitative spousal support.

14-05-27. Separation--Spousal support--Division of property

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Upon the granting of a separation, the court may include in the decree an order requiring a party to pay for spousal support and for the support of any minor children of the parties. Subject to section 14-05-24, the decree may also provide for the equitable division of the property and debts of the parties.

Chapter 14-07. Husband and Wife

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-07-07. Contracts to alter marital relations

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A husband and wife cannot by any contract with each other alter their marital relations, except that they may agree in writing to an immediate separation and may make provision for the support of either of them and of their children during such separation. The mutual consent of the parties is a sufficient consideration for such a separation agreement.

14-07-08. Separate and mutual rights and liabilities of husband and wife

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The separate and mutual rights and liabilities of a husband and a wife are as follows:

1. Neither the husband nor the wife as such is answerable for the acts of the other.

2. Except for necessary expenses as provided in subsection 3, the earnings of one spouse are not liable for the debts of the other spouse, and the earnings and accumulations of either spouse and of any minor children living with either spouse or in one spouse's custody, while the husband and wife are living separate from each other, are the separate property of each spouse.

3. The husband and wife are liable jointly and severally for any debts contracted by either, while living together, for necessary household supplies of food, clothing, and fuel, medical care, and for shelter for themselves and family, and for the education of their minor children.

4. The separate property of the husband or wife is not liable for the debts of the other spouse but each is liable for their own debts contracted before or after marriage.

Chapter 14-07.1 Domestic Violence

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-07.1-01. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. “Department” means the state department of health.

2. “Domestic violence” includes physical harm, bodily injury, sexual activity compelled by physical force, assault, or the infliction of fear of imminent physical harm, bodily injury, sexual activity compelled by physical force, or assault, not committed in self-defense, on the complaining family or household members.

3. “Domestic violence sexual assault organization” means a private, nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is to provide emergency housing, twenty-four-hour crisis lines, advocacy, supportive peer counseling, community education, and referral services for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault.

4. “Family or household member” means a spouse, family member, former spouse, parent, child, persons related by blood or marriage, persons who are in a dating relationship, persons who are presently residing together or who have resided together in the past, persons who have a child in common regardless of whether they are or have been married or have lived together at any time, and, for the purpose of the issuance of a domestic violence protection order, any other person with a sufficient relationship to the abusing person as determined by the court under section 14-07.1-02.

5. “Health officer” means the state health officer of the department.

6. “Law enforcement officer” means a public servant authorized by law or by a government agency to enforce the law and to conduct or engage in investigations of violations of law.

7. “Predominant aggressor” means an individual who is the most significant, not necessarily the first, aggressor.

8. “Willfully” means willfully as defined in section 12.1-02-02.

14-07.1-02. Domestic violence protection order

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. An action for a protection order commenced by a verified application alleging the existence of domestic violence may be brought in district court by any family or household member or by any other person if the court determines that the relationship between that person and the alleged abusing person is sufficient to warrant the issuance of a domestic violence protection order. An action may be brought under this section, regardless of whether a petition for legal separation, annulment, or divorce has been filed.
2. Upon receipt of the application, the court shall order a hearing to be held not later than fourteen days from the date of the hearing order, or at a later date if good cause is shown.
3. Service must be made upon the respondent at least five days prior to the hearing. If service cannot be made, the court may set a new date.
4. Upon a showing of actual or imminent domestic violence, the court may enter a protection order after due notice and full hearing. The relief provided by the court may include any or all of the following:
a. Restraining any party from threatening, molesting, injuring, harassing, or having contact with any other person.
b. Excluding either the respondent or any person with whom the respondent lives from the dwelling they share, from the residence of another person against whom the domestic violence is occurring, or from a domestic violence care facility, if this exclusion is necessary to the physical or mental well-being of the applicant or others.
c. Awarding temporary custody or establishing temporary visitation rights with regard to minor children.
d. Recommending or requiring that either or both parties undergo counseling with a domestic violence program or other agency that provides professional services that the court deems appropriate. The court may request a report from the designated agency within a time period established by the court. The costs of the court-ordered initial counseling assessment and subsequent reports must be borne by the parties or, if indigent, by the respondent's county of residence.
e. Requiring a party to pay such support as may be necessary for the support of a party and any minor children of the parties and reasonable attorney's fees and costs.
f. Awarding temporary use of personal property, including motor vehicles, to either party.
g. Requiring the respondent to surrender for safekeeping any firearm or other specified dangerous weapon, as defined in section 12.1-01-04, in the respondent's immediate possession or control or subject to the respondent's immediate control, if the court has probable cause to believe that the respondent is likely to use, display, or threaten to use the firearm or other dangerous weapon in any further acts of violence. If so ordered, the respondent shall surrender the firearm or other dangerous weapon to the sheriff, or the sheriff's designee, of the county in which the respondent resides or to the chief of police, or the chief's designee, of the city in which the respondent resides in the manner and at the time and place determined by that law enforcement officer. If the firearm or other dangerous weapon is not surrendered, the law enforcement officer may arrest the respondent pursuant to section 14-07.1-11and take possession of the firearm or other dangerous weapon.
5. A court of competent jurisdiction may issue a dual protection order restricting both parties involved in a domestic violence dispute if each party has commenced an action pursuant to subsection 1 and the court, after a hearing, has made specific written findings of fact that both parties committed acts of domestic violence and that neither party acted in self-defense. The order must clearly define the responsibilities and restrictions placed upon each party so that a law enforcement officer may readily determine which party has violated the order if a violation is alleged to have occurred.
6. The court may amend its order or agreement at any time upon subsequent petition filed by either party.
7. No order or agreement under this section affects title to any real property in any matter.
8. The petition for an order for protection must contain a statement listing each civil or criminal action involving both parties.
9. Upon the application of an individual residing within the state, a court may issue a domestic violence protection order or an ex parte temporary protection order under this chapter even though the actions constituting domestic violence occurred exclusively outside the state. In these cases, a respondent is subject to the personal jurisdiction of this state upon entry into this state. If the domestic violence justifying the issuance of a protection order under this chapter occurred exclusively outside the state, the relief that may be granted is limited to an order restraining the party from having contact with or committing acts of domestic violence on another person in this state.
10. Whenever a protection order is issued, extended, modified, or terminated under this section, the court shall transmit the order electronically to the bureau. The bureau shall enter the order electronically in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency. The sheriff of the county in which the order was issued shall maintain and respond to inquiries regarding the record in the national crime information center database provided by the federal bureau of investigation, or its successor agency, pursuant to bureau and federal requirements. Whenever a protection order is issued, the clerk of court shall forward a copy of the order to the local law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the residence of the protected party by the close of business on the day the protection order is issued. Once the bureau, after consultation with the state court administrator, determines and implements an electronic method to notify the sheriff of the county that issued the order, the clerk of court's requirement to forward the order to a law enforcement agency will be satisfied.

14-07.1-02.1. Allegation of domestic violence - Effect

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

If the court finds that a party's allegation of domestic violence in a domestic violence protection order proceeding, divorce proceeding, child custody proceeding, child visitation proceeding, separation proceeding, or termination of parental rights proceeding is false and not made in good faith, the court shall order the party making the false allegation to pay court costs and reasonable attorney's fees incurred by the other party in responding to the allegation.

14-07.1-03. Temporary protection order - Copy to law enforcement agency.

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. If an application under section 14-07.1-02 alleges an immediate and present danger of domestic violence to the applicant, based upon an allegation of a recent incident of actual domestic violence, the court may grant an ex parte temporary protection order, pending a full hearing, granting such relief as the court deems proper.
2. An ex parte temporary protection order may include:
a. Restraining any party from having contact with or committing acts of domestic violence on another person.
b. Excluding the respondent or any person with whom the respondent lives from the dwelling they share, from the residence of another person, or from a domestic violence shelter care facility.
c. Awarding temporary custody or establishing temporary visitation rights with regard to minor children.
d. Requiring the respondent to surrender for safekeeping any firearm or other specified dangerous weapon, as defined in section 12.1-01-04, in the respondent's immediate possession or control or subject to the respondent's immediate control, if the court has probable cause to believe that the respondent is likely to use, display, or threaten to use the firearm or other dangerous weapon in any further acts of violence. If so ordered, the respondent shall surrender the firearm or other dangerous weapon to the sheriff, or the sheriff's designee, of the county in which the respondent resides or the chief of police, or the chief's designee, of the city in which the respondent resides.
3. Unless otherwise terminated by the court, an ex parte temporary protection order remains in effect until an order issued under section 14-07.1-02 is served.
4. A full hearing as provided by section 14-07.1-02 must be set for not later than fourteen days from the issuance of the temporary order, or at a later date if good cause is shown. The respondent must be served forthwith with a copy of the ex parte order along with a copy of the application and notice of the date set for the hearing.
5. Whenever a temporary protection order is issued, extended, modified, or terminated under this section, the court shall transmit the order electronically to the bureau. Whenever a temporary protection order is issued, the clerk of court shall forward a copy of the order to the local law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the residence of the protected party by the close of business on the day the order is issued. Once the bureau, after consultation with the state court administrator, determines and implements an electronic method to notify the sheriff of the county that issued the order, the clerk of court's requirement to forward the order will be satisfied.
6. Fees for filing and service of process may not be assessed to the petitioner for any proceeding seeking relief under chapter 14-07.1.

14-07.1-03.1. Notification of stalking law

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

When an order is issued under section 14-07.1-02 or 14-07.1-03, the order must include or have attached to it a copy of section 12.1-17-07.1.

14-07.1-04. Assistance of law enforcement officer in service or execution

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

When an order is issued upon request of the applicant under section 14-07.1-02 or 14-07.1-03, the court shall order the sheriff or other appropriate law enforcement officer to accompany the applicant and assist in placing the applicant in possession of the dwelling or residence, or otherwise assist in execution or service of the protection order, which may include assistance in referral to a domestic violence shelter care facility.

14-07.1-05. Right to apply for relief

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A person's right to apply for relief under section 14-07.1-02 or 14-07.1-03 is not affected if the person leaves the residence or dwelling to avoid domestic violence. The court may not require security or bond from any party unless the court deems it necessary in exceptional cases.

14-07.1-05.1. Appointment of guardian ad litem for minor

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The court, upon the request of either party or upon its own motion, may appoint a guardian ad litem in an action for a protection order to represent a minor concerning custody, support, or visitation if either party or the court has reason for special concern as to the immediate future of the minor. The guardian ad litem may be appointed at the time of a temporary protection order or at any time before the full hearing. The role of the guardian ad litem consists of investigation and making a recommendation and report to the court. At no time may the involvement of the guardian ad litem alter the requirements set forth in section 14-07.1-03. The appointment of the guardian ad litem expires immediately after the full hearing unless the court retains the right, upon specific finding of need, to continue the appointment of a guardian ad litem to participate in visitation. The guardian ad litem shall have access to records before the court except as otherwise provided by law. The court may direct either or both parties to pay the guardian ad litem fees established by the court. If neither party is able to pay the fees, the court, may direct the fees to be paid, in whole or in part, by the supreme court . The court may direct either or both parties to reimburse the state, in whole or in part, for the payment.

14-07.1-06. Penalty for violation of a protection order

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Whenever a protection order is granted under section 14-07.1-02 or 14-07.1-03 and the respondent or individual to be restrained has been served a copy of the order, the first violation of any order is a class A misdemeanor and also constitutes contempt of court. A second or subsequent violation of any protection order is a class C felony. For purposes of this section, "first violation" means the first time any order is violated and a second or subsequent violation of any protection order includes two or more violations of protection orders.

14-07.1-07. Nonexclusive remedy

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Any proceeding under sections 14-07.1-01 through 14-07.1-08 is in addition to any other civil or criminal remedies.

14-07.1-08. Emergency relief

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

When the court is unavailable an application may be filed before a local magistrate, as defined by subsection 3 of section 29-01-14, who may grant relief in accordance with section 14-07.1-03, upon good cause shown in an ex parte proceeding, if it is deemed necessary to protect the applicant or others from domestic violence. Immediate and present danger of domestic violence to the applicant or others constitutes good cause for purposes of this section. Any order issued under this section expires seventy-two hours after its issuance, unless continued by the court, or the local magistrate in the event of continuing unavailability of the court. At that time, the applicant may seek a temporary order from the court. Any order issued under this section and any documentation in support of the order must be immediately certified to the court. The certification to the court has the effect of commencing proceedings under section 14-07.1-02.

14-07.1-10. Arrest procedures

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. If a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a person has committed a crime involving domestic violence, whether the offense is a felony or misdemeanor, and whether or not the crime was committed in the presence of the officer, the law enforcement officer shall presume that arresting the person is the appropriate response.

2. A law enforcement officer investigating a crime involving domestic violence may not threaten, suggest, or otherwise indicate, for the purpose of discouraging requests for law enforcement intervention, that family or household members will be arrested. When complaints are received from two or more family or household members, the officer shall evaluate each complaint separately to determine if either party acted in self-defense as defined in section 12.1-05-03. If self-defense is not a factor, to determine whether to seek an arrest warrant or to pursue further investigation, the officer shall consider which party was the predominant aggressor by considering certain factors, including the comparative severity of injuries involved, any history of domestic violence, or any other violent acts that the officer can reasonably ascertain and the likelihood of future harm.

3. An individual arrested for a crime involving domestic violence may not be released on bail or on the individual's personal recognizance unless the individual has made a personal appearance before a magistrate pursuant to rule 5 of the North Dakota Rules of Criminal Procedure.

14-07.1-11. Arrest without warrant

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A law enforcement officer shall arrest a person without a warrant if the person has committed the offense of violating a protection order under section 14-07.1-06, whether or not the violation was committed in the presence of the officer.

2. A law enforcement officer may arrest a person without a warrant if the arrest is made within twelve hours from the time the officer determines there is probable cause to arrest for an assault of a family or household member as defined in section 14-07.1-01, whether or not the assault took place in the presence of the officer. After twelve hours has elapsed, the officer must secure an arrest warrant before making an arrest. A law enforcement officer may not arrest a person pursuant to this subsection without first observing that there has been recent physical injury to, or impairment of physical condition of, the alleged victim.

3. A law enforcement officer may not be held criminally or civilly liable for making an arrest pursuant to this section if the officer acts in good faith on probable cause and without malice.

14-07.1-12. Reports

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A law enforcement officer shall make a written report of the investigation of any allegation of domestic violence regardless of whether an arrest was made. If an officer determines through the course of an investigation that one of the individuals was the predominant aggressor, the report must include the name of that individual and a description of the evidence that supports the findings. The officer shall submit the report to the officer's supervisor or to any other person to whom the officer is required to submit similar reports.

14-07.1-14. Law enforcement guidelines and training

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Every law enforcement agency shall develop and implement, with assistance from the criminal justice training and statistics division, specific operational guidelines for arrest policies and procedures in crimes involving domestic violence. The guidelines must include procedures for the conduct of criminal investigations, procedures for arrests and victim assistance by law enforcement officers, procedures concerning the provision of services to victims, and any additional procedures as may be necessary to carry out sections 14-07.1-02 through 14-07.1-14.

2. The peace officers standards and training board shall establish, in conjunction with the state's attorneys association, an education and training program for law enforcement officers and state's attorneys concerning the handling of crimes involving domestic violence. The training must stress the enforcement of criminal laws in domestic violence cases and the use of community resources.

14-07.1-15. Domestic violence and sexual assault prevention fund established

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The domestic violence and sexual assault prevention fund is a special fund in the state treasury. The moneys accumulated in the fund are allocated to the department for distribution as provided by this chapter and within the limits of legislative appropriation. The fund is not subject to section 54-44.1-11.

14-07.1-16. Grants - Eligibility - Conditions - Limitation

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The department shall administer moneys in the domestic violence and sexual assault prevention fund for grants to domestic violence sexual assault organizations as defined in section 14-07.1-01. Up to ten percent of the fund may be allocated to the state domestic violence sexual assault coalition, as recognized by the state department of health. A direct service provider agency that is an eligible entity must receive at least twenty-five percent of its funding from one or more local, municipal, or county sources, either in cash or in kind. Grants are renewable within the limits of legislative appropriation, if the applicant continues to meet the eligibility criteria established by this section and rules adopted by the department. Grant application deadlines may be included in any rules adopted to implement this section.

14-07.1-17. Duties of health officer

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The health officer shall:

1. Respond to all applicants within sixty days after the deadline for receipt of applications, whether or not the applicant is eligible for funds.

2. Ensure that no more than ten percent of the moneys allocated to the domestic violence prevention fund in any biennium is expended for departmental administration of the grant program.

3. Distribute grants to eligible applicants in accordance with the purposes of sections 14-07.1-15 through 14-07.1-18.

14-07.1-18. Domestic violence or sexual assault program records -- Confidentiality -- Exceptions -- Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. All agents, employees, and volunteers participating in a domestic violence or sexual assault program shall maintain the confidentiality of the:
a. Address, telephone number, and other identifying information of a safe home, and place of emergency safe housing;
b. Name, address, telephone number, personally identifying information, and case file or history of any client receiving services from a domestic violence or sexual assault program; and
c. Name, address, telephone number, and other identifying information of an agent, employee, or volunteer providing services under a domestic violence or sexual assault program.
2. The information described in subsection 1 is not subject to section 44-04-18 and may not be disclosed unless:
a. A client consents to the release of information that relates only to that client or the client's dependents;
b. The agent, employee, or volunteer operating a domestic violence or sexual assault program determines the disclosure of the information necessary for the efficient and safe operation of a domestic violence or sexual assault program; or for the protection of the safety of an employee, agent, volunteer, or client of a domestic violence or sexual assault program; or for the protection of a third party reasonably thought to be in need of protection;
c. A court of competent jurisdiction orders the disclosure after an in camera review and a written finding by the court that the information directly and specifically relates to a determination of child abuse and neglect under chapter 50-25.1 or termination of parental rights under sections 14-15-19, 27-20-44, 27-20-45, 27-20-46, 27-20-47, and 27-20-48; or
d. An agent, employee, or volunteer working with a domestic violence or sexual assault program has knowledge or reasonable cause to suspect a child has been abused or neglected as defined by section 50-25.1-02.
3. The address, telephone number, and other identifying information of a shelter are exempt records as defined in section 44-04-17.1.
4. Any person who violates this section is guilty of an infraction.

14-07.1-19. Release conditions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

If an individual charged with or arrested for a crime involving domestic violence, including a violation of a domestic violence protection order under section 14-07.1-03 or an order prohibiting contact under section 14-07.1-13, is released from custody, a district or municipal court may require that electronic home detention or global positioning system monitoring be used for the individual as a condition of release.

Chapter 14-07.3 Minors' Counseling Information Privacy

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-07.3-01. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

1. "Counseling center" means a domestic violence organization as defined in section 14-07.1-01.

2. "Private information" means any information disclosed by a minor to a counselor, employee, or volunteer at a counseling center in the course of counseling or treatment of the minor.

14-07.3-02. Confidentiality of information concerning a minor

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Except as provided in section 14-07.3-03, a counseling center may not disclose private information concerning a minor to the parent, guardian, or custodian of the minor unless the minor authorizes the counseling center to disclose the information or the disclosure of the information is necessary for a party reasonably believed to be in need of protection.

14-07.3-03. Access procedures for parents

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The counseling center shall establish procedures to provide access by a parent, guardian, or custodian of a minor to private information concerning the minor, subject to the following:

1. The counseling center may deny parental access to private information when the minor, who is the subject of that information, requests that the counseling center deny the access. The counseling center shall provide the minors who seek counseling, treatment, or other assistance from the center with a notification that the minor has the right to request that parental access to private information be denied. The counseling center may require the minor submit a written request that the access be denied. The written request must set forth the reasons for denying parental access and must be signed by the minor.

2. Upon receipt of the request, the counseling center shall determine if honoring the request to deny parental access would be in the best interest of the minor. In making the determination, the counseling center shall consider the following:

a. Whether the minor is of sufficient age and maturity to be able to explain the reasons for and to understand the consequences of the request to deny access.

b. Whether the personal situation of the minor is such that denying parental access may protect the minor from physical or emotional harm.

c. Whether there is a basis for believing that the minor's reasons for denying parental access are reasonably accurate.

d. Whether the private information in question is of a nature that disclosure of the information to a parent could lead to physical or emotional harm to the minor.

e. Whether the private information concerns medical, dental, or other health needs of the minor and if so, the information may be released only if failure to inform the parent would seriously jeopardize the health of the minor.

Chapter14-07.4 Uniform Interstate Enforcement of Protection Orders Act

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-07.4-01. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In this chapter:

1. "Foreign protection order" means a protection order issued by a tribunal of another state.

2. "Issuing state" means the state whose tribunal issues a protection order.

3. "Mutual foreign protection order" means a foreign protection order that includes
provisions issued in favor of both the protected individual seeking enforcement of the order and the respondent.

4. "Protected individual" means an individual protected by a protection order.

5. "Protection order" means an injunction or other order, issued by a tribunal under the domestic violence or family violence laws of the issuing state, to prevent an
individual from engaging in violent or threatening acts against, harassment of,
contact or communication with, or physical proximity to another individual. The term
includes an injunction or other order issued under the antistalking laws of the issuing
state.

6. "Respondent" means the individual against whom enforcement of a protection order is sought.

7. "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the
jurisdiction of the United States. The term includes an Indian tribe or band that has
jurisdiction to issue protection orders.

8. "Tribunal" means a court, agency, or other entity authorized by law to issue or
modify a protection order.

14-07.4-02. Judicial enforcement of order

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A tribunal of this state shall enforce the terms of a valid foreign protection order,
including terms that provide relief that a tribunal of this state would lack power to
provide but for this section. A tribunal of this state shall enforce a valid foreign
protection order issued by a tribunal, whether the order was obtained by
independent action or in another proceeding, if it is an order issued in response to a
complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of an individual seeking protection. A tribunal of this state may not enforce an order issued by a tribunal that does not recognize the standing of a protected individual to seek enforcement of the order.

2. A tribunal of this state shall enforce the provisions of a valid foreign protection order which governs custody and visitation. The custody and visitation provisions of the order must have been issued in accordance with the jurisdictional requirements
governing the issuance of custody and visitation orders in the issuing state.

3. A protection order is valid if it:

a. Identifies the protected individual and the respondent;

b. Is currently in effect;

c. Was issued by a tribunal that had jurisdiction over the parties and matter under the law of the issuing state; and

d. Was issued after the respondent was provided with reasonable notice and had an opportunity to be heard before the tribunal issued the order or, in the case of an order ex parte, the respondent was given notice and has had or will have an opportunity to be heard within a reasonable time after the issuing of the order, in a manner consistent with the rights of the respondent to due process.

4. A person authorized under the law of this state to seek enforcement of a foreign
protection order establishes a prima facie case for its validity by presenting an order
valid on its face.

5. Absence of any of the criteria for validity of a foreign protection order is an
affirmative defense in an action seeking enforcement of the order.

6. A tribunal of this state may enforce the provisions of a mutual foreign protection
order which favor a respondent only if:

a. The respondent filed a written pleading seeking a protection order from the
tribunal of the issuing state; and

b. The tribunal of the issuing state made specific findings in favor of the
respondent.

14-07.4-03. Nonjudicial enforcement of order

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A law enforcement officer of this state, upon determining that there is probable
cause to believe that a valid foreign protection order exists and that the order has
been violated, shall enforce the order as if it were the order of a tribunal of this state. Presentation of a protection order that identifies both the protected individual and the respondent and, on its face, is currently in effect constitutes probable cause to believe that a valid foreign protection order exists. For the purposes of this section, the protection order may be inscribed on a tangible medium or may have been stored in an electronic or other medium if it is retrievable in perceivable form.
Presentation of a certified copy of a protection order is not required for enforcement.

2. If the protection order is not presented, the officer may consider other information in determining whether there is probable cause to believe that a valid foreign protection order exists.

3. If a law enforcement officer of this state determines that an otherwise valid foreign protection order cannot be enforced because the respondent has not been notified or served with the order, the officer shall inform the respondent of the order and make a reasonable effort to serve the order upon the respondent. After informing the respondent and serving the order, the officer shall allow the respondent a reasonable opportunity to comply with the order before enforcing the order.

4. Registration or filing of an order in this state is not required for the enforcement of a valid foreign protection order under this chapter.

14-07.4-04. Registration of order

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Any individual may register a foreign protection order in this state. To register a
foreign protection order, an individual shall present a certified copy of the order to
any clerk of district court in this state.

2. Upon receipt of a protection order, the clerk of district court shall register the order in accordance with this section. After the order is registered, the clerk of district court shall furnish to the individual registering the order a certified copy of the registered order. If a foreign order is registered, the clerk of district court shall transmit a copy of the order to the appropriate law enforcement agency.

3. The clerk of district court shall register an order upon presentation of a copy of a
protection order which has been certified by the issuing state. A registered foreign
protection order which is inaccurate or is not currently in effect shall be corrected or
removed from the registry in accordance with the law of this state.

4. An individual registering a foreign protection order shall file an affidavit by the
protected individual that, to the best of the individual's knowledge, the order is
currently in effect.

5. A foreign protection order registered under this chapter may be entered in any
existing state or federal registries of protection orders, in accordance with state or
federal law.

6. A fee may not be charged for the registration of a foreign protection order or the
correction or removal of a foreign protection order.

14-07.4-05. Immunity

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

This state or a local governmental agency, or a law enforcement officer, prosecuting attorney, clerk of district court, or any state or local governmental official acting in an official capacity, is immune from civil and criminal liability for an act or omission
arising out of the registration or enforcement of a foreign protection order or the detention or arrest of an alleged violator of a foreign protection order if the act or omission is done in good faith in an effort to comply with this chapter.

14-07.4-06. Other remedies

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Pursuing remedies under this chapter does not preclude a protected individual from pursuing other legal or equitable remedies against the respondent.

14-07.4-07. Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Violation of a protection order under this chapter is a class A misdemeanor. A second or subsequent violation of such an order is a class C felony.

Chapter 14-08.1. Civil Remedies for Child Support

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-08.1-01. Liability for support

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A person legally responsible for the support of a child under the age of eighteen years who is not subject to any subsisting court order for the support of the child and who fails to provide support, subsistence, education, or other necessary care for the child, regardless of whether the child is not or was not in destitute circumstances, is liable for the reasonable value of physical and custodial care or support which has been furnished to the child by any person, institution, agency, or county social service board. Any payment of public assistance money made to or for the benefit of any dependent child creates a presumption that such payment equals the reasonable value of physical and custodial care or support.

14-08.1-01.1. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Terms defined in chapter 14-09 have the same meaning when used in this chapter.

14-08.1-02. Procedure for action

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

An obligation for the support of a child under section 14-08.1-01 may be asserted by a civil action. The action may be commenced in the district court of the county wherein the child or the defendant resides or may be found, or wherein the defendant has assets subject to attachment, garnishment, or execution.

14-08.1-03. Security required--Enforcement remedies

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In order to enforce an obligation for the support of a child under section 14-08.1-01, the court may make suitable provision for the future care or support of the child, require reasonable security for payments required under this chapter, and enforce the obligation by attachment, garnishment, or by other appropriate remedies, including proceedings under chapter 14-08 as nearly as may be.

14-08.1-04. Duty of state's attorney

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Upon request of the county social service board director or the executive director of the department of human services, the state's attorney of any county furnishing public assistance or county general assistance shall commence any appropriate action or proceeding under sections 14-08.1-02 and 14-08.1-03, in which case fees for filing and service of process may not be charged or collected.

14-08.1-05. Support order to be judgment

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Any order directing any payment or installment of money for the support of a child is, on and after the date it is due and unpaid:

a. A judgment by operation of law, with the full force, effect, and attributes of a judgment of the district court, and must be entered in the judgment docket, upon filing by the judgment creditor or the judgment creditor's assignee of a written request accompanied by a verified statement of arrearage or certified copy of the payment records maintained under section 50-09-02.1 and an affidavit of identification of the judgment debtor, and otherwise enforced as a judgment;

b. Entitled as a judgment to full faith and credit in any jurisdiction which otherwise affords full faith and credit to judgments of the district court; and

c. Not subject to retroactive modification.

2. The due and unpaid payments and any judgment entered in the judgment docket pursuant to this section are not subject to the statutes of limitation provided in chapter 28-01. Such judgments may not be canceled pursuant to section 28-20-35. For such judgments, the duration of a lien under section 28-20-13 and the period during which an execution may be issued are not subject to the time limitations in chapters 28-20 and 28-21.

3. Failure to comply with the provisions of a judgment or order of the court for the support of a child constitutes contempt of court. All remedies for the enforcement of judgments apply. A party or the party's assignee may also execute on the judgment, and the obligor is entitled only to the exemptions from process set forth in section 28-22-02.

4. This section applies to all child support arrearages, whether accrued before or after the effective date of this section. Upon request of the county social service board director or the executive director of the department of human services, the state's attorney of any county furnishing public assistance or county general assistance shall commence any appropriate action or proceeding under sections 14-08.1-02 and 14-08.1-03, in which case fees for filing and service of process may not be charged or collected.

14-08.1-06. Suspension of occupational, professional, or recreational license for nonpayment of child support or failure to obey subpoena

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

When considering a contempt citation against a child support obligor who is in arrears in child support in an amount greater than three times the monthly child support obligation and the obligor is not current in a court-established plan to repay the unpaid child support arrears, or who has failed, after receiving appropriate notice, to comply with a subpoena relating to a paternity or child support matter, the court shall address and make specific findings on the issue of whether the obligor has or may obtain an occupational, professional, or recreational certificate, permit, or license that the court may withhold or suspend. The court may withhold or suspend any certificate, permit, or license issued by or on behalf of the state or any of its licensing authorities or occupational or professional boards, which the obligor is required to obtain prior to engaging in the obligor's occupation or profession. The court may withhold or suspend any certificate, permit, or license issued by lottery or by tag by the director of the game and fish department, which the obligor is required to obtain prior to engaging in a recreational activity. Following a decision to withhold or suspend an obligor's certificate, permit, or license for failure to pay child support, the court shall notify the obligor that the decision becomes final thirty days after the notification unless the obligor satisfies or makes arrangements to pay the entire outstanding payment due. Following a decision to withhold or suspend an obligor's certificate, permit, or license for failure to comply with a subpoena relating to a paternity or child support matter, the court shall notify the obligor that the decision becomes final unless the obligor complies with the subpoena within a time set by the court. The court shall notify the appropriate licensing authority, occupational or professional board, or the director of the game and fish department of the court's decision to withhold or suspend an obligor's certificate, permit, or license. A certificate, permit, or license withheld or suspended by an order issued under this section may be reissued only by order of the court. An appeal by an obligor who has had a certificate, permit, or license suspended under this section is an appeal from the court's order and may not be appealed to the licensing authority, occupational or professional board, or the director of the game and fish department.

14-08.1-07. Suspension of motor vehicle operator's license for nonpayment of child support or failure to obey subpoena

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

When considering a contempt citation against a child support obligor who is in arrears in child support in an amount greater than three times the monthly child support obligation and the obligor is not current in a court-established plan to repay the unpaid child support arrears, or who has failed, after receiving appropriate notice, to comply with a subpoena relating to a paternity or child support matter, the court shall determine whether the obligor has a motor vehicle operator's license issued under chapter 39-06. The court may restrict or suspend a motor vehicle operator's license issued by the state which is held by the obligor. The court shall notify the department of transportation of the court's decision to restrict or suspend an obligor's motor vehicle operator's license. An appeal by an obligor who has had a motor vehicle operator's license restricted or suspended under this section is an appeal from the court's order and may not be appealed to the department of transportation. Except for statistical purposes, an entry on the driving record or abstract of a restriction or suspension under this section after the restriction or suspension ceases may not be available to the public other than by order of a court of competent jurisdiction. A suspension under this section is not subject to the financial responsibility reporting requirements.

14-08.1-08. Certification of records

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The clerk of court and any authorized agent of the child support agency, in any circumstance or proceeding requiring proof of the contents of the official records of the state regarding any information maintained in the state case registry of the automated data processing system established under section 50-09-02.1, may certify the content of those records. A certification provided under this section is prima facie evidence of the contents of those records.

Chapter 14-09. Parent and Child

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-09-00.1. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

1. “Decisionmaking responsibility” means the responsibility to make decisions concerning the child. The term may refer to decisions on all issues or on specified issues, but not child support issues.

2. “Parental rights and responsibilities” means all rights and responsibilities a parent has concerning the parent's child.

3. “Parenting plan” means a written plan describing each parent's rights and responsibilities.

4. “Parenting schedule” means the schedule of when the child is in the care of each parent.

5. “Parenting time” means the time when the child is to be in the care of a parent.

6. “Primary residential responsibility” means a parent with more than fifty percent of the residential responsibility.

7. “Residential responsibility” means a parent's responsibility to provide a home for the child.

14-09-05.1. Grandparental rights of visitation to unmarried minors-- Mediation or arbitration

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. The grandparents and great-grandparents of an unmarried minor child may be granted reasonable visitation rights to the child by the district court upon a finding that visitation would be in the best interests of the child and would not interfere with the parent-child relationship.

2. The court shall consider the amount of personal contact that has occurred between the grandparents or great-grandparents and the child and the child's parents.

3. This section does not apply to agency adoptions or when the child has been adopted by a person other than a stepparent or grandparent. Any visitation rights granted under this section before the adoption of the child may be terminated upon the adoption if termination of the rights is in the best interest of the child.

4. An application for visitation rights under this section may be considered by the district court in conjunction with a divorce proceeding involving the parent of the minor child. If any district court of this state retains jurisdiction over the residential placement of the minor child or children by virtue of any prior proceedings, the rights conferred by this section may be enforced by the grandparents or the great-grandparents through motion under the prior proceeding. If no district court otherwise has jurisdiction, a proceeding to enforce grandparental rights may be brought against the parent having primary residential responsibility as a civil action and venued in the county of residence of the minor child.

5. The district court may require mediation of the matter under chapter 14-09.1. If mediation fails and if the mediator agrees, the court may order the dispute arbitrated by the person who attempted mediation. Joinder of grandparents or of great-grandparents awarded visitation rights under this section must occur in any proceeding to terminate parental rights.

14-09-06.2. Best interests and welfare of child--Court consideration-- Factors

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. For the purpose of parental rights and responsibilities, the best interests and welfare of the child is determined by the court's consideration and evaluation of all factors affecting the best interests and welfare of the child. These factors include all of the following when applicable:

a. The love, affection, and other emotional ties existing between the parents and child and the ability of each parent to provide the child with nurture, love, affection, and guidance.

b. The ability of each parent to assure that the child receives adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical care, and a safe environment.

c. The child's developmental needs and the ability of each parent to meet those needs, both in the present and in the future.

d. The sufficiency and stability of each parent's home environment, the impact of extended family, the length of time the child has lived in each parent's home, and the desirability of maintaining continuity in the child's home and community.

e. The willingness and ability of each parent to facilitate and encourage a close and continuing relationship between the other parent and the child.

f. The moral fitness of the parents, as that fitness impacts the child.

g. The mental and physical health of the parents, as that health impacts the child.

h. The home, school, and community record of the child and the potential effect of any change.

i. If the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that a child is of sufficient maturity to make a sound judgment, the court may give substantial weight to the preference of the mature child. The court also shall give due consideration to other factors that may have affected the child's preference, including whether the child's preference was based on undesirable or improper influences.

j. Evidence of domestic violence. In determining parental rights and responsibilities, the court shall consider evidence of domestic violence. If the court finds credible evidence that domestic violence has occurred, and there exists one incident of domestic violence which resulted in serious bodily injury or involved the use of a dangerous weapon or there exists a pattern of domestic violence within a reasonable time proximate to the proceeding, this combination creates a rebuttable presumption that a parent who has perpetrated domestic violence may not be awarded residential responsibility for the child. This presumption may be overcome only by clear and convincing evidence that the best interests of the child require that parent have residential responsibility. The court shall cite specific findings of fact to show that the residential responsibility best protects the child and the parent or other family or household member who is the victim of domestic violence. If necessary to protect the welfare of the child, residential responsibility for a child may be awarded to a suitable third person, provided that the person would not allow access to a violent parent except as ordered by the court. If the court awards residential responsibility to a third person, the court shall give priority to the child's nearest suitable adult relative. The fact that the abused parent suffers from the effects of the abuse may not be grounds for denying that parent residential responsibility. As used in this subdivision, “domestic violence” means domestic violence as defined in section 14-07.1-01. A court may consider, but is not bound by, a finding of domestic violence in another proceeding under chapter 14-07.1.

k. The interaction and interrelationship, or the potential for interaction and interrelationship, of the child with any person who resides in, is present, or frequents the household of a parent and who may significantly affect the child's best interests. The court shall consider that person's history of inflicting, or tendency to inflict, physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or the fear of physical harm, bodily injury, or assault, on other persons.

l. The making of false allegations not made in good faith, by one parent against the other, of harm to a child as defined in section 50-25.1-02.

m. Any other factors considered by the court to be relevant to a particular parental rights and responsibilities dispute.

2. In a proceeding for parental rights and responsibilities of a child of a servicemember, a court may not consider a parent's past deployment or possible future deployment in itself in determining the best interests of the child but may consider any significant impact on the best interests of the child of the parent's past or possible future deployment.

3. In any proceeding under this chapter, the court, at any stage of the proceedings after final judgment, may make orders about what security is to be given for the care, custody, and support of the unmarried minor children of the marriage as from the circumstances of the parties and the nature of the case is equitable.

14-09-06.3. Custody investigations and reports--Costs

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. In contested proceedings dealing with parental rights and responsibilities the court, upon the request of either party, or, upon its own motion, may order an investigation and report concerning parenting rights and responsibilities regarding the child. The court shall designate a person or agency responsible for making the investigation and report, which designees may include the county social service board, public health officer, school officials, and any other public agency or private practitioner it deems qualified to make the investigation.

2. The investigator may consult any person who may have information about the child and any potential arrangements for parenting rights and responsibilities, and upon order of the court may refer the child to any professional personnel for diagnosis.

3. The court shall mail the investigator's report to counsel and to any party not represented by counsel at least thirty days before the hearing. The investigator shall make available to any such counsel or party the complete file of data and reports underlying the investigator's report and the names and addresses of all persons whom the investigator has consulted. A party may call the investigator and any person whom the investigator has consulted for cross-examination at the hearing. A party may not waive the party's right of cross-examination before the hearing.

4. The court shall enter an order for the costs of any such investigation against either or both parties, except that if the parties are indigent the expenses must be borne by the county where the child resided at the time the action was commenced or if a modification of parental rights and responsibilities, at the time the motion to modify is served.

14-09-06.4. Appointment of guardian ad litem or investigator for child in proceedings involving parental rights and responsibilities--Immunity

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In any action for an annulment, divorce, legal separation, or other action affecting marriage, when either party has reason for special concern as to the future of the minor child, and in any action when the parenting rights and responsibilities concerning the child is contested, either party to the action may petition the court for the appointment of a guardian ad litem to represent the child concerning parenting rights and responsibilities. The court may appoint a guardian ad litem or investigator on its own motion. If appointed, a guardian ad litem shall serve as an advocate of the child's best interests. If appointed, the investigator shall provide those services as prescribed by the supreme court. The court may direct either or both parties to pay the guardian ad litem or investigator fee established by the court. If neither party is able to pay the fee, the court may direct the fee to be paid, in whole or in part, by the county where the child resided at the time the action was commenced. The court may direct either or both parties to reimburse the county, in whole or in part, for such payment. Any guardian ad litem or investigator appointed under this section who acts in good faith in making a report to the court is immune from any civil liability resulting from the report. For the purpose of determining good faith, the good faith of the guardian ad litem or investigator is a disputable presumption.

14-09-06.5. Allegation of harm to child--Effect

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

If the court finds that an allegation of harm to a child by one parent against the other is false and not made in good faith, the court shall order the parent making the false allegation to pay court costs and reasonable attorney's fees incurred by the other parent in responding to the allegation.

14-09-06.6. Limitations on postjudgment modifications of primary residential responsibility

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Unless agreed to in writing by the parties, or if included in the parenting plan, no motion for an order to modify primary residential responsibility may be made earlier than two years after the date of entry of an order establishing primary residential responsibility, except in accordance with subsection 3.

2. Unless agreed to in writing by the parties, or if included in the parenting plan, if a motion for modification has been disposed of upon its merits, no subsequent motion may be filed within two years of disposition of the prior motion, except in accordance with subsection 5.

3. The time limitation in subsections 1 and 2 does not apply if the court finds:

a. The persistent and willful denial or interference with parenting time;

b. The child's present environment may endanger the child's physical or emotional health or impair the child's emotional development; or

c. The primary residential responsibility for the child has changed to the other parent for longer than six months.

4. A party seeking modification of an order concerning primary residential responsibility shall serve and file moving papers and supporting affidavits and shall give notice to the other party to the proceeding who may serve and file a response and opposing affidavits. The court shall consider the motion on briefs and without oral argument or evidentiary hearing and shall deny the motion unless the court finds the moving party has established a prima facie case justifying a modification. The court shall set a date for an evidentiary hearing only if a prima facie case is established.

5. The court may not modify the primary residential responsibility within the two-year period following the date of entry of an order establishing primary residential responsibility unless the court finds the modification is necessary to serve the best interests of the child and:

a. The persistent and willful denial or interference with parenting time;

b. The child's present environment may endanger the child's physical or emotional health or impair the child's emotional development; or

c. The residential responsibility for the child has changed to the other parent for longer than six months.

6. The court may modify the primary residential responsibility after the two-year period following the date of entry of an order establishing primary residential responsibility if the court finds:

a. On the basis of facts that have arisen since the prior order or which were unknown to the court at the time of the prior order, a material change has occurred in the circumstances of the child or the parties; and

b. The modification is necessary to serve the best interests of the child.

7. The court may modify a prior order concerning primary residential responsibility at any time if the court finds a stipulated agreement by the parties to modify the order is in the best interests of the child.

8. Upon a motion to modify primary residential responsibility under this section, the burden of proof is on the moving party.

14-09-07. Residence of child

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A parent with primary residential responsibility for a child may not change the primary residence of the child to another state except upon order of the court or with the consent of the other parent, if the other parent has been given parenting time by the decree.

2. A parent with equal residential responsibility for a child may not change the residence of the child to another state except with consent of the other parent or order of the court allowing the move and awarding that parent primary residential responsibility.

3. A court order is not required if the other parent:

a. Has not exercised parenting time for a period of one year; or

b. Has moved to another state and is more than fifty miles [80.47 kilometers] from the residence of the parent with primary residential responsibility.

14-09-08. Mutual duty to support children

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Parents shall give their children support and education suitable to the child's circumstances. The court may compel either or both of the parents to provide for the support of their children.

14-09-08.1. Support payments--Payment to state disbursement unit--Transfer of proceedings for enforcement of decree--Procedures upon failure to pay

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In any action in which a court orders that payments for child support be made, the court shall provide in its order that the payments be paid to the state disbursement unit for remittance to the obligee.
2. a. Each party subject to the order shall immediately inform the state disbursement unit of the party's:
(1) Social security number;
(2) Residential and mailing addresses and any change of address;
(3) Telephone number;
(4) Motor vehicle operator's license number;
(5) Employer's name, address, and telephone number; and
(6) Change of any other condition which may affect the proper administration of this chapter.
b. Each order for payment of child support must notify each party of the requirements in subdivision a and require the party to provide the information within ten days from the date of the order or ten days after any change in the information.
c. In any subsequent child support enforcement action between the parties, upon sufficient showing that diligent effort has been made to ascertain the location of a party, the court shall deem due process requirements for notice and service to have been met, with respect to the noticed party, by delivery of written notice to the most recent residential or employer address provided by the noticed party pursuant to this subsection.
d. The requirements of this subsection continue in effect until all child support obligations have been satisfied with respect to each child subject to the order.
3. Whenever there is failure to make the payments as required, the clerk of court may, and upon request of the obligee or child support agency, shall send notice of the arrears by first-class mail, with affidavit of service, to the person required to make the payments, or request a district judge of the judicial district to issue a citation for contempt of court against the person who has failed to make the payments. The citation may be served on that person by first-class mail with affidavit of service to the person's last-known address.
4. The court of its own motion or on motion of the child support agency or the state's attorney of the county of venue, the county of the recipient's residence, or the county of the obligor's residence may cause a certified copy of any support order in the action to be transcribed and filed with the clerk of the district court of any county in this state in which the obligee or the obligor may reside from time to time. Thereafter, this section applies as if the support order were issued by the district court of the county to which the support order is transcribed. No fee may be charged for transcribing or filing a certified copy of any support order under this section.

14-09-08.2. Support for children after majority--Retroactive application

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A judgment or order requiring the payment of child support until the child attains majority continues as to the child until the end of the month during which the child is graduated from high school or attains the age of nineteen years, whichever occurs first, if:

a. The child is enrolled and attending high school and is eighteen years of age prior to the date the child is expected to be graduated; and

b. The child resides with the person to whom the duty of support is owed.

2. A judgment or order may require payment of child support after majority under substantially the circumstances described in subsection 1.

3. The person to whom the duty of support is owed under either subsection 1 or 2 may file an affidavit with the district court stating that the requirements of subsection 1 are met, the school in which the child is enrolled, and the anticipated date of the child's graduation. Upon filing of the affidavit, the child support resumes pursuant to subsection 1 or pursuant to the terms of a judgment or order described in subsection 2. A fee may not be charged for filing such an affidavit.

4. The clerk of court shall serve the affidavit by first-class mail upon the person owing the duty of support. If at any time thereafter the person owing the duty of support files a motion with the court, supported by that person's affidavit that the child is no longer enrolled in or attending high school, the court shall determine if the child is enrolled in and attending high school and shall enter an order accordingly.

5. This section applies to child support orders concerning children described in subsection 1 or 2, regardless of the date of entry of the order.

6. This section does not preclude the entry of an order for child support which continues after the child reaches age eighteen, if the parties agree, or if the court determines the support to be appropriate.

7. For purposes of this section:

a. A child is treated as being in school during summer vacation if the child was enrolled in and attending school and did not graduate from high school at the end of the school period immediately preceding the summer vacation; and

b. A child who is currently enrolled in school is not considered to have graduated, even if all required coursework and examinations have been completed, until the ceremony is held by the school to commemorate the child's graduation.

14-09-08.3. Duration of child support obligations

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Unless dates for the commencement or termination of a child support obligation are specified by the court's order, a judgment or order requiring the payment of child support is effective as to the child in the month in which the order is signed and continues until the end of the month in which the support obligation terminates.

14-09-08.4. Periodic review of child support orders

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Each child support order must be reviewed by the child support agency no less frequently than thirty-six months after the establishment of the order or the most recent amendment or review of the order by the court or child support agency unless:
a. In the case of an order with respect to which there is in effect an assignment under chapter 50-09, the child support agency has determined that a review is not in the best interests of the child and neither the obligor nor the obligee has requested review; or
b. In the case of any other order neither the obligor nor the obligee has requested review.
2. Each child support order, in which there is in effect an assignment under chapter 50-09 or with respect to which either the obligor or the obligee has requested review, must be reviewed by the child support agency if:
a. More than twelve months have passed since the establishment of the order or the most recent amendment or review of that order by the court or child support agency, whichever is later; and
b. The order provides for no child support and was based on a finding that the obligor has no ability to pay child support.
3. If, upon review, the child support agency determines that the order provides for child support payments in an amount that is inconsistent with the amount that would be required by the child support guidelines established under subsection 1 of section 14-09-09.7, the child support agency may seek an amendment of the order. If the order provides for child support payments in an amount less than eighty-five percent of the amount that would be required by those guidelines, the child support agency shall seek an amendment of the order.
4. If a child support order sought to be amended was entered at least one year before the filing of a motion or petition for amendment, the court shall order the amendment of the child support order to conform the amount of child support payment to that required under the child support guidelines, whether or not the motion or petition for amendment arises out of a periodic review of a child support order, and whether or not a material change of circumstances has taken place, unless the presumption that the correct amount of child support would result from the application of the child support guidelines is rebutted. If a motion or petition for amendment is filed within one year of the entry of the order sought to be amended, the party seeking amendment must also show a material change of circumstances.
5. A determination that a child who is the subject of a child support order is eligible for benefits furnished under subsection 17 or 19 of section 50-06- 05.1, chapter 50-09, or chapter 50-24.1, or any substantially similar program operated by any state or tribal government, constitutes a material change of circumstances. The availability of health insurance at reasonable cost to a child who is the subject of a child support order constitutes a material change of circumstances. The need to provide for a child's health care needs, through health insurance or other means, constitutes a material change of circumstances.

14-09-08.5. Notice of periodic review of child support orders

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. The child support agency shall provide written notice that a child support order being enforced by the child support agency may be subject to review under section 14-09-08.4. The notice may be sent by first-class mail to the obligor and the obligee, at the addresses they have most recently provided to the child support agency, at least thirty-five days before the commencement of the review.
2. The notice to the obligor must inform the obligor of the duty to furnish the information required by section 14-09-08.6 and that a failure to furnish the required information may result in the entry of an order compelling the furnishing of the information. The notice must also inform the obligor that the review determination will be mailed to the obligor following the review. The notice must be accompanied by an income report form, together with instructions for the accurate completion of the income report form.

14-09-08.6. Obligor's duties upon review--Failure to provide information

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. The obligor shall provide information to the child support agency concerning the obligor's income, which is sufficient to accomplish the review, no later than five working days before the date of review. The information must be furnished by providing an income report, in the form and manner required by the child support agency, accurately completed and attested to by the obligor, earnings statements secured from the obligor's current income payer if the obligor changed employment after the end of the latest income tax year for which the obligor filed a return, and providing:
a. A verified copy of the latest income tax return, filed with the internal revenue service or any state official administering a state income tax, which accurately reports the obligor's income for a fiscal year ending no more than seventeen months prior to the date of the review; or
b. A written authorization by which the child support agency may secure a verified copy of the latest income tax return, filed with the tax commissioner, which accurately reports the obligor's income for a fiscal year ending no more than seventeen months prior to the date of review.
2. If the obligor has not produced information under subsection 1 concerning the obligor's income, sufficient to accomplish the review, the child support agency may base its review determination on the assumption that the obligor's income has increased at the rate of ten percent per year since the child support order under review was entered or last modified.

14-09-08.7. Notice of review determination

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Following review, the child support agency shall promptly provide written notice of its determination on review. The notice may be sent by first-class mail to the obligor and the obligee, at the addresses they have most recently provided to the child support agency.

2. If the child support agency has made a determination that no amendment to the amount of child support should be sought, the notice must inform the obligor and the obligee of the right of each to challenge that determination by seeking an amendment to the amount of child support, from the court, at any time before the termination of the support order.

3. If the child support agency has made a determination to seek an amendment in the amount of child support, the notice must be mailed at least thirty-five days before the date of a hearing on a motion for amendment made by the child support agency under section 14-09-08.4, and must inform the obligor and the obligee of the right of each to challenge that determination by opposing that amendment before the court. The notice to the obligor must be accompanied by:

a. A proposed modification of the child support order to provide for payment of child support in the amount required under the child support guidelines;

b. A document by which the obligor may consent to the proposed modification; and

c. An address and telephone number that the obligor may use to receive information from or schedule a meeting with representatives of the child support agency.

14-09-08.8. Motion for amendment of child support order--How made--Presumption when obligor's income unknown

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Upon a determination by the child support agency, made under section 14-09-08.4, that it may or must seek amendment of a child support order, the child support agency may file and serve a motion and supporting documents.

2. The court may determine the motion based upon the files, records, and evidence received in consideration of the motion. If the child support agency certifies that, despite diligent efforts to secure reliable information concerning the obligor's income, the obligor has not produced such information, and if the obligor provides the court with no reliable evidence concerning the obligor's income, it is presumed that the obligor's income has increased at the rate of ten percent per year since the child support order was entered or last modified.

14-09-29. Parental rights and responsibilities--Best interests and welfare of child

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. A court issuing an order that deals with parenting rights and responsibilities of a child entered under this chapter shall award the parental rights and responsibilities concerning the child to a person, agency, organization, or institution as will, in the opinion of the court, promote the best interests and welfare of the child. Between the mother and father, whether married or unmarried, there is no presumption as to whom will better promote the best interests and welfare of the child.

2. If the court finds that a parent has perpetrated domestic violence and that parent does not have residential responsibility, and there exists one incident of domestic violence which resulted in serious bodily injury or involved the use of a dangerous weapon or there exists a pattern of domestic violence within a reasonable time proximate to the proceeding, the court shall allow only supervised parenting time with that parent unless there is a showing by clear and convincing evidence that unsupervised parenting time would not endanger the child's physical or emotional health.

3. If any court finds that a parent has sexually abused the parent's child, the court shall prohibit contact between the abusive parent and the child until the court finds that the abusive parent has successfully completed a treatment program designed for such sexual abusers and that supervised parenting time is in the child's best interest. Contact between the abusive parent and the child may be allowed only in a therapeutic setting, facilitated by a therapist as part of a sexual abuse treatment program, and only when the therapist for the abusive parent and the therapist for the abused child agree that contact serves a therapeutic purpose and is in the best interests of the child.

4. In any proceeding dealing with parental rights and responsibilities in which a parent is found to have perpetrated domestic violence, and there exists one incident of domestic violence which resulted in serious bodily injury or involved the use of a dangerous weapon or there exists a pattern of domestic violence within a reasonable time proximate to the proceeding, all court costs, attorney's fees, evaluation fees, and expert witness fees must be paid by the perpetrator of the domestic violence unless those costs would place an undue financial hardship on that parent.

14-09-30. Parenting plans--Contents

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. In any proceeding to establish or modify a judgment providing for parenting time with a child, the parents shall develop and file with the court a parenting plan to be included in the court's decree. If the parents are unable to agree on a parenting plan, the court shall issue a parenting plan considering the best interests of the child.

2. A parenting plan must include, at a minimum, provisions regarding the following or an explanation as to why a provision is not included:

a. Decisionmaking responsibility relative to:

(1) Routine or day-to-day decisions; and

(2) Major decisions such as education, health care, and spiritual development;

b. Information sharing and access, including telephone and electronic access;

c. Legal residence of a child for school attendance;

d. Residential responsibility, parenting time, and parenting schedule, including:

(1) Holidays and days off from school, birthday, and vacation planning;

(2) Weekends and weekdays; and

(3) Summers;

e. Transportation and exchange of the child, considering the safety of the parties;

f. Procedure for review and adjustment of the plan; and

g. Methods for resolving disputes.

14-09-31. Decisionmaking responsibility

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Except as provided in subsection 3, in the making of any order relative to decisionmaking responsibility:

1. If the parents have reached an agreement as to decisionmaking responsibility, the court shall accept the agreement unless the court makes written findings that the agreement is not in the best interests of the child.

2. If the parents cannot agree on an allocation of decisionmaking responsibility, the court shall enter an order allocating decisionmaking responsibility in the best interests of the child.

3. An allocation of decisionmaking responsibility is not in the best interests of the child unless the order includes a method of resolving disputes when parents do not agree on an issue.

4. If the court finds that domestic violence as defined in section 14-07.1-01 has occurred, the court shall consider such domestic violence in determining whether joint decisionmaking responsibility is in the best interests of the child. In such cases, the court shall make orders for the allocation of parental rights and responsibilities that best protect the child, the parent, or both. If joint decisionmaking responsibility is granted, even though there is evidence of domestic violence, the court shall provide written findings to support the order.

14-09-32. Parental rights and responsibilities

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Each parent of a child has the following rights and responsibilities:

a. Right to access and obtain copies of the child's educational, medical, dental, religious, insurance, and other records or information.

b. Right to attend educational conferences concerning the child. This right does not require any school to hold a separate conference with each parent.

c. Right to reasonable access to the child by written, telephonic, and electronic means.

d. Duty to inform the other parent as soon as reasonably possible of a serious accident or serious illness for which the child receives health care treatment. The parent shall provide to the other parent a description of the serious accident or serious illness, the time of the serious accident or serious illness, and the name and location of the treating health care provider.

e. Duty to immediately inform the other parent of residential telephone numbers and address, and any changes to the same.

f. Duty to keep the other parent informed of the name and address of the school the child attends.

2. The court shall include in an order establishing or modifying parental rights and responsibilities the rights and duties listed in this section; however, the court may restrict or exclude any right or duty listed in this section if the order states the reason in support of the restriction or exclusion. The court shall consider any domestic violence protection orders relating to the parties when determining whether to restrict or exclude any right or duty listed in this section.

14-09-33. References to child custody and custodial parent

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Any law that refers to the “custody” of a child means the allocation of parental rights and responsibilities as provided in this chapter. Any law that refers to a “custodial parent” or “primary residential responsibility” means a parent with more than fifty percent of the residential responsibility and any reference to a noncustodial parent means a parent with less than fifty percent of the residential responsibility.

Chapter 14-09.1. Contested Child Proceedings Mediation

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-09.1-01. Purpose

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The purpose of this chapter is, through mediation, to enable the parties in contested child custody, support, or visitation proceedings to resolve the dispute voluntarily.

14-09.1-02. Mediation authorized--Exception

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In any proceeding involving an order, modification of an order, or enforcement of an order for the custody, support, or visitation of a child in which the custody or visitation issue is contested, the court may order mediation at the parties' own expense. The court may not order mediation if the custody, support, or visitation issue involves or may involve physical or sexual abuse of any party or the child of any party to the proceeding.

14-09.1-03. Appointment of mediator

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

For any mediation ordered under this chapter, the court shall appoint a mediator from a list of qualified mediators approved by the court.

14-09.1-04. Qualifications of mediators

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The supreme court shall adopt rules establishing the minimum qualifications of a mediator. To be included on a list of qualified mediators approved by the court, a person must possess the minimum qualifications.

14-09.1-05. Privacy

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The mediator shall conduct the mediation proceedings in private. The mediator may not exclude counsel from participation in the mediation proceedings.

14-09.1-06. Confidentiality

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Any communication, verbal or written, in a mediation proceeding under this chapter is confidential and inadmissible as evidence in any proceeding. A mediator appointed under this chapter may not be a witness and the notes and work product of the mediator are not subject to discovery or subpoena in the proceeding in which the contested child custody, support, or visitation is at issue.

14-09.1-07. Mediation agreement

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The mediator shall reduce to writing any agreement of the parties. The mediator shall inform the parties of their right to review the agreement with counsel before they sign the agreement. After the agreement is signed by the parties, the mediator shall present the agreement to the court. The agreement is not binding upon the parties until approved by order of the court.

14-09.1-08. Failure to agree

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The mediator may report to the court at any time that the parties are unable to reach an agreement. The mediator may recommend to the court that a full hearing on the custody, support, or visitation issue be held within thirty days. The mediator may not make a substantive recommendation to the court concerning the contested issue of custody, support, or visitation.

Chapter 14-09.2. Parental Rights and Responsibilities

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-09.2-01. Parenting coordinator--Definition

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A parenting coordinator is a neutral individual authorized to use any dispute resolution process to resolve parenting time disputes. The purpose of a parenting coordinator is to resolve parenting time disputes by interpreting, clarifying, and addressing circumstances not specifically addressed by an existing court order. A parenting coordinator:

1. May assess for the parties whether there has been a violation of an existing court order and, if so, recommend further court proceedings.

2. May be appointed to resolve a one-time parenting time dispute or to provide ongoing parenting time dispute resolution services. Parenting time dispute also means a visitation dispute under existing orders.

3. Shall attempt to resolve a parenting time dispute by facilitating negotiations between the parties to promote settlement and, if it becomes apparent that the dispute cannot be resolved by an agreement of the parties, shall make a decision resolving the dispute.

14-09.2-02. Appointment of parenting coordinator

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In any action for divorce, legal separation, paternity, or guardianship in which children are involved, the court, upon its own motion or by motion or agreement of the parties, may appoint a parenting coordinator to assist the parties in resolving issues or disputes related to parenting time. A party, at any time before the appointment of a parenting coordinator, may file a written objection to the appointment on the basis of domestic violence having been committed by another party against the objecting party or a child who is a subject of the action. After the objection is filed, a parenting coordinator may not be appointed unless, on the request of a party, a hearing is held and the court finds that a preponderance of the evidence does not support the objection. If a parenting coordinator is appointed, the court shall order appropriate measures be taken to ensure the physical and emotional safety of all parties and children.

14-09.2-03. Qualifications

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The supreme court shall establish qualifications and maintain and make available to the public a roster of individuals eligible to serve as a parenting coordinator. The roster must include each individual's name, address, and telephone number.

14-09.2-04. Agreement or decision binding

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Within five days of notice of the appointment, or within five days of notice of a subsequent parenting time dispute between the same parties, the parenting coordinator shall meet with the parties together or separately and shall make a diligent effort to facilitate an agreement to resolve the dispute. The parenting coordinator may confer with the parties through a telephone conference or other means. A parenting coordinator may make a decision without conferring with a party if the parenting coordinator makes a good-faith effort to confer with the party. If the parties do not reach an agreement, the parenting coordinator shall make a decision resolving the dispute as soon as possible but not later than five days after receiving all of the information necessary to make a decision and after the final meeting or conference with the parties. The parenting coordinator shall put the agreement or decision in writing and provide a copy to the parties. An agreement of the parties or a decision of the parenting coordinator is binding on the parties until further order of the court.

14-09.2-05. Fees

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Before the appointment of the parenting coordinator, the court shall give the parties notice that the fees of the parenting coordinator will be apportioned between the parties. In its order appointing the parenting coordinator, the court shall apportion the fees of the parenting coordinator between the parties, with each party bearing the portion of the fees that the court determines is just and equitable under the circumstances. If a party files a pro se motion regarding a parenting time dispute and there is not a court order that provides for apportionment of the fees of a parenting coordinator, the court may require the party requesting the appointment of a parenting coordinator to pay the fees of the coordinator in advance. Neither party may be required to submit a dispute to a parenting coordinator if the party cannot afford to pay the fees of a parenting coordinator or an affordable coordinator is not available, unless the other party agrees to pay the fees. After the fees are incurred, a party may by motion request that the fees be reapportioned on equitable grounds. The court may consider the resources of the parties, the nature of the dispute, and whether a party acted in bad faith. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 14-09.2-06, the court may consider information from the parenting coordinator in determining bad faith.

14-09.2-06. Confidentiality

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Statements made and documents produced as part of the parenting coordinator process which are not otherwise discoverable are not subject to discovery or other disclosure and are not admissible into evidence for any purpose at trial or in any other proceeding, including impeachment. Parenting coordinators and lawyers for the parties, to the extent of their participation in the parenting coordinator process, may not be subpoenaed or called as witnesses in court proceedings. Notes, records, and recollections of parenting coordinators are confidential and may not be disclosed unless:

1. The parties and the parenting coordinator agree in writing to the disclosure; or

2. Disclosure is required by law or other applicable professional codes. Notes and records of parenting coordinators may not be disclosed to the court unless after a hearing the court determines that the notes or records should be reviewed in camera. Unless the court determines that the notes and records contain information regarding acts that may be a violation of a state or federal criminal law, the notes and records may not be released.

14-09.2-07. Immunity

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

A parenting coordinator is immune from civil liability for damages for acts or omissions of ordinary negligence arising out of that individual's duties and responsibilities as a parenting coordinator.

14-09.2-08. Modification or termination of appointment

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

The court may terminate or modify the parenting coordinator appointment upon agreement of the parties, upon motion of either party, at the request of the parenting coordinator, or by the court on its own motion for good cause shown. Good cause includes:

1. Lack of reasonable progress over a significant period of time despite the best efforts of the parties and the parenting coordinator;

2. A determination that the parties no longer need the assistance of a parenting coordinator;

3. Impairment on the part of a party that significantly interferes with the party's participation in the process; or

4. The parenting coordinator is unwilling or unable to serve.

Chapter 14-14.1. Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

14-14.1-01. (102) Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

As used in this chapter:

1. “Abandoned” means left without provision for reasonable and necessary care or supervision.

2. “Child custody determination” means a judgment, decree, or other order of a court providing for the legal custody, physical custody, or visitation with respect to a child. The term includes a permanent, temporary, initial, and modification order. The term does not include an order relating to child support or other monetary obligation of an individual.

3. “Child custody proceeding” means a proceeding in which legal custody, physical custody, or visitation with respect to a child is an issue. The term includes a proceeding for divorce, separation, neglect, abuse, dependency, guardianship, paternity, termination of parental rights, and protection from domestic violence, in which the issue may appear. The term does not include a proceeding involving juvenile delinquency, contractual emancipation, or enforcement under sections 14-14.1-22 through 14-14.1-37.

4. “Commencement” means the filing of the first pleading in a proceeding.

5. “Court” means an entity authorized under the law of a state to establish, enforce, or modify a child custody determination.

6. “Home state” means the state in which a child lived with a parent or a person acting as a parent for at least six consecutive months immediately before the commencement of a child custody proceeding. In the case of a child less than six months of age, the term means the state in which the child lived from birth with any of the persons mentioned. A period of temporary absence of any of the mentioned persons is part of the period.

7. “Initial determination” means the first child custody determination concerning a particular child.

8. “Issuing court” means the court that makes a child custody determination for which enforcement is sought under this chapter.

9. “Issuing state” means the state in which a child custody determination is made.

10. “Modification” means a child custody determination that changes, replaces, supersedes, or is otherwise made after a previous determination concerning the same child, whether or not it is made by the court that made the previous determination.

11. “Person acting as a parent” means a person, other than a parent, who:

a. Has physical custody of the child or has had physical custody for a period of six consecutive months, including any temporary absence, within one year immediately before the commencement of a child custody proceeding; and

b. Has been awarded legal custody by a court or claims a right to legal custody under the law of this state.

12. “Petitioner” means a person who seeks enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination.

13. “Physical custody” means the physical care and supervision of a child.

14. “Respondent” means a person against whom a proceeding has been commenced for enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination.

15. “State” means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

16. “Tribe” means an Indian tribe or band, or Alaskan native village, which is recognized by federal law or formally acknowledged by a state.

17. “Warrant” means an order issued by a court authorizing law enforcement officers to take physical custody of a child.

14-14.1-12. (201) Initial child custody jurisdiction

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Except as otherwise provided in section 14-14.1-15, a court of this state has jurisdiction to make an initial child custody determination only if:

a. This state is the home state of the child on the date of the commencement of the proceeding, or was the home state of the child within six months before the commencement of the proceeding, and the child is absent from this state but a parent or person acting as a parent continues to live in this state;

b. A court of another state does not have jurisdiction under subdivision a, or a court of the home state of the child has declined to exercise jurisdiction on the ground that this state is the more appropriate forum under section 14-14.1-18 or 14-14.1-19, and:

(1) The child and the child's parents, or the child and at least one parent or a person acting as a parent, have a significant connection with this state other than mere physical presence; and

(2) Substantial evidence is available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training, and personal relationships;

c. All courts having jurisdiction under subdivision a or b have declined to exercise jurisdiction on the ground that a court of this state is the more appropriate forum to determine the custody of the child under section 14-14.1-18 or 14-14.1-19; or

d. No court of any other state would have jurisdiction under the criteria specified in subdivision a, b, or c.

2. Subsection 1 is the exclusive jurisdictional basis for making a child custody determination by a court of this state.

3. Physical presence of, or personal jurisdiction over, a party or a child is not necessary or sufficient to make a child custody determination.

TITLE 25. Mental and Physical Illness or Disability

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Chapter 25-01. General Provisions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

25-01-01. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In this title, unless the context or subject matter otherwise requires:
1. “Licensed physician” means an individual licensed under the laws of this state to practice medicine and also means a medical officer of the government of the United States while in this state in the performance of the physician's official duties.
2. “Mentally ill individual” means an individual having a psychiatric or other disease which substantially impairs the individual's mental health.
3. “North Dakota vision services--school for the blind” means the North Dakota vision services--school for the blind as maintained under section 25-06-01.
4. “School for the deaf” means the school for the deaf of North Dakota.
5. “State hospital” means the state hospital for the mentally ill.
6. “Superintendent” means the superintendent of the state hospital, of the life skills and transition center, of North Dakota vision services--school for the blind, or of the school for the deaf, as the case may be.
7. “Supervising officer” means the executive director of the department of human services or the superintendent of public instruction, as the case may be.
8. “Tier 1 mental health professional” means a tier 1a or tier 1b mental health professional.
a. A tier 1a mental health professional is a psychiatrist licensed under chapter 43-17 or a psychologist licensed under chapter 43-32.
b. A tier 1b mental health professional is a licensed physician or a physician assistant licensed under chapter 43-17 or an advanced practice registered nurse licensed under chapter 43-12.
9. “Tier 2 mental health professional” means a tier 2a or a tier 2b mental health professional.
a. A tier 2a mental health professional is an independent clinician who is a licensed independent clinical social worker licensed under chapter 43-41, a licensed professional clinical counselor licensed under chapter 43-47, or a licensed marriage and family therapist licensed under chapter 43-53.
b. A tier 2b mental health professional is an addiction counselor licensed under chapter 43-45 or a registered nurse licensed under chapter 43-12.
10. “Tier 3 mental health professional” means a licensed associate professional counselor licensed under chapter 43-47, a licensed certified social worker licensed under chapter 43-41, a licensed professional counselor licensed under chapter 43-47, an associate marriage and family therapist licensed under chapter 43-53, an occupational therapist licensed under chapter 43-40, a licensed practical nurse licensed under chapter 43-12, a behavior analyst licensed or registered under chapter 43-32, a vocational rehabilitation counselor practicing under chapter 50-06.1, a school psychologist, or a human relations counselor.
11. “Tier 4 mental health professional” means a direct care associate or technician.

Chapter 25-03.1. Commitment Procedures

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

25-03.1-02. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

In this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:

1. “Advanced practice registered nurse” means an individual who is licensed as an advanced practice registered nurse under chapter 43-12.1 within the role of certified nurse practitioner or certified clinical nurse specialist, who has completed the requirements for a minimum of a master's degree in psychiatric and mental health nursing from an accredited program, and who is functioning within the scope of practice in one of the population foci as approved by the state board of nursing. This chapter does not expand the scope of practice of an advanced practice registered nurse beyond the scope of practice established by the state board of nursing.

2. “Alternative treatment order” means an involuntary outpatient order for a treatment program, other than hospitalization, which may include treatment with a prescribed medication.

3. “Chemically dependent person” or “person who is chemically dependent” means an individual with an illness or disorder characterized by a maladaptive pattern of usage of alcohol or drugs, or a combination thereof, resulting in social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems.

4. “Consent” means voluntary permission that is based upon full disclosure of facts necessary to make a decision and which is given by an individual who has the ability to understand those facts.

5. “Court” means, except when otherwise indicated, the district court serving the county in which the respondent resides.

6. “Department” means the department of human services.

7. “Director” means the director of a treatment facility or the director's designee.

8. “Expert examiner” means a licensed physician, physician assistant, psychiatrist, psychologist trained in a clinical program, advanced practice registered nurse, or licensed addiction counselor appointed by the court to examine the respondent and to provide an evaluation of whether the respondent is a person requiring treatment.

9. “Independent expert examiner” means a licensed physician, physician assistant, psychiatrist, psychologist trained in a clinical program, advanced practice registered nurse, or licensed addiction counselor, chosen at the request of the respondent to provide an independent evaluation of whether the respondent is a person requiring treatment.

10. “Magistrate” means the judge of the appropriate district or juvenile court or a judge assigned by the presiding judge of the judicial district.

11. “Mental health professional” means:

a. A psychologist with at least a master's degree who has been either licensed or approved for exemption by the North Dakota board of psychology examiners.

b. A social worker with a master's degree in social work from an accredited program.

c. An advanced practice registered nurse.

d. A registered nurse with a minimum of two years of psychiatric clinical experience under the supervision of an expert examiner.

e. A licensed addiction counselor.

f. A licensed professional counselor with a master's degree in counseling from an accredited program who has either successfully completed the advanced training beyond the master's degree as required by the national academy of mental health counselors or a minimum of two years of clinical experience in a mental health agency or setting under the supervision of a psychiatrist or psychologist.

g. A physician assistant.

12. “Mentally ill person” or “person who is mentally ill” means an individual with an organic, mental, or emotional disorder that substantially impairs the capacity to use self-control, judgment, and discretion in the conduct of personal affairs and social relations. The term does not include an individual with an intellectual disability of significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning that originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairment in adaptive behavior, although an individual who is intellectually disabled may also be a person who is mentally ill. Chemical dependency does not per se constitute mental illness, although a person who is chemically dependent may also be a person who is mentally ill.

13. “Person requiring treatment” means a person who is mentally ill or a person who is chemically dependent, and there is a reasonable expectation that if the individual is not treated for the mental illness or chemical dependency there exists a serious risk of harm to that individual, others, or property.

14. “Physician assistant” means an individual licensed to practice as a physician assistant under chapter 43-17, who is authorized by the North Dakota Board of Medicine to practice in the field of psychiatry, holds a certification in psychiatry approved by the board, and is practicing under the supervision of a psychiatrist licensed to practice medicine in this state. This chapter does not expand the scope of practice of a physician assistant beyond the scope of practice authorized by the North Dakota Board of Medicine.

15. “Private treatment facility” means any facility established under chapter 10-19.1 or 10-33 and licensed under chapter 23-16 or 50-31.

16. “Psychiatrist” means a licensed physician who has completed a residency program in psychiatry.

17. “Public treatment facility” means any treatment facility not falling under the definition of a private treatment facility.

18. “Qualified service organization” means a person that provides services to a treatment facility such as data processing, bill collecting, dosage preparation, laboratory analysis, or legal, medical, accounting, or other professional services, and which agrees that in dealing with patient records, it is bound by the confidentiality restrictions of this chapter, except as otherwise provided for by law.

19. “Respondent” means an individual subject to petition for involuntary treatment.

20. “Serious risk of harm” means a substantial likelihood of:

a. Suicide, as manifested by suicidal threats, attempts, or significant depression relevant to suicidal potential;

b. Killing or inflicting serious bodily harm on another individual or inflicting significant property damage, as manifested by acts or threats;

c. Substantial deterioration in physical health or substantial injury, disease, or death based upon recent poor self-control or judgment in providing one's shelter, nutrition, or personal care; or

d. Substantial deterioration in mental health which would predictably result in dangerousness to that individual, others, or property, based upon evidence of objective facts to establish the loss of cognitive or volitional control over the individual's thoughts or actions or based upon acts, threats, or patterns in the individual's treatment history, current condition, and other relevant factors, including the effect of the individual's mental condition on the individual's ability to consent.

21. “Superintendent” means the state hospital superintendent or the superintendent's designee.

22. “Third-party payer” means a person that pays, or agrees to pay, for diagnosis or treatment furnished to a patient on the basis of a contractual relationship with the patient or a member of the patient's family, or on the basis of the patient's eligibility for federal, state, or local governmental benefits, and includes any person providing audit or evaluation activities for the third-party payer.

23. “Treatment facility” or “facility” means any hospital, including the state hospital at Jamestown, or any evaluation and treatment facility that provides directly, or by direct arrangement with other public or private agencies, emergency evaluation and treatment, outpatient care, and inpatient care to individuals who are mentally ill or chemically dependent.

TITLE 27. Judicial Branch of Government

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Chapter 27-01. General Provisions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

27-01-07. Civil action fees--Waiver

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Any filing fees connected with any civil action to be heard in any of the courts of the judicial system as listed in section 27-01-01 may be waived with or without a hearing, at the court's discretion, by the filing of an in forma pauperis petition accompanied by a sworn affidavit of the petitioner relating the pertinent information regarding indigency.

Chapter 27-10. Contempts

27-10-07. Order to show cause or warrant of attachment for contempt not committed in presence of judge

In addition to the procedure set out in section 27-10-01.3, when an act punishable as contempt is not committed in the immediate view and presence of the court, the court, upon being satisfied of the commission of the offense, may:
1. Order the accused to show cause at a specified time and place why the accused should not be punished for the alleged offense; or
2. Issue a warrant of attachment directed to the sheriff of any county where the accused may be found commanding the sheriff to arrest and bring the accused before the court at a specified time and place to answer for the alleged offense.

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Chapter 27-20. Uniform Juvenile Court Act

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

27-20-02. Definitions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

As used in this chapter:
1. “Abandon” means:
a. As to a parent of a child not in the custody of that parent, failure by the noncustodial parent significantly without justifiable cause:
(1) To communicate with the child; or
(2) To provide for the care and support of the child as required by law; or
b. As to a parent of a child in that parent's custody:
(1) To leave the child for an indefinite period without making firm and agreed plans, with the child's immediate caregiver, for the parent's resumption of physical custody;
(2) Following the child's birth or treatment at a hospital, to fail to arrange for the child's discharge within ten days after the child no longer requires hospital care; or
(3) To willfully fail to furnish food, shelter, clothing, or medical attention reasonably sufficient to meet the child's needs.
2. “Abandoned infant” means a child who has been abandoned before reaching the age of one year.
3. “Aggravated circumstances” means circumstances in which a parent:
a. Abandons, tortures, chronically abuses, or sexually abuses a child;
b. Fails to make substantial, meaningful efforts to secure treatment for the parent's addiction, mental illness, behavior disorder, or any combination of those conditions for a period equal to the lesser of:
(1) One year; or
(2) One-half of the child's lifetime, measured in days, as of the date a petition alleging aggravated circumstances is filed;
c. Engages in conduct prohibited under sections 12.1-20-01 through 12.1-20-08 or chapter 12.1-27.2, in which a child is the victim or intended victim;
d. Engages in conduct that constitutes one of the following crimes, or of an offense under the laws of another jurisdiction which requires proof of substantially similar elements:
(1) A violation of section 12.1-16-01, 12.1-16-02, 12.1-16-03, or 14-09-22 in which the victim is another child of the parent;
(2) Aiding, abetting, attempting, conspiring, or soliciting a violation of section 12.1-16-01, 12.1-16-02, or 12.1-16-03 in which the victim is a child of the parent; or
(3) A violation of section 12.1-17-02 in which the victim is a child of the parent and has suffered serious bodily injury;
e. Engages or attempts to engage in conduct, prohibited under sections 12.1-17-01 through 12.1-17-04, in which a child is the victim or intended victim;
f. Has been incarcerated under a sentence for which the latest release date is:
(1) In the case of a child age nine or older, after the child's majority; or
(2) In the case of a child, after the child is twice the child's current age, measured in days;
g. Subjects the child to prenatal exposure to chronic or severe use of alcohol or any controlled substance as defined in chapter 19-03.1 in a manner not lawfully prescribed by a practitioner; or
h. Allows the child to be present in an environment subjecting the child to exposure to a controlled substance, chemical substance, or drug paraphernalia as prohibited by section 19-03.1-22.2.
4. “Child” means an individual who is:
a. Under the age of eighteen years and is not married; or
b. Under the age of twenty years with respect to a delinquent act committed while under the age of eighteen years.
5. “Custodian” means a person, other than a parent or legal guardian, who stands in loco parentis to the child or a person to whom legal custody of the child has been given by order of a court.
6. “Delinquent act” means an act designated a crime under the law, including local ordinances or resolutions of this state, or of another state if the act occurred in that state, or under federal law, and the crime does not fall under subdivision c of subsection 19.
7. “Delinquent child” means a child who has committed a delinquent act and is in need of treatment or rehabilitation.
8. “Deprived child” means a child who:
a. Is without proper parental care or control, subsistence, education as required by law, or other care or control necessary for the child's physical, mental, or emotional health, or morals, and the deprivation is not due primarily to the lack of financial means of the child's parents, guardian, or other custodian;
b. Has been placed for care or adoption in violation of law;
c. Has been abandoned by the child's parents, guardian, or other custodian;
d. Is without proper parental care, control, or education as required by law, or other care and control necessary for the child's well-being because of the physical, mental, emotional, or other illness or disability of the child's parent or parents, and that such lack of care is not due to a willful act of commission or act of omission by the child's parents, and care is requested by a parent;
e. Is in need of treatment and whose parents, guardian, or other custodian have refused to participate in treatment as ordered by the juvenile court;
f. Was subject to prenatal exposure to chronic or severe use of alcohol or any controlled substance as defined in chapter 19-03.1 in a manner not lawfully prescribed by a practitioner;
g. Is present in an environment subjecting the child to exposure to a controlled substance, chemical substance, or drug paraphernalia as prohibited by section 19-03.1-22.2; or
h. Is a victim of human trafficking as defined in title 12.1.
9. “Detention” means a physically secure facility with locked doors and does not include shelter care, attendant care, or home detention.
10. “Director” means the director of juvenile court or the director's designee.
11. “Fit and willing relative or other appropriate individual” means a relative or other individual who has been determined, after consideration of an assessment that includes a criminal history record investigation under chapter 50-11.3, to be a qualified person under chapter 30.1-27, and who consents in writing to act as a legal guardian.
12. “Home” when used in the phrase “to return home” means the abode of the child's parent with whom the child formerly resided.
13. “Juvenile court” means the district court of this state.
14. “Juvenile drug court” means a program established in a judicial district consisting of intervention and assessment of juveniles involved in forms of substance abuse; frequent drug testing; intense judicial and probation supervision; individual, group, and family counseling; substance abuse treatment; educational opportunities; and use of sanctions and incentives.
15. “Permanency hearing” means a hearing, conducted with respect to a child who is in foster care, to determine the permanency plan for the child which includes:
a. Whether and, if applicable, when the child will be returned to the parent;
b. Whether and, if applicable, when the child will be placed for adoption and the state will file a petition for termination of parental rights;
c. Whether and, if applicable, when a fit and willing relative or other appropriate individual will be appointed as a legal guardian;
d. Whether and, if applicable, to place siblings in the same foster care, relative, guardianship, or adoptive placement, unless it is determined that the joint placement would be contrary to the safety or well-being of any of the siblings;
e. Whether and, if applicable, in the case of siblings removed from their home who are not jointly placed, to provide for frequent visitation or other ongoing interaction between the siblings, unless it is determined to be contrary to the safety or well-being of any of the siblings;
f. In cases in which a compelling reason has been shown that it would not be in the child's best interests to return home, to have parental rights terminated, to be placed for adoption, to be placed with a fit and willing relative, or to be placed with a legal guardian, whether and, if applicable, when the child, aged sixteen or older, will be placed in another planned permanent living arrangement. The court shall:
(1) Ask the child whether the child has a desired permanency outcome of another planned permanent living arrangement,
(2) Make a judicial determination explaining why another planned permanent living arrangement is the best permanency plan for the child, and
(3) Identify the compelling reasons it continues not to be in the best interest of the child to return home, be placed for adoption, be placed with a legal guardian, or be placed with a fit and willing relative;
g. In the case of a child who has been placed in foster care outside the state in which the home of the parents is located, or if the parents maintain separate homes, outside the state in which the home of the parent who was the child's primary caregiver is located, whether out-of-state placements have been considered. If the child is currently in an out-of-state placement, the court shall determine whether the placement continues to be appropriate and in the child's best interests; and
h. In the case of a child who has attained age fourteen, the services needed to assist the child to make the transition to successful adulthood.
16. “Protective supervision” means supervision ordered by the court of children found to be deprived or unruly.
17. “Relative” means:
a. The child's grandparent, great-grandparent, sibling, half-sibling, aunt, great-aunt, uncle, great-uncle, nephew, niece, or first cousin;
b. An individual with a relationship to the child, derived through a current or former spouse of the child's parent, similar to a relationship described in subdivision a;
c. An individual recognized in the child's community as having a relationship with the child similar to a relationship described in subdivision a; or
d. The child's stepparent.
18. “Shelter care” means temporary care of a child in physically unrestricted facilities.
19. “Unruly child” means a child who:
a. Is habitually and without justification truant from school;
b. Is habitually disobedient of the reasonable and lawful commands of the child's parent, guardian, or other custodian and is ungovernable or who is willfully in a situation dangerous or injurious to the health, safety, or morals of the child or others;
c. Has committed an offense applicable only to a child, except for an offense committed by a minor fourteen years of age or older under subsection 2 of section 12.1-31-03 or an equivalent local ordinance or resolution;
d. Has committed an offense in violation of section 5-01-08; or
e. Is under the age of fourteen years and has purchased, possessed, smoked, or used tobacco, tobacco-related products, electronic smoking devices, or alternative nicotine products in violation of subsection 2 of section 12.1-31-03; and
f. In any of the foregoing instances is in need of treatment or rehabilitation.
%m4,4%mAs used in this subsection, “electronic smoking devices” and “alternative nicotine products” have the same meaning as in section 12.1-31-03.
20. “Willfully” has the meaning provided in section 12.1-02-02.

TITLE 32. Judicial Remedies

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Chapter 32-28. Change of Names of Persons and Places

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

32-28-02. Change of name of person--Petition--Criminal history record checks--Exceptions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Any person desiring to change that person's name may file a petition in the district court of the county in which the person is a resident, setting forth:

a. That the petitioner is a citizen or permanent resident alien of the United States.

b. That the petitioner has been a bona fide resident of the county for at least six months before the filing of the petition.

c. The reason for which the change of the petitioner's name is sought.

d. The name requested.

2. When an individual files a petition for a name change, the court shall determine whether the petitioner has a criminal history in this state or any other state. The court may require the petitioner to submit to a statewide and nationwide criminal history record check. The criminal history record check must be conducted in the manner provided for in section 12-60-24. All costs associated with the criminal history record check are the responsibility of the petitioner. This subsection does not apply to a request for a name change as part of an application for a marriage license under section 14-03-20, to a request for a name change in conjunction with the annulment of a marriage under chapter 14-04 or the dissolution or separation of a marriage under chapter 14-05, or to the change of a minor's name unless the court has reason to believe the request is being made to defraud or mislead, is not being made in good faith, will cause injury to an individual, or will compromise public safety. If the individual petitioning for a name change has a felony conviction under a law of this state or a law of another state or the federal government, the request is presumed to be made in bad faith, to defraud or mislead, to cause injury to an individual, or to compromise public safety. The name change may not be granted unless the individual requesting the name change proves by clear and convincing evidence that the request is not based upon an intent to defraud or mislead, is made in good faith, will not cause injury to an individual, and will not compromise public safety.

3. The judge of the district court, upon being duly satisfied by affidavit or proof in open court of the truth of the allegations set forth in the petition, that there exists proper and reasonable cause for changing the name of the petitioner, and that thirty days' previous notice of the intended application has been given in the official newspaper of the county in which the petitioner resides, shall order a change of the name of the petitioner. Proper and reasonable cause does not exist if the court determines that the request for a name change is made to defraud or mislead, is not made in good faith, will cause injury to an individual, or will compromise public safety. The court may waive publication of the notice when the proposed change relates only to a first or given name as distinguished from a surname or upon evidence satisfactory to the court that the petitioner has been the victim of domestic violence as defined in section 14-07.1-01.

4. If the person whose name is to be changed is a minor, the court shall consider the appointment of a guardian ad litem, and notice of the intended application must be published in the official newspaper of the county in which the minor resides and, if different, the official newspaper of the county in which each of the minor's parents reside. If the minor has a noncustodial parent, a copy of the notice must be deposited in a post office in this state, postage prepaid, not later than ten days after the publication of the notice, and directed to the noncustodial parent's last reasonably ascertained post-office address. An affidavit of mailing of the notice prepared in accordance with the North Dakota Rules of Civil Procedure must be filed with the court.

5. If the court issues a name change order for a petitioner who has a criminal history in this or any other state, the court, within ten days after the issuance of the change of name order, shall report the name change to the bureau of criminal investigation.

6. The provisions of this section may not delay the granting of a marriage license under section 14-03-20, which may be granted without the change of name.

TITLE 62.1. Weapons

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

Chapter 62.1-01. Definitions--General Provisions

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

62.1-01-02. Forfeiture of dangerous weapon or firearm by person arrested and convicted of crime

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. Any firearm or dangerous weapon used or possessed while in the commission of a felony or a misdemeanor involving violence or intimidation must be seized and, upon conviction and by motion, forfeited to the jurisdiction in which the arrest was made or the jurisdiction in which the charge arose. Except as provided in chapter 29-01 for stolen property, the forfeited dangerous weapon may be, pursuant to court order, sold at public auction, sold or traded to other law enforcement agencies or dealers, retained for use, or destroyed.

2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law; and subject to the duty to return firearms to innocent owners under this section, section 29-31.1-02, and as provided in chapter 29-01 for stolen property; all firearms, as defined in section 62.1-01-01, which are forfeited, recovered as stolen and unclaimed, or abandoned to any law enforcement agency of this state or a political subdivision of this state, including the game and fish department, or that are otherwise acquired by the state or a political subdivision of the state and are no longer needed, shall be disposed of as provided in this section. Except as provided in chapter 29-01 for stolen property, this section does not apply to firearms that are seized or confiscated and disposed of under chapter 20.1-10.

3. a. Before the disposal of any firearm under this section, the agency with custody of the firearm shall use its best efforts to determine if the firearm has been lost by, or stolen or otherwise unlawfully obtained from, an innocent owner and, if so, shall provide notification to the innocent owner of its custody of the firearm. An innocent owner may also notify the agency to claim a firearm.

b. After notification, the agency shall return the firearm to its innocent owner provided the owner submits sufficient proof of ownership, as determined by the agency, and pays the costs, if any, of returning the firearm to the innocent owner. Costs are limited to the actual costs of shipping to the innocent owner and associated costs from any transfer and background check fees charged when delivering the firearm to the innocent owner.

c. If six months elapse after notification to the innocent owner of the custody of the firearm by an agency and the innocent owner fails to bear the costs of return of his or her firearm or fails to respond to the agency notification, or if six months elapse after notice of a claim by an innocent owner and the innocent owner fails to bear the costs of return of the innocent owner's firearm or take away the innocent owner's firearm, then the agency shall dispose of the firearm as provided in this section.

4. a. Except as provided in subdivision b of subsection 3 or subsection 5, the agency shall dispose of the firearms that it receives under subsection 2 by sale at public auction to persons that may lawfully possess a firearm and persons licensed as firearms collectors, dealers, importers, or manufacturers under the provisions of 18 U.S.C. section 921 et seq., and authorized to receive such firearms under the terms of the licenses.

b. The auction required by this subsection may occur online on a rolling basis or at live events, but in no event may the auction occur less frequently than once every year during any time the agency has an inventory of saleable firearms. The agency shall establish a procedure to notify persons of its auctions.

c. The agency may not retain proceeds above that which are necessary to cover the costs of administering this subsection, with any surplus to be transferred to the general fund of the jurisdiction in which the agency is located, provided that an agency may be reimbursed for any firearms formerly in use by the agency that are sold under this section.

d. Employees of the agency are not eligible to bid on the firearms at an auction conducted under this subsection, and except for the amounts authorized under subdivision c of this subsection, neither the agency nor its employees may retain any proceeds from any sale required by this subsection, nor may the agency or its employees retain any firearm required to be sold under this subsection.

5. a. The requirements of subsection 4 do not apply to a firearm if there are not any bids from eligible persons received within six months from when bidding opened on the firearm, or if the agency director, sheriff, chief of police, or a designee of the official certifies that the firearm is unsafe for use because of wear, damage, age, or modification or because any federal or state law prohibits the sale or distribution of the firearm. The agency director, sheriff, chief of police, or a designee of the official, may transfer any of these firearms to the attorney general's crime laboratory for training or experimental purposes, or to a museum or historical society that displays these items to the public and is lawfully eligible to receive the firearm, or the firearm may be destroyed. The requirements of subsection 4 do not apply to a firearm and an agency director, sheriff, chief of police, or a designee of the official may destroy the firearm, if:

(1) The firearm was used in a violent crime, in an accidental shooting, or a self-inflicted shooting resulting in the death of an individual;

(2) There is not a claim for the firearm by an innocent owner; and

(3) A family member of the deceased individual makes a written request for the destruction of the firearm.

b. Agencies subject to the provisions of this subsection may establish a procedure to destroy firearms and may expend necessary funds for that purpose.

6. All agencies subject to the provisions of this section shall keep records of the firearms acquired and disposed of as provided in this section, as well as the proceeds of the sales and the disbursement of the proceeds, and shall maintain these records for not less than ten years from the date on which a firearm is disposed of or on which a disbursement of funds is made, as the case may be.

7. Neither the state nor any political subdivision of the state, nor any of their officers, agents, and employees, is liable to any person, including the purchaser of a firearm, for personal injuries or damage to property arising from the sale or disposal of a firearm under subsection 4 or 5 of this section, unless an officer, agent, or employee of the state or political subdivision acted with gross negligence or recklessness.

8. As used in this section, the term “innocent owner” means a person who:

a. Did not beforehand know or in the exercise of ordinary care would not have known of the conduct which caused that person's firearm to be forfeited, seized, or abandoned to any law enforcement agency of the state or any political subdivision of the state, including the game and fish department;

b. Did not participate in the commission of a crime or delinquent act involving that person's firearm;

c. Legally owned and presently owns the firearm forfeited, seized, or abandoned; and

d. Is authorized by state and federal law to receive and possess his or her firearm.

Chapter 62.1-02. Possession of Weapon

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

62.1-02-01. Persons who are not to possess firearms--Penalty

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. a. A person who has been convicted anywhere of a felony offense involving violence or intimidation in violation of chapters 12.1-16 through 12.1-25 or an equivalent felony offense of another state or the federal government is prohibited from owning a firearm or having one in possession or under control from the date of conviction and continuing for a period of ten years after the date of conviction or the date of release from incarceration, parole, or probation, whichever is latest.
b. A person who has been convicted anywhere of a felony offense of this or another state or the federal government not provided for in subdivision a or who has been convicted of a class A misdemeanor offense involving violence or intimidation in violation of chapters 12.1-16 through 12.1-25 or an equivalent offense of another state or the federal government and the offense was committed while using or possessing a firearm, a dangerous weapon, or, as defined in section 12.1-01-04, a destructive device or an explosive, is prohibited from owning a firearm or having one in possession or under control from the date of conviction and continuing for a period of five years after the date of conviction or the date of release from incarceration, parole, or probation, whichever is latest.
c. A person who is or has ever been diagnosed and confined or committed to a hospital or other institution in this state or elsewhere by a court of competent jurisdiction, other than a person who has had the petition that provided the basis for the diagnosis, confinement, or commitment dismissed under section 25-03.1-17, 25-03.1-18, or 25-03.1-19, or equivalent statutes of another jurisdiction, as a person requiring treatment as defined in section 25-03.1-02, or as a mentally deficient individual, is prohibited from purchasing a firearm or having one in possession or under control. This limitation does not apply to a person who has not suffered from the disability for the previous three years or who has successfully petitioned for relief under section 62.1-02-01.2.
d. A person under the age of eighteen years may not possess a handgun except that such a person, while under the direct supervision of an adult, may possess a handgun for the purposes of firearm safety training, target shooting, or hunting.
A person who violates subdivision a or b is guilty of a class C felony, and a person who violates subdivision c or d is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
2. For the purposes of this section, “conviction” means a determination that the person committed one of the above-mentioned crimes upon a verdict of guilt, a plea of guilty, or a plea of nolo contendere even though:
a. The court suspended execution of sentence in accordance with subsection 3 of section 12.1-32-02;
b. The court deferred imposition of sentence in accordance with subsection 4 of section 12.1-32-02;
c. The court placed the person on probation;
d. The person's conviction has been reduced in accordance with subsection 9 of section 12.1-32-02 or section 12.1-32-07.1;
e. Sentence dispositions, sentence reductions, or offense determinations equivalent to this section were imposed or granted by a court, board, agency, or law of another state or the federal government; or
f. The person committed an offense equivalent to an offense described in subdivision a or b of subsection 1 when that person was subject to juvenile adjudication or proceedings and a determination of a court under chapter 27-20 or of a court of another state or the federal government was made that the person committed the delinquent act or offense.

Chapter 62.1-04. Concealed Weapons

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

62.1-04-03. License to carry a firearm or dangerous weapon concealed--Class 1 firearm license and class 2 firearm and dangerous weapon license

Updated: 
February 12, 2018

1. The director of the bureau of criminal investigation shall issue a license to carry a firearm or dangerous weapon concealed upon review of an application submitted to the director if the following criteria are met:
a. The applicant is at least twenty-one years of age for a class 1 firearm license or at least eighteen years of age for a class 2 firearm and dangerous weapon license;
b. The applicant can demonstrate that the applicant is a resident of this state by providing a copy of a valid driver's license or state-issued identification card from this state that establishes personal identification through photographic means and shows the applicant's name associated with a valid residential street address in this state or the applicant possesses a valid driver's license from the applicant's state of residence that establishes personal identification through photographic means and shows the applicant's name associated with a valid residential street address and a valid concealed weapons license from the applicant's state of residence, which state has reciprocity with this state under section 62.1-04-03.1;
c. The applicant is not an individual specified in section 62.1-02-01 and for a class 1 firearm license the applicant:
(1) Has not been convicted of a felony;
(2) Has not been convicted of a crime of violence;
(3) Has not been convicted of an offense involving the use of alcohol within ten years prior to the date of application;
(4) Has not been convicted of a misdemeanor offense involving the unlawful use of narcotics or other controlled substances within ten years prior to the date of application;
(5) Has not been convicted of an offense involving moral turpitude;
(6) Has not been convicted of an offense involving domestic violence;
(7) Has not been adjudicated by a state or federal court as mentally incompetent, unless the adjudication has been withdrawn or reversed; and
(8) Is qualified to purchase and possess a firearm under federal law;
d. The applicant has successfully completed the testing procedure conducted by a certified test administrator. The person conducting the testing may assess a charge of up to fifty dollars for conducting this testing. The attorney general may certify a test administrator based upon criteria and guidelines prescribed by the director of the bureau of criminal investigation;
e. The applicant satisfactorily completes the bureau of criminal investigation application form and has successfully passed the criminal history records check conducted by the bureau of criminal investigation and the federal bureau of investigation. The applicant shall provide all documentation relating to any court-ordered treatment or commitment for mental health or alcohol or substance abuse. The applicant shall provide the director of the bureau of criminal investigation written authorizations for disclosure of the applicant's mental health and alcohol or substance abuse evaluation and treatment records. The bureau may deny approval for a license if the bureau has reasonable cause to believe that the applicant or licenseholder has been or is a danger to self or others as demonstrated by evidence, including past pattern of behavior involving unlawful violence or threats of unlawful violence; past participation in incidents involving unlawful violence or threats of unlawful violence; or conviction of a weapons offense. In determining whether the applicant or licenseholder has been or is a danger to self or others, the bureau may inspect expunged records of arrests and convictions of adults and juvenile court records; and
f. The applicant is not prohibited under federal law from owning, possessing, or having a firearm under that individual's control.
2. The attorney general shall offer class 1 firearm and class 2 firearm and dangerous weapon licenses to carry a firearm or dangerous weapon concealed under the following requirements:
a. An applicant for a class 1 firearm license shall successfully participate in a classroom instruction that sets forth weapon safety rules and the deadly force law of North Dakota, complete an open book test based upon a manual, demonstrate familiarity with a firearm, and complete an actual shooting or certified proficiency exercise. Evidence of familiarity with a firearm to be concealed may be satisfied by one of the following:
(1) Certification of familiarity with a firearm by an individual who has been certified by the attorney general, which may include a law enforcement officer, military or civilian firearms instructor, or hunter safety instructor;
(2) Evidence of equivalent experience with a firearm through participation in an organized shooting competition, law enforcement, or military service;
(3) Possession of a license from another state to carry a firearm, concealed or otherwise, which is granted by that state upon completion of a course described in paragraphs 1 and 2; or
(4) Evidence that the applicant, during military service, was found to be qualified to operate a firearm.
b. An applicant for a class 2 firearm and dangerous weapon license is required to successfully complete the open book test offered for the class 1 firearm license.
c. A North Dakota resident who has a valid class 1 firearm license also may carry a class 2 dangerous weapon without any further testing required. Class 1 and class 2 permits are equally valid in this state.
d. Additional testing is not required to renew a class 2 firearm and dangerous weapon license. A class 1 firearm license may be renewed upon successful completion of the class 1 firearm requirements within thirty days before submission of the application for renewal.
e. An individual who has a valid class 2 firearm license may apply to upgrade to a class 1 firearm license within five years from the date the class 2 firearm license was issued and upon successful completion of the requirements under this chapter. An individual who has a valid class 1 firearm license may request to convert the license to a class 2 firearm license before the expiration of the class 1 firearm license.
3. The director of the bureau of criminal investigation shall send by mail to a holder of a license a notice of the procedures for renewal of the license issued under this section. The director shall give the notice at least one hundred fifty days but not more than one hundred eighty days before the expiration of the license.
4. The bureau of criminal investigation is required to process the application and make a determination within sixty days of receipt of the properly completed application.
5. The fee for a concealed weapons license must be credited to the attorney general's operating fund. All fees must be paid before the license application may be processed by the director of the bureau of criminal investigation. The attorney general shall list the fees associated with the license, including the costs of the fingerprint-based federal criminal history record check, in the attorney general's administrative rules.
6. The director of the bureau of criminal investigation shall prescribe the form of the application and license, which must include the name, address, description, a photograph, and the signature of the individual. The application form must require sufficient information to properly conduct a criminal history record check and be accompanied by:
a. A photocopy of a valid driver's license or identification card issued by this state which establishes personal identification through photographic means and shows the applicant's name associated with a valid residential street address in this state or a valid state-issued driver's license from the applicant's state of residence which establishes personal identification through photographic means and shows the applicant's name associated with a valid residential street address and a valid concealed weapons license from the applicant's state of residence, which has reciprocity with this state under section 62.1-04-03.1; and
b. Two sets of classifiable fingerprints. The two sets of classifiable fingerprints are not required for a renewal of a concealed weapons license. The license is valid for five years. The original license must be delivered to the licensee and an electronic copy must be preserved for six years by the director. Access to license information must be available to law enforcement through electronic means for official law enforcement purposes. The applicant or licenseholder shall notify the director of the bureau of criminal investigation of any change of address or any other material fact which would affect the restrictions on or the need for the license.
7. The director of the bureau of criminal investigation may deny an application or revoke or cancel a license after it has been granted for any material misstatement by an applicant in an application for the license or any violation of this title. The director of the bureau of criminal investigation shall disclose to the applicant the specific reason for denial or revocation of the license.
8. The applicant may appeal a denial or revocation of this license to the district court of Burleigh County.
9. Information collected from an applicant under this section is confidential information. However, the information may be disclosed:
a. To a governmental agency or court for a law enforcement purpose, including the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of a violation of law.
b. To a court to aid in a decision concerning sentence, probation, or release pending trial or appeal.
c. Pursuant to a court order or a judicial, legislative, or administrative agency subpoena issued in this state.
10. The attorney general may adopt any rules necessary to implement this title.