Selected State Statutes: Colorado

Statutes: Colorado

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§ 19-1-103. Definitions

As used in this title 19 or in the specified portion of this title 19, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1)(a) “Abuse” or “child abuse or neglect”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means an act or omission in one of the following categories that threatens the health or welfare of a child:
(I) Any case in which a child exhibits evidence of skin bruising, bleeding, malnutrition, failure to thrive, burns, fracture of any bone, subdural hematoma, soft tissue swelling, or death and either: Such condition or death is not justifiably explained; the history given concerning such condition is at variance with the degree or type of such condition or death; or the circumstances indicate that such condition may not be the product of an accidental occurrence;
(II) Any case in which a child is subjected to unlawful sexual behavior as defined in section 16-22-102(9), C.R.S.;
(III) Any case in which a child is a child in need of services because the child's parents, legal guardian, or custodian fails to take the same actions to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision that a prudent parent would take. The requirements of this subparagraph (III) shall be subject to the provisions of section 19-3-103.
(IV) Any case in which a child is subjected to emotional abuse. As used in this subparagraph (IV), “emotional abuse” means an identifiable and substantial impairment of the child's intellectual or psychological functioning or development or a substantial risk of impairment of the child's intellectual or psychological functioning or development.
(V) Any act or omission described in section 19-3-102(1)(a), (1)(b), or (1)(c);
(VI) Any case in which, in the presence of a child, or on the premises where a child is found, or where a child resides, a controlled substance, as defined in section 18-18-102(5), C.R.S., is manufactured or attempted to be manufactured;
(VII) Any case in which a child tests positive at birth for either a schedule I controlled substance, as defined in section 18-18-203, C.R.S., or a schedule II controlled substance, as defined in section 18-18-204, C.R.S., unless the child tests positive for a schedule II controlled substance as a result of the mother's lawful intake of such substance as prescribed.
(VIII) Any case in which a child is subjected to human trafficking of a minor for sexual servitude, as described in section 18-3-504, C.R.S.
(b) In all cases, those investigating reports of child abuse shall take into account accepted child-rearing practices of the culture in which the child participates including, but not limited to, accepted work-related practices of agricultural communities. Nothing in this subsection (1) shall refer to acts that could be construed to be a reasonable exercise of parental discipline or to acts reasonably necessary to subdue a child being taken into custody pursuant to section 19-2-502 that are performed by a peace officer, as described in section 16-2.5-101, C.R.S., acting in the good faith performance of the officer's duties.
(2) “Adjudication” means a determination by the court that it has been proven beyond a reasonable doubt to the trier of fact that the juvenile has committed a delinquent act or that a juvenile has pled guilty to committing a delinquent act. In addition, when a previous conviction must be pled and proven as an element of an offense or for purposes of sentence enhancement, “adjudication” means conviction.
(3) “Adjudicatory hearing” means a hearing to determine whether the allegations of a petition in dependency and neglect are supported by the evidence.
(4) “Adjudicatory trial” means a trial to determine whether the allegations of a petition in delinquency are supported by the evidence.
(5) “Administrative review” means a review conducted by the state department of human services that is open to the participation of the parents of the child and conducted by an administrative reviewer who is not responsible for the case management of, or the delivery of services to, either the child or the parents who are the subject of the review.
(6) “Adoptee”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means a person who, as a minor, was adopted pursuant to a final decree of adoption entered by a court.
(6.5)(a) “Adoption record”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, with the exception of section 19-5-305(2)(b)(I) to (2)(b)(IV), means the following documents and information:
(I) The adoptee's original birth certificate and amended birth certificate;
(II) The final decree of adoption;
(III) Nonidentifying information, as defined in section 19-1-103(80);
(IV) The final order of relinquishment; and
(V) The order of termination of parental rights.
(a.5) “Adoption record”, as used in section 19-5-305(2)(b)(I) to (2)(b)(IV), means the following documents and information, without redaction:
(I) The adoptee's original birth certificate and amended birth certificate;
(II) The final decree of adoption;
(III) Any identifying information, such as the name of the adoptee before placement in adoption, the name and address of each birth parent as they appear in the birth records, the name, address, and contact information of the adult adoptee, and the current name, address, and contact information of each birth parent, if known, or other information that might personally identify a birth parent;
(IV) Any nonidentifying information, as defined in section 19-1-103(80);
(V) The final order of relinquishment; and
(VI) The order of termination of parental rights.
(b) “Adoption record”, as used in either paragraph (a) or paragraph (a.5) of this subsection (6.5), shall not include pre-relinquishment counseling records, which records shall remain confidential.
(6.7) “Adoption triad” means the three parties involved in an adoption: The adoptee, the birth parent, and the adoptive parent.
(7) “Adoptive parent”, as used in parts 3 and 4 of article 5 of this title, means an adult who has become a parent of a minor through the legal process of adoption.
(8)(a) “Adult” means a person eighteen years of age or older; except that any person eighteen years of age or older who is under the continuing jurisdiction of the court, who is before the court for an alleged delinquent act committed prior to the person's eighteenth birthday, or concerning whom a petition has been filed for the person's adoption other than under this title shall be referred to as a juvenile.
(b) Deleted by Laws 1997, S.B.97-83, § 14, eff. July 1, 1997.
(9) “Adult adoptee”, as used in parts 3 and 4 of article 5 of this title, means an individual who is eighteen years of age or older and who, as a minor, was adopted pursuant to a final decree of adoption entered by a court.
(10) “Appropriate treatment plan”, as used in section 19-3-508(1)(e), means a treatment plan approved by the court that is reasonably calculated to render the particular respondent fit to provide adequate parenting to the child within a reasonable time and that relates to the child's needs.
(10.5) “Assessment center for children”, as used in sections 19-1-303 and 19-1-304, means a multi-disciplinary, community-based center that provides services to children and their families, including, but not limited to, detention screening, case management, and therapeutic intervention relating to delinquency, abuse or neglect, family conflict, and truancy.
(11) “Assessment instrument” means an objective tool used to collect pertinent information regarding a juvenile taken into temporary custody in order to determine the appropriate level of security, supervision, and services pending adjudication.
(12) “Basic identification information”, as used in article 2 of this title, means the name, place and date of birth, last-known address, social security number, occupation and address of employment, last school attended, physical description, photograph, handwritten signature, sex, fingerprints, and any known aliases of any person.
(13) “Biological parent” or “birth parent”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means a parent, by birth, of an adopted person.
(14) “Biological sibling”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means a sibling, by birth, of an adopted person. “Biological sibling”, as used in article 3 and article 5 of this title, for purposes of the definition of sibling group, as defined in subsection (98.5) of this section, means a brother, sister, or half-sibling of a child who is being placed in foster care or being placed for adoption.
(15) “Birth parents”, as used in part 4 of article 5 of this title, means genetic, biological, or natural parents whose rights were voluntarily or involuntarily terminated by a court or otherwise. “Birth parents” includes a man who is the parent of a child as established in accordance with the provisions of the “Uniform Parentage Act”, article 4 of this title, prior to the termination of parental rights.
(16) “Board”, as used in article 3.5 of this title, means the Colorado children's trust fund board created in section 19-3.5-104.
(16.5) “Case management purposes”, as used in section 19-1-303, means assessments, evaluations, treatment, education, proper disposition or placement of the child, interagency coordination, and other services that are incidental to the administration of the program and in the best interests of the child.
(17) “Chief justice”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means the chief justice of the Colorado supreme court.
(18) “Child” means a person under eighteen years of age.
(19) “Child abuse”, as used in article 3.5 of this title, means any act that reasonably may be construed to fall under the definition of abuse or child abuse or neglect in subsection (1) of this section.
(19.5) “Child advocacy center”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means a center that provides a comprehensive multi-disciplinary team response to allegations of child abuse or neglect in a dedicated, child-friendly setting. The team response to allegations of child abuse or neglect includes, but is not limited to, technical assistance for forensic interviews, forensic medical examinations, mental health and related support services, consultation, training, and education.
(20) “Child care center” means a child care center licensed and approved pursuant to article 6 of title 26, C.R.S. If such facility is located in another state, it shall be designated by the department of human services upon certification that no appropriate available space exists in a child care facility in this state and shall be licensed or approved as required by law in that state.
(21) “Child placement agency” means an agency licensed or approved pursuant to law. If such agency is located in another state, it shall be licensed or approved as required by law in that state.
(22) “Child protection team”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means a multidisciplinary team consisting, where possible, of a physician, a representative of the juvenile court or the district court with juvenile jurisdiction, a representative of a local law enforcement agency, a representative of the county department, a representative of a mental health clinic, a representative of a county, district, or municipal public health agency, an attorney, a representative of a public school district, and one or more representatives of the lay community, at least one of whom shall be a person who serves as a foster parent in the county. Each public agency may have more than one participating member on the team; except that, in voting on procedural or policy matters, each public agency shall have only one vote. In no event shall an attorney member of the child protection team be appointed as guardian ad litem for the child or as counsel for the parents at any subsequent court proceedings, nor shall the child protection team be composed of fewer than three persons. When any racial, ethnic, or linguistic minority group constitutes a significant portion of the population of the jurisdiction of the child protection team, a member of each such minority group shall serve as an additional lay member of the child protection team. At least one of the preceding members of the team shall be chosen on the basis of representing low-income families. The role of the child protection team shall be advisory only.
(23) “Citizen review panel”, as used in section 19-3-211, means the panel created in a county by the board of county commissioners or in a city and county by the city council that shall review and make recommendations regarding grievances referred to the panel by the county director pursuant to the conflict resolution process.
(23.5) “Commercial sexual exploitation of children” involves crimes of a sexual nature committed against juvenile victims for financial or other economic reasons.
(24) “Commit”, as used in article 2 of this title, means to transfer legal custody.
(24.5) “Community placement” means the placement of a child for whom the state department of human services or a county department has placement and care responsibility pursuant to article 2 or 3 of this title in any licensed or certified twenty-four-hour, non-secure, care and treatment facility away from the child's parent or guardian. “Community placement” includes, but is not limited to, placement in a foster care home, group home, residential child care facility, or residential treatment facility.
(25) “Complainant”, as used in section 19-3-211, means any person who was the subject of an investigation of a report of child abuse or neglect or any parent, guardian, or legal custodian of a child who is the subject of a report of child abuse or neglect and brings a grievance against a county department in accordance with the provisions of section 19-3-211.
(26) “Confidential intermediary”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means a person twenty-one years of age or older who has completed a training program for confidential intermediaries that meets the standards set forth by the commission pursuant to section 19-5-303 and who is authorized to inspect confidential relinquishment and adoption records at the request of an adult adoptee, adoptive parent, biological parent, or biological sibling.
(27) “Confirmed”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means any report made pursuant to article 3 of this title that is found by a county department, law enforcement agency, or entity authorized to investigate institutional abuse to be supported by a preponderance of the evidence.
(28) “Consent”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means voluntary, informed, written consent. When used in the context of confidential intermediaries, “consent” always shall be preceded by an explanation that consent permits the confidential intermediary to arrange a personal contact among biological relatives. “Consent” may also mean the agreement for contact or disclosure of records by any of the parties identified in section 19-5-304(2) as a result of an inquiry by a confidential intermediary pursuant to section 19-5-304.
(28.5) “Consent form”, as used in section 19-5-305(3), means a verified written statement signed by an adult adoptee or an adult adoptee's consenting birth parent or an adoptive parent of a minor adoptee that has been notarized and that authorizes the release of adoption records or identifying information, to the extent available, by a licensed child placement agency.
(28.6) “Contact information” means information supplied voluntarily by a birth parent on a contact preference form, including the name of the birth parent at the time of relinquishment of the adoptee; the alias, if any, used at the time of relinquishment of the adoptee; and the current name, current address, and current telephone number of the birth parent.
(28.7)(a) “Contact preference form” means a written statement signed by a birth parent indicating whether the birth parent prefers future contact with an adult adoptee, an adult descendant of the adoptee, or a legal representative of the adoptee or the descendant and, if contact is preferred, whether the contact should be through a confidential intermediary or a designated employee of a child placement agency.
(b) Repealed by Laws, 2014, Ch. 260, § 2, eff. Jan. 1, 2016.
(29) “Continuously available”, as used in section 19-3-308(4), means the assignment of a person to be near an operable telephone not necessarily located in the premises ordinarily used for business by the county department or to have such arrangements made through agreements with local law enforcement agencies.
(29.3) “Convicted” or “conviction”, as used in section 19-5-105.5, means a plea of guilty accepted by the court, including a plea of guilty entered pursuant to a deferred sentence under section 18-1.3-102, C.R.S., a verdict of guilty by a judge or jury, or a plea of no contest accepted by the court, or having received a disposition as a juvenile or having been adjudicated a juvenile delinquent based on the commission of any act that constitutes sexual assault, as defined in subsection (96.5) of this section.
(29.5) Repealed by Laws 2003, Ch. 196, § 5, eff. Jan. 1, 2004.
(30) “Cost of care” means the cost to the department or the county for a child placed out of the home or charged with the custody of the juvenile for providing room, board, clothing, education, medical care, and other normal living expenses for a child placed out of the home or to a juvenile sentenced to a placement out of the home, as determined by the court. As used in this title, “cost of care” also includes any costs associated with maintenance of a juvenile in a home detention program, supervision of probation when the juvenile is granted probation, or supervision of parole when the juvenile is placed on parole.
(31) “Counsel” means an attorney-at-law who acts as a person's legal advisor or who represents a person in court.
(31.5) “County attorney” means the office of the county attorney or city attorney representing a county or a city and county and includes the attorneys employed or retained by such county or city and county.
(32)(a) “County department”, as used in this article and part 2, part 3, and part 7 of article 3 of this title and part 2 of article 5 of this title, means the county or district department of human or social services.
(b) “County department” means a county or a city and county department of human or social services.
(33) “County director”, as used in section 19-3-211 and part 3 of article 3 of this title, means the county director or district director appointed pursuant to section 26-1-117, C.R.S.
(34) “Court”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means any court of record with jurisdiction over the matter at issue.
(34.3) “Court-appointed special advocate” or “CASA volunteer” means a volunteer appointed by a court pursuant to the provisions of part 2 of this article to assist in advocacy for children.
(34.5) “Court-appointed special advocate program” or “CASA program” means a program established pursuant to the provisions of part 2 of this article.
(34.6) “Criminal justice agency”, as used in section 19-1-303, shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 24-72-302(3), C.R.S.
(34.7) “Custodial adoption”, as used in part 2 of article 5 of this title, means an adoption of a child by any person and such person's spouse, as required under section 19-5-202(3), who:
(a) Has been awarded custody or allocated parental responsibilities by a court of law in a dissolution of marriage, custody or allocation of parental responsibilities proceeding, or has been awarded guardianship of the child by a court of law in a probate action, such as pursuant to part 2 of article 14 of title 15, C.R.S.; and
(b) Has had physical custody of the child for a period of one year or more.
(35) “Custodian” means a person who has been providing shelter, food, clothing, and other care for a child in the same fashion as a parent would, whether or not by order of court.
(35.3)(a)(I) “Custodian of records”, as used in section 19-5-305(1.5) and (2) and as used in section 19-5-305.5, means any of the following individuals or entities that have custody of records relating to the relinquishment or adoption of a child:
(A) A court;
(B) A state agency; or
(C) The legal agent or representative of any entity described in sub-subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph (I).
(II) “Custodian of records”, as used in section 19-5-305(1.5) and (2) and as used in section 19-5-305.5, does not include a licensed child placement agency.
(b) “Custodian of records”, as used in section 19-5-109, means an entity that has custody of records relating to the relinquishment of a child, including a court, state agency, licensed child placement agency, maternity home, or the legal agent or representative of any such entity.
(36) “Delinquent act”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a violation of any statute, ordinance, or order enumerated in section 19-2-104(1)(a). If a juvenile is alleged to have committed or is found guilty of a delinquent act, the classification and degree of the offense shall be determined by the statute, ordinance, or order that the petition alleges was violated.
(37) “Department”, as used in article 5 of this title, means the department of human services.
(38) “Deprivation of custody” means the transfer of legal custody by the court from a parent or a previous legal custodian to another person, agency, or institution.
(39) “Designated adoption” means an adoption in which:
(a) The birth parent or parents designate a specific applicant with whom they wish to place their child for purposes of adoption; and
(b) The anonymity requirements of section 19-1-309 are waived.
(40) “Detention” means the temporary care of a child who requires secure custody in physically restricting facilities pending court disposition or an execution of a court order for placement or commitment.
(40.5) “Determinate period”, as used in article 2 of this title, means that the department of human services may not transfer legal or physical custody of a juvenile until the juvenile has completed the period of commitment imposed by the court, unless otherwise ordered by the court; except that the department may release the juvenile on parole prior to completion of the determinate period, as provided in section 19-2-1002.
(41) “Diagnostic and evaluation center”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a facility for the examination and study of persons committed to the custody of the department of human services.
(42) “Director”, as used in section 19-2-303, means the executive director of the department of public safety.
(43) “Dispositional hearing” means a hearing to determine what order of disposition should be made concerning a child who is neglected or dependent. Such hearing may be part of the proceeding that includes the adjudicatory hearing, or it may be held at a time subsequent to the adjudicatory hearing.
(44) “Diversion” means a decision made by a person with authority or a delegate of that person that results in specific official action of the legal system not being taken in regard to a specific juvenile or child and in lieu thereof providing individually designed services by a specific program. The goal of diversion is to prevent further involvement of the juvenile or child in the formal legal system. Diversion of a juvenile or child may take place either at the prefiling level as an alternative to the filing of a petition pursuant to section 19-2-512 or at the postadjudication level as an adjunct to probation services following an adjudicatory hearing pursuant to section 19-3-505 or a disposition as a part of sentencing pursuant to section 19-2-907. “Services”, as used in this subsection (44), includes but is not limited to diagnostic needs assessment, restitution programs, community service, job training and placement, specialized tutoring, constructive recreational activities, general counseling and counseling during a crisis situation, and follow-up activities. Services may include restorative justice practices as defined in section 18-1-901(3)(o.5), C.R.S., and as deemed suitable by the probation department or a designated restorative justice practices facilitator. Restorative justice practices shall be conducted by facilitators recommended by the district attorney.
(44.5) “Donor”, as used in section 19-4-106, means an individual who produces eggs or sperm used for assisted reproduction, whether or not for consideration. “Donor” does not include a husband who provides sperm, or a wife who provides eggs, to be used for assisted reproduction by the wife.
(45) “Emancipated juvenile”, as used in section 19-2-511, means a juvenile over fifteen years of age and under eighteen years of age who has, with the real or apparent assent of the juvenile's parents, demonstrated independence from the juvenile's parents in matters of care, custody, and earnings. The term may include, but shall not be limited to, any such juvenile who has the sole responsibility for the juvenile's own support, who is married, or who is in the military.
(46) Deleted by Laws 1996, H.B.96-1005, § 12, eff. Jan. 1, 1997.
(47)(a) “Estate”, as used in section 19-2-114, means any tangible or intangible properties, real or personal, belonging to or due to a person, including income or payments to such person from previously earned salary or wages, bonuses, annuities, pensions, or retirement benefits, or any source whatsoever except federal benefits of any kind.
(b)(I) Real property that is held in joint ownership or ownership in common with the juvenile's spouse, while being used and occupied by the spouse as a place of residence, shall not be considered a part of the estate of the juvenile for the purposes of section 19-2-114.
(II) Real property that is held by the juvenile's parent, while being used and occupied by such parent as a place of residence, shall not be considered a part of the estate of the parent for the purposes of section 19-2-114.
(47.5) “Executive director”, as used in article 3.3 of this title, means the executive director of the department of human services.
(48) “Expungement”, as used in section 19-1-306, means the designation of juvenile delinquency records whereby such records are deemed never to have existed.
(49) “Family child care home” means a family child care home licensed and approved pursuant to article 6 of title 26, C.R.S. If such facility is located in another state, it shall be designated by the department of human services upon certification that no appropriate available space exists in a facility in this state and shall be licensed or approved as required by law in that state.
(50) Deleted by Laws 1996, H.B.96-1005, § 12, eff. Jan. 1, 1997.
(51) “Fire investigator” means a person who:
(a) Is an officer or member of a fire department, fire protection district, or fire fighting agency of the state or any of its political subdivisions;
(b) Is engaged in conducting or is present for the purpose of engaging in the conduct of a fire investigation; and
(c) Is either a volunteer or is compensated for services rendered by the person.
(51.3) “Foster care” means the placement of a child into the legal custody or legal authority of a county department of social services for physical placement of the child in a kinship care placement or certified or licensed facility or the physical placement of a juvenile committed to the custody of the state department of human services into a community placement.
(51.5) “Foster care home” means a foster care home certified pursuant to article 6 of title 26, C.R.S.
(52) “Gang”, as used in sections 19-2-205 and 19-2-508, means a group of three or more individuals with a common interest, bond, or activity, characterized by criminal or delinquent conduct, engaged in either collectively or individually.
(53) “Good faith mistake”, as used in section 19-2-803, means a reasonable error of judgment concerning the existence of facts or law that, if true, would be sufficient to constitute probable cause.
(54) “Governing body”, as used in section 19-3-211, means the board of county commissioners of a county or the city council of a city and county.
(55) “Governmental unit”, as used in section 19-2-303, means any county, city and county, city, town, judicial district attorney office, or school district.
(56)(a) “Grandparent” means a person who is the parent of a child's father or mother, who is related to the child by blood, in whole or by half, adoption, or marriage.
(b) “Grandparent”, as used in sections 19-1-117 and 19-1-117.5, has the same meaning as set forth in paragraph (a) of this subsection (56); except that “grandparent” does not include the parent of a child's legal father or mother whose parental rights have been terminated in accordance with sections 19-5-101 and 19-1-104(1)(d).
(56.5) “Great-grandparent”, as used in sections 19-1-117 and 19-1-117.5, means a person who is the grandparent of a child's father or mother, who is related to the child by blood, in whole or by half, adoption, or marriage. “Great-grandparent” does not include the grandparent of a child's legal father or mother whose parental rights have been terminated in accordance with sections 19-5-101 and 19-1-104(1)(d).
(57) “Grievance”, as used in section 19-3-211, means a dispute between a complainant and a county department concerning the conduct of county department personnel in performing their duties pursuant to article 3 of this title.
(58) “Group care facilities and homes” means places other than foster family care homes providing care for small groups of children that are licensed as provided in article 6 of title 26, C.R.S., or meet the requirements of section 25.5-10-214, C.R.S.
(59) “Guardian ad litem” means a person appointed by a court to act in the best interests of a person whom the person appointed is representing in proceedings under this title and who, if appointed to represent a person in a dependency and neglect proceeding under article 3 of this title, shall be an attorney-at-law licensed to practice in Colorado.
(60) “Guardianship of the person” means the duty and authority vested by court action to make major decisions affecting a child, including, but not limited to:
(a) The authority to consent to marriage, to enlistment in the armed forces, and to medical or surgical treatment;
(b) The authority to represent a child in legal actions and to make other decisions of substantial legal significance concerning the child;
(c) The authority to consent to the adoption of a child when the parent-child legal relationship has been terminated by judicial decree; and
(d) The rights and responsibilities of legal custody when legal custody has not been vested in another person, agency, or institution.
(61) “Habitual juvenile offender”, as used in section 19-2-517, means a juvenile offender who has previously been twice adjudicated a juvenile delinquent for separate delinquent acts, arising out of separate and distinct criminal episodes, that constitute felonies.
(61.5) “Half-sibling” shall have the same meaning as biological sibling provided in subsection (14) of this section.
(62) “Halfway house”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a group care facility for juveniles who have been placed on probation or parole under the terms of this title.
(63) “Identifying” means giving, sharing, or obtaining information.
(63.5) “Identifying information”, as used in section 19-5-305(3), means copies of any adoption records, as that term is defined in subsection (6.5) of this section, that are in the possession of the child placement agency. “Identifying information” also includes the name of the adoptee before placement in adoption; the name and address of each consenting birth parent as they appear in the birth records; the current name, address, and telephone number of the adult adoptee; and the current name, address, and telephone number of each consenting birth parent to the extent such information is available to the child placement agency.
(64) “Imminent placement out of the home”, as used in section 19-1-116(2), means that without intercession the child will be placed out of the home immediately.
(65) “Independent living” means a form of placement out of the home arranged and supervised by the county department of social services wherein the child is established in a living situation designed to promote and lead to the child's emancipation. Independent living shall only follow some other form of placement out of the home.
(65.3) “Indian child” means an unmarried person who is younger than eighteen years of age and who is either:
(a) A member of an Indian tribe; or
(b) Eligible for membership in an Indian tribe and who is the biological child of a member of an Indian tribe.
(65.5) “Indian child's tribe” means:
(a) The Indian tribe in which an Indian child is a member or eligible for membership; or
(b) In the case of an Indian child who is a member of or eligible for membership in more than one tribe, the Indian tribe with which the Indian child has the most significant contacts.
(65.7) “Indian tribe” means an Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians recognized as eligible for the federal governmental services provided to Indians because of their status as Indians.
(66) “Institutional abuse”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means any case of abuse, as defined in subsection (1) of this section, that occurs in any public or private facility in the state that provides child care out of the home, supervision, or maintenance. “Facility” includes, but is not limited to, family child care homes, foster care homes, and any other facility subject to the Colorado “Child Care Licensing Act” and described in section 26-6-102, C.R.S. “Institutional abuse” shall not include abuse that occurs in any public, private, or parochial school system, including any preschool operated in connection with said system; except that, to the extent the school system provides extended day services, abuse that occurs while such services are provided shall be institutional abuse.
(67) “Intrafamilial abuse”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means any case of abuse, as defined in subsection (1) of this section, that occurs within a family context by a child's parent, stepparent, guardian, legal custodian, or relative, by a spousal equivalent, as defined in subsection (101) of this section, or by any other person who resides in the child's home or who is regularly in the child's home for the purpose of exercising authority over or care for the child; except that “intrafamilial abuse” shall not include abuse by a person who is regularly in the child's home for the purpose of rendering care for the child if such person is paid for rendering care and is not related to the child.
(68) “Juvenile”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a child as defined in subsection (18) of this section.
(69) “Juvenile community review board”, as used in article 2 of this title 19, means any board appointed by a board of county commissioners for the purpose of reviewing community placements under article 2 of this title 19. The board, if practicable, shall include but not be limited to a representative from a county department of social services, a local school district, a local law enforcement agency, a local probation department, a local bar association, the division of youth services, and private citizens.
(70) “Juvenile court” or “court” means the juvenile court of the city and county of Denver or the juvenile division of the district court outside of the city and county of Denver.
(71) “Juvenile delinquent”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a juvenile who has been found guilty of a delinquent act.
(71.3) “Kin”, for purposes of a “kinship foster care home” or for purposes of “noncertified kinship care”, may be a relative of the child, a person ascribed by the family as having a family-like relationship with the child, or a person that has a prior significant relationship with the child. These relationships take into account cultural values and continuity of significant relationships with the child.
(71.5) “Kinship adoption”, as used in part 2 of article 5 of this title, means an adoption of a child by a relative of the child and such relative's spouse, as required under section 19-5-202(3), who:
(a) Is either a grandparent, brother, sister, half-sibling, aunt, uncle, or first cousin; and
(b) Has had physical custody of the child for a period of one year or more and the child is not the subject of a pending dependency and neglect proceeding pursuant to article 3 of this title.
(72) “Law enforcement officer” means a peace officer, as described in section 16-2.5-101, C.R.S.
(73)(a) “Legal custody” means the right to the care, custody, and control of a child and the duty to provide food, clothing, shelter, ordinary medical care, education, and discipline for a child and, in an emergency, to authorize surgery or other extraordinary care. “Legal custody” may be taken from a parent only by court action.
(b) For purposes of determining the residence of a child as provided in section 22-1-102(2)(b), C.R.S., guardianship shall be in the person to whom legal custody has been granted by the court.
(73.5)(a) “Legal representative”, as used in sections 19-5-304 and 19-5-305, means the person designated by a court to act on behalf of any person described in section 19-5-304(1)(b)(I) or 19-5-305(2).
(b) For purposes of the term “legal representative”, as used in section 19-5-304 and 19-5-305 and as defined in paragraph (a) of this subsection (73.5), “legal guardian” shall not include a governmental entity of any foreign country from which a child has been adopted or any representative of such governmental entity.
(74) “Local law enforcement agency”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means a police department in incorporated municipalities or the office of the county sheriff.
(75) “Locating” means engaging in the process of searching for or seeking out.
(76) “Mental health hospital placement prescreening” means a face-to-face mental health examination, conducted by a mental health professional, to determine whether a child should be placed in a facility for evaluation pursuant to section 27-65-105 or 27-65-106, C.R.S., and may include consultation with other mental health professionals and review of all available records on the child.
(77) “Mental health professional” means a person licensed to practice medicine or psychology in this state or any person on the staff of a facility designated by the executive director of the department of human services for seventy-two-hour treatment and evaluation authorized by the facility to do mental health hospital placement prescreenings and under the supervision of a person licensed to practice medicine or psychology in this state.
(77.5) “Need to know”, as used in section 19-1-303, means agencies or individuals who need access to certain information for the care, treatment, supervision, or protection of a child.
(78) “Neglect”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means acts that can reasonably be construed to fall under the definition of child abuse or neglect as defined in subsection (1) of this section.
(78.5) “Newborn child” means a child who is less than seventy-two hours old.
(78.7) “Noncertified kinship care” means a child is being cared for by a relative or kin who has a significant relationship with the child in circumstances when there is a safety concern by a county department and where the relative or kin has not met the foster care certification requirements for a kinship foster care home or has chosen not to pursue that certification process.
(79) “Nongovernmental agency”, as used in section 19-2-303, means any person, private nonprofit agency, corporation, association, or other nongovernmental agency.
(80) “Nonidentifying information”, as used in part 4 of article 5 of this title, means information that does not disclose the name, address, place of employment, or any other material information that would lead to the identification of the birth parents and that includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(a) The physical description of the birth parents;
(b) The educational background of the birth parents;
(c) The occupation of the birth parents;
(d) Genetic information about the birth family;
(e) Medical information about the adult adoptee's birth;
(f) Social information about the birth parents;
(g) The placement history of the adoptee.
(81) “Nonpublic agency interstate and foreign adoption”, as used in section 19-5-205.5, means an interstate or foreign adoption that is handled by a private, licensed child placement agency.
(82)(a) “Parent” means either a natural parent of a child, as may be established pursuant to article 4 of this title, or a parent by adoption.
(b) “Parent”, as used in sections 19-1-114, 19-2-514, and 19-2-515, includes a natural parent having sole or joint custody, regardless of whether the parent is designated as the primary residential custodian, or a parent allocated parental responsibilities with respect to a child, or an adoptive parent. For the purposes of section 19-1-114, “parent” does not include a person whose parental rights have been terminated pursuant to the provisions of this title or the parent of an emancipated minor.
(83) Deleted by Laws 1996, H.B.96-1005, § 12, eff. Jan. 1, 1997.
(83.5) “Permanency hearing” means a hearing in which the permanency plan for a child in foster care is determined by the court.
(84) “Physical custodian”, as used in section 19-2-511, means a guardian, whether or not appointed by court order, with whom the juvenile has resided.
(85) “Placement out of the home” means placement for twenty-four-hour residential care in any facility or center operated or licensed by the department of human services, but the term does not include any placement that is paid for totally by private moneys or any placement in a home for the purposes of adoption in accordance with section 19-5-205. “Placement out of the home” may be voluntary or court-ordered. “Placement out of the home” includes independent living.
(85.5)(a) “Post-adoption record”, as used in part 3 of article 5 of this title, means information contained in the files subsequent to the completion of an adoption proceeding.
(b) The post-adoption record may contain information concerning, but not limited to:
(I) The written inquiries from persons requesting access to records;
(II) The search efforts of the confidential intermediary;
(III) The response, if any, to those search efforts by the persons sought;
(IV) Any updated medical information gathered pursuant to part 3 of article 5 of this title; and
(V) Any personal identifying information concerning any persons subject to the provisions of part 3 of article 5 of this title.
(86) “Prevention program”, as used in article 3.5 of this title, means a program of direct child abuse prevention services to a child, parent, or guardian and includes research or education programs related to the prevention of child abuse. Such a prevention program may be classified as a primary prevention program when it is available to the community on a voluntary basis and as a secondary prevention program when it is directed toward groups of individuals who have been identified as high risk.
(87) “Protective supervision” means a legal status created by court order under which the child is permitted to remain in the child's home or is placed with a relative or other suitable person and supervision and assistance is provided by the court, department of human services, or other agency designated by the court.
(87.5) “Public adoption”, as used in part 2 of article 5 of this title, means an adoption involving a child who is in the legal custody and guardianship of the county department of social services that has the right to consent to adoption for that child.
(88) Deleted by Laws 1996, H.B.96-1005, § 12, eff. Jan. 1, 1997.
(89) “Reasonable efforts”, as used in articles 1, 2, and 3 of this title, means the exercise of diligence and care throughout the state of Colorado for children who are in out-of-home placement, or are at imminent risk of out-of-home placement. In determining whether it is appropriate to provide, purchase, or develop the supportive and rehabilitative services that are required to prevent unnecessary placement of a child outside of a child's home or to foster the safe reunification of a child with a child's family, as described in section 19-3-208, or whether it is appropriate to find and finalize an alternative permanent plan for a child, and in making reasonable efforts, the child's health and safety shall be the paramount concern. Services provided by a county or city and county in accordance with section 19-3-208 are deemed to meet the reasonable effort standard described in this subsection (89). Nothing in this subsection (89) shall be construed to conflict with federal law.
(90) “Receiving center”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a facility used to provide temporary detention and care for juveniles by the department of human services pending placement in a training school, camp, or other facility.
(91) “Recipient”, as used in article 3.5 of this title, means and is limited to a nonprofit or public organization that receives a grant from the trust fund created in section 19-3.5-106.
(91.5) “Record”, as used in section 19-4-106, means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
(91.7) “Register of actions” means those portions of the electronic case management system necessary to carry out a statutory purpose or the duties of a court appointment.
(92) “Residential community placement”, as used in article 2 of this title, means any placement for residential purposes permitted under this title except in an institutional facility directly operated by, or a secure facility under contract with, the department of human services and except while a juvenile is under the jurisdiction of the juvenile parole board.
(93) “Residual parental rights and responsibilities”, as used in article 3 of this title, means those rights and responsibilities remaining with the parent after legal custody, guardianship of the person, or both have been vested in another person, agency, or institution, including, but not necessarily limited to, the responsibility for support, the right to consent to adoption, the right to reasonable parenting time unless restricted by the court, and the right to determine the child's religious affiliation.
(94) “Responsible person”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means a child's parent, legal guardian, or custodian or any other person responsible for the child's health and welfare.
(94.1) “Restorative justice” means those practices that emphasize repairing the harm to the victim and the community caused by criminal acts. Restorative justice practices may include victim-offender conferences attended voluntarily by the victim, a victim advocate, the offender, community members, and supporters of the victim or the offender that provide an opportunity for the offender to accept responsibility for the harm caused to those affected by the crime and to participate in setting consequences to repair the harm. Consequences recommended by the participants may include, but need not be limited to, apologies, community service, restoration, and counseling. The selected consequences are incorporated into an agreement that sets time limits for completion of the consequences and is signed by all participants.
(94.2) “Reunited parties”, as used in section 19-5-305, means any two persons who qualify as and meet any specified requirements for parties under the list of individuals in section 19-5-304(1)(b)(I).
(94.3) “School”, as used in sections 19-1-303 and 19-1-304, means a public or parochial or other nonpublic school that provides a basic academic education in compliance with school attendance laws for students in grades one to twelve. “Basic academic education” has the same meaning as set forth in section 22-33-104(2)(b), C.R.S.
(94.5) “Screening team” means the person or persons designated, pursuant to rule 3.7 of the Colorado rules of juvenile procedure, by the chief judge in each judicial district or, for the second judicial district, the presiding judge of the Denver juvenile court to make recommendations to the juvenile court concerning whether a juvenile taken into temporary custody should be released or admitted to a detention or shelter facility pursuant to section 19-2-508.
(95) “Sentencing hearing”, as used in article 2 of this title, means a hearing to determine what sentence shall be imposed on a juvenile delinquent or what other order of disposition shall be made concerning a juvenile delinquent, including commitment. Such hearing may be part of the proceeding that includes the adjudicatory trial, or it may be held at a time subsequent to the adjudicatory trial.
(96) “Services”, as used in section 19-2-303, may include, but is not limited to, provision of diagnostic needs assessment, general counseling and counseling during a crisis situation, specialized tutoring, job training and placement, restitution programs, community service, constructive recreational activities, day reporting and day treatment programs, and follow-up activities.
(96.5) “Sexual assault”, as used in sections 19-5-105, 19-5-105.5, and 19-5-105.7, means:
(a) “Sexual assault” as defined in section 18-3-402, C.R.S.;
(b) “Sexual assault on a child” as defined in section 18-3-405, C.R.S.;
(c) “Sexual assault on a child by one in a position of trust” as defined in section 18-3-405.3, C.R.S.;
(d) “Sexual assault on a client by a psychotherapist” as defined in section 18-3-405.5, C.R.S.; or
(e) “Unlawful sexual contact” as defined in section 18-3-404, C.R.S.
(97) “Sexual conduct”, as used in section 19-3-304(2.5), means any of the following:
(a) Sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex or between humans and animals;
(b) Penetration of the vagina or rectum by any object;
(c) Masturbation;
(d) Sexual sadomasochistic abuse.
(98) “Shelter” means the temporary care of a child in physically unrestricting facilities pending court disposition or execution of a court order for placement.
(98.5) “Sibling group”, as used in article 3 and article 5 of this title, means biological siblings who have been raised together or have lived together.
(99) “Special county attorney”, as used in article 3 of this title, means an attorney hired by a county attorney or city attorney of a city and county or hired by a county department of social services with the concurrence of the county attorney or city attorney of a city and county to prosecute dependency and neglect cases.
(100) “Special respondent”, as used in article 3 of this title 19, means any person who is not a parent, guardian, or legal custodian and who is voluntarily or involuntarily joined in a dependency or neglect proceeding for the limited purposes of protective orders or inclusion in a treatment plan, and for the grounds outlined in sections 19-3-502 (6) and 19-3-503 (4).
(101) “Spousal equivalent” means a person who is in a family-type living arrangement with a parent and who would be a stepparent if married to that parent.
(101.5) “Staff secure facility” means a group facility or home at which each juvenile is continuously under staff supervision and at which all services, including but not limited to education and treatment, are provided on site. A staff secure facility may or may not be a locked facility.
(101.7) “Standardized behavioral or mental health disorder screening” means the behavioral or mental health disorder screening conducted using the juvenile standardized screening instruments and the procedures adopted pursuant to section 16-11.9-102.
(102) “State board”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means the state board of human services.
(103) “State department”, as used in section 19-3-211, part 3 of article 3 of this title, and article 3.3 of this title, means the department of human services created by section 24-1-120, C.R.S.
(103.5) “State registrar” means the state registrar of vital statistics in the department of public health and environment.
(103.7) “Status offense” shall have the same meaning as is defined in federal law in 28 CFR 31.304, as amended.
(104) “Stepparent” means a person who is married to a parent of a child but who has not adopted the child.
(105) “Technical violation”, as used in section 19-2-803, means a reasonable, good faith reliance upon a statute that is later ruled unconstitutional, a warrant that is later invalidated due to a good faith mistake, or a court precedent that is later overruled.
(106) “Temporary holding facility” means an area used for the temporary holding of a child from the time that the child is taken into temporary custody until a detention hearing is held, if it has been determined that the child requires a staff-secure setting. Such an area must be separated by sight and sound from any area that houses adult offenders.
(107) “Termination of the parent-child legal relationship”, as used in articles 3 and 5 of this title, means the permanent elimination by court order of all parental rights and duties, including residual parental rights and responsibilities, as provided in section 19-3-608.
(108) “Third-party abuse”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means a case in which a child is subjected to abuse, as defined in subsection (1) of this section, by any person who is not a parent, stepparent, guardian, legal custodian, spousal equivalent, as defined in subsection (101) of this section, or any other person not included in the definition of intrafamilial abuse, as defined in subsection (67) of this section.
(109) “Training school”, as used in article 2 of this title, means an institution providing care, education, treatment, and rehabilitation for juveniles in a closed setting and includes a regional center established in part 3 of article 10.5 of title 27, C.R.S.
(110) “Trust fund”, as used in article 3.5 of this title, means the Colorado children's trust fund created in section 19-3.5-106.
(111) “Unfounded report”, as used in part 3 of article 3 of this title, means any report made pursuant to article 3 of this title that is not supported by a preponderance of the evidence.
(111.5) “Updated medical history statement” means a written narrative statement dated and signed by a birth parent about the medical history of the birth parent or other biological relatives of the adoptee that can be voluntarily submitted by the birth parent to the state registrar for future disclosure to the birth parent's adult child who is an adult adoptee or an adult descendant of the adoptee or legal representative of such person in accordance with the provisions of section 19-5-305(1.5).
(112)(a) “Victim”, as used in article 2 of this title, means the party immediately and directly aggrieved by the juvenile, that party's spouse, the party's parent, sibling, or child who is living with the party, a victim compensation board that has paid a victim compensation claim, a person or entity who has suffered losses because of a contractual relationship with such party, including, but not limited to, an insurer, or because of liability under section 14-6-110, C.R.S., or, in the absence of any of the above, the state.
(b) “Victim”, as used in section 19-5-105.5, means any natural person against whom a crime of sexual assault or a crime in which the underlying factual basis was sexual assault has been perpetrated or is alleged to have been perpetrated.
(113) “Youth” means an individual who is less than twenty-one years of age.