125C.0045. Court orders; modification or termination of orders; form for orders; court may order parent to post bond if parent resides in or has significant commitments in foreign country
1. In any action for determining the custody of a minor child, the court may, except as otherwise provided in this section and NRS 125C.0601 to 125C.0693, inclusive, and chapter 130 of NRS:
(a) During the pendency of the action, at the final hearing or at any time thereafter during the minority of the child, make such an order for the custody, care, education, maintenance and support of the minor child as appears in his or her best interest; and
(b) At any time modify or vacate its order, even if custody was determined pursuant to an action for divorce and the divorce was obtained by default without an appearance in the action by one of the parties.
The party seeking such an order shall submit to the jurisdiction of the court for the purposes of this subsection. The court may make such an order upon the application of one of the parties or the legal guardian of the minor.
2. Any order for joint custody may be modified or terminated by the court upon the petition of one or both parents or on the court’s own motion if it is shown that the best interest of the child requires the modification or termination. The court shall state in its decision the reasons for the order of modification or termination if either parent opposes it.
3. Any order for custody of a minor child entered by a court of another state may, subject to the provisions of NRS 125C.0601 to125C.0693, inclusive, and to the jurisdictional requirements in chapter 125A of NRS, be modified at any time to an order of joint custody.
4. A party may proceed pursuant to this section without counsel.
5. Any order awarding a party a limited right of custody to a child must define that right with sufficient particularity to ensure that the rights of the parties can be properly enforced and that the best interest of the child is achieved. The order must include all specific times and other terms of the limited right of custody. As used in this subsection, “sufficient particularity” means a statement of the rights in absolute terms and not by the use of the term “reasonable” or other similar term which is susceptible to different interpretations by the parties.
6. All orders authorized by this section must be made in accordance with the provisions of chapter 125A of NRS and NRS 125C.0601 to 125C.0693, inclusive, and must contain the following language:
PENALTY FOR VIOLATION OF ORDER: THE ABDUCTION, CONCEALMENT OR DETENTION OF A CHILD IN VIOLATION OF THIS ORDER IS PUNISHABLE AS A CATEGORY D FELONY AS PROVIDED IN NRS 193.130. NRS 200.359 provides that every person having a limited right of custody to a child or any parent having no right of custody to the child who willfully detains, conceals or removes the child from a parent, guardian or other person having lawful custody or a right of visitation of the child in violation of an order of this court, or removes the child from the jurisdiction of the court without the consent of either the court or all persons who have the right to custody or visitation is subject to being punished for a category D felony as provided in NRS 193.130.
7. In addition to the language required pursuant to subsection 6, all orders authorized by this section must specify that the terms of the Hague Convention of October 25, 1980, adopted by the 14th Session of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, apply if a parent abducts or wrongfully retains a child in a foreign country.
8. If a parent of the child lives in a foreign country or has significant commitments in a foreign country:
(a) The parties may agree, and the court shall include in the order for custody of the child, that the United States is the country of habitual residence of the child for the purposes of applying the terms of the Hague Convention as set forth in subsection 7.
(b) Upon motion of one of the parties, the court may order the parent to post a bond if the court determines that the parent poses an imminent risk of wrongfully removing or concealing the child outside the country of habitual residence. The bond must be in an amount determined by the court and may be used only to pay for the cost of locating the child and returning the child to his or her habitual residence if the child is wrongfully removed from or concealed outside the country of habitual residence. The fact that a parent has significant commitments in a foreign country does not create a presumption that the parent poses an imminent risk of wrongfully removing or concealing the child.
9. Except where a contract providing otherwise has been executed pursuant to NRS 123.080, the obligation for care, education, maintenance and support of any minor child created by any order entered pursuant to this section ceases:
(a) Upon the death of the person to whom the order was directed; or
(b) When the child reaches 18 years of age if the child is no longer enrolled in high school, otherwise, when the child reaches 19 years of age.
10. As used in this section, a parent has “significant commitments in a foreign country” if the parent:
(a) Is a citizen of a foreign country;
(b) Possesses a passport in his or her name from a foreign country;
(c) Became a citizen of the United States after marrying the other parent of the child; or
(d) Frequently travels to a foreign country.