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Legal Information: Montana

State Gun Laws

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Updated: 
May 1, 2019

What crimes are considered domestic violence misdemeanors?

A crime is considered a domestic violence misdemeanor under federal law if it:

  • Can be defined as a misdemeanor under federal or state law; and
  • Involves physical violence or force, or includes threats made with a deadly weapon; and
  • Was committed by:
    • a current or former spouse;
    • a parent or guardian of the victim;
    • a person with whom the victim shares a child;
    • a person living with the victim as a spouse, parent or guardian; OR
    • a person who has a similar relationship (listed above) with a spouse, parent or guardian of the victim.1

Note: The crime does not have to specifically mention “domestic violence” in order for it to be considered a domestic violence misdemeanor, and for the federal firearm law to apply.2 The relationship that the victim has with the offender is what determines whether or not the misdemeanor is a “domestic violence” misdemeanor.3

For example: If Bob is convicted of a misdemeanor assault against his wife, he may no longer have or buy a gun.  If Bob is convicted of a misdemeanor assault against his neighbor, he may still be able to have or buy a gun.

Note: Montana is one of 10 states in which there are some misdemeanors that will not qualify as domestic violence misdemeanors, even if they seem to meet all of the requirements explained above.4  For more information about this complex topic, you can email us, call the National Center on Protection Orders and Full Faith & Credit at 1-800-903-0111 x 2 or talk to a lawyer who is familiar with gun laws and domestic violence – see our MT Finding a Lawyer page.

1 18 USC 921 (a) (33) (A)
2United States v. Kavoukian, 315 F. 3d 139 (2d. Cir. 2002); United States v. Meade, 175 F.3d 215 (1st Cir. 1999).
3United States v. Denis, 297 F.3d.25 (1st Cir. 2002.); United States v. Costigan, No. 009-B0H, 2000 U.S. Dist. (D. Me. June 16, 2000).
4 Although federal law prohibits owning or buying a gun if the abuser is convicted of a “domestic violence misdemeanor,” Montana is bound by current case law, which holds that misdemeanors that involve the “reckless use of force” will not meet the federal definition of domestic violence misdemeanors. See United States v. Nobriga, 474 F.3d 561, 564 (9th Cir. 2006)