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Información Legal: Kansas

Restraining Orders

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Actualizada: 
21 de junio de 2021

What is the legal definition of stalking in Kansas?

For the purpose of getting a protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking order, “stalking” is intentional harassment that puts you in reasonable fear for your safety.

Harassment means repeated behaviors or actions (known as a “course of conduct”) that seriously frighten or annoy you and would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress.

The “course of conduct” must include two or more separate acts over a period of time (even a short period of time) that shows a continuing purpose by the offender. Also, there must be no legitimate (valid) reason for these actions or behaviors.1

Note: The stalker does not have to be arrested or charged with the crime of stalking in order for you to apply for this protection order but you must allege that the person committed an act that would be considered stalking.2

1 Kan. Stat. § 60-31a02(d)
2 See generally Kan. Stat. §§ 60–31a01; 60–31a05

What is the legal definition of sexual assault in Kansas?

For the purpose of getting a protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking order, “sexual assault” means:

  • a sexual act that was done to someone without his/her consent;
  • an attempted sexual act that was committed using force, the threat of force, or duress (pressure and coercion); or
  • an attempted sexual act that was committed against someone who was incapable of giving consent.1

Note: The perpetrator does not have to be arrested or charged with sexual assault in order for you to apply for this protection order but you must allege that the person committed an act that would be considered sexual assault.2

1 Kan. Stat. § 60-31a02(c)
2 See generally Kan. Stat. §§ 60–31a01; 60–31a05

What is the legal definition of human trafficking in Kansas?

For the purpose of getting a protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking order, “human trafficking” is when someone is the victim of any of the following acts:

Note: The trafficker does not have to be arrested or charged with one of these crimes in order for you to apply for this protection order but you must allege that the trafficker committed an act that would be considered one of these crimes.2

1 Kan. Stat. §§ 60–31a02(a); 21-5426; 21-6419; 21-6422
2 See generally Kan. Stat. §§ 60–31a01; 60–31a05

What types of protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking orders are there? How long do they last?

In Kansas, there are two types of protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking orders.

Ex parte temporary order
When you file your petition in court, the judge can issue an immediate ex parte temporary order if there is “good cause” to do so. (“Ex parte” means that the order can be issued without prior notice to the abuser and without him/her being present in court.) This temporary order will last until your full court hearing for the final order, which is usually within 21 days. At the hearing, both you and the abuser will have an opportunity to testify and present evidence.1

Final order
After a hearing in which you both have an opportunity to tell your side of the story through your testimony, evidence, and witnesses, a judge can grant you a final order. A final order expires on the date set by the judge and can last for a period of up to 1 year, but can be extended under certain circumstances.2 See How can I change or extend my protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking order? for more information.

1 Kan. Stat. § 60-31a05(a), (b)
2 Kan. Stat. § 60-31a06(b), (c), (d)

What protections can I get in a protection from stalking, sexual assault, or human trafficking order?

A temporary ex parte order or a final order can include any or all of the following protections:

  • order the abuser not to follow, harass, telephone, or make contact with you in any way;
  • order the abuser not to violate your privacy rights;
  • order the abuser not to enter your home or the area immediately around your home;
  • order the abuser not to commit or attempt to commit sexual assault upon you;
  • order the abuser to not recruit, harbor, transport, commit, or attempt to commit human trafficking against you or otherwise communicate with you;
  • order the abuser not to violate your privacy rights; and
  • order any other protections the judge considers necessary.1

Whether a judge orders any or all of the above depends on the facts of your case.

1 Kan. Stat. §§ 60-31a05(b); 60-31a06(a)

Si el agresor vive en otro estado, ¿puedo conseguir una orden en su contra?

Si el/la agresor/a vive en un estado diferente al suyo, el/la juez/a podría no tener “jurisdicción personal” (poder) sobre ese/a agresor/a. Esto significa que es posible que el tribunal no pueda otorgar una orden en contra de él/ella.

Hay algunas formas en las que una corte puede tener jurisdicción personal sobre un/a agresor/a que es de otro estado:

  1. El/la agresor/a tiene una conexión sustancial a su estado. Quizás el/la agresor/a viaja regularmente a su estado para visitarlo/a, por negocios, para ver la familia extendida, o el/la agresor/a vivía en su estado y huyó recientemente.
  2. Uno de los actos de maltrato “ocurrió” en su estado. Quizás el/la agresor/a le envía mensajes amenazantes o le hace llamadas acosadoras desde otro estado pero usted lee los mensajes o contesta las llamadas mientras usted está en su estado. El/la juez/a puede decidir que el maltrato “ocurrió” mientras estaba en su estado. También puede ser posible que el/la agresor/a estaba en su estado cuando le maltrató pero desde entonces se fue del estado.
  3. Otra forma para que la corte adquiera jurisdicción es si usted presenta su petición en el estado donde usted está, y el/la agresor/a recibe notificación de la petición de la corte mientras él/ella está en ese estado.

Sin embargo, aunque nada de esto aplique a su situación, eso no necesariamente significa que usted no pueda conseguir una orden. A usted le pueden dar una orden por consentimiento o el/la juez/a puede encontrar otras circunstancias que permitan que la orden sea dada. Puede leer más sobre jurisdicción personal en nuestra sección de Asuntos Básicos del Sistema Judicial - Jurisdicción Personal.

Nota: Si el/la juez/a de su estado se niega a dar una orden, usted puede pedir una orden en la corte del estado donde vive el/la agresor/a. Sin embargo, recuerde que es probable que usted necesite presentar la petición en persona y asistir a varias citas en la corte, lo cual podría ser difícil si el estado de el/la agresor/a es lejos.