En Español
National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) or (TTY) 1-800-787-3224

Legal Statutes: Colorado

UPDATED September 18, 2017

Back to Colorado overview

Part 1. General Provisions

back to top§ 19-1-104. Jurisdiction

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, the juvenile court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction in proceedings:

(a) Concerning any child committing a delinquent act, as defined in section 19-1-103(36);

(b) Concerning any child who is neglected or dependent, as set forth in section 19-3-102;

(c) To determine the legal custody of any child or to appoint a guardian of the person or legal custodian of any child who comes within the juvenile court's jurisdiction under provisions of this section;

(d) To terminate the legal parent-child relationship;

(e) For the issuance of orders of support under article 6 of this title;

(f) To determine the parentage of a child and to make an order of support in connection therewith;

(g) For the adoption of a person of any age;

(h) For judicial consent to the marriage, employment, or enlistment of a child, when such consent is required by law;

(i) For the treatment or commitment pursuant to article 23 of title 17 and article 10.5 of title 27 of a child who has a behavioral or mental health disorder or an intellectual and developmental disability and who comes within the court's jurisdiction under other provisions of this section;

(j) Under the interstate compact on juveniles, part 7 of article 60 of title 24, C.R.S.;

(k) To make a determination concerning a petition filed pursuant to the “School Attendance Law of 1963”, article 33 of title 22, C.R.S., and to enforce any lawful order of court made thereunder;

(l) To make a determination concerning a petition for review of need for placement in accordance with the provisions of section 19-1-115(8);

(m) To decide the appeal of any child found to be in contempt of a municipal court located within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court, if confinement of the child is ordered by the municipal court.

(2) Except as otherwise provided by law, the juvenile court shall have jurisdiction in proceedings concerning any adult who abuses, ill-treats, neglects, or abandons a child who comes within the court's jurisdiction under other provisions of this section.

(3)(a) Upon hearing after prior notice to the child's parent, guardian, or legal custodian, the court may issue temporary orders providing for legal custody, protection, support, medical evaluation or medical treatment, surgical treatment, psychological evaluation or psychological treatment, or dental treatment as it deems in the best interest of any child concerning whom a petition has been filed prior to adjudication or disposition of his case.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this subsection (3), the court may, on the basis of a report that a child's welfare may be endangered, and if the court believes that a medical evaluation or emergency medical or surgical treatment is reasonably necessary, issue ex parte emergency orders. Where the need for a medical evaluation or medical or surgical emergency orders arises and the court is not in regular session, the judge or magistrate may give oral or telephone authorization for the necessary medical evaluation or emergency medical, surgical, or hospital care, which authorization shall have the same force and effect as if written, the same to be followed by a written order to enter on the first regular court day thereafter. Such written order shall make specific findings of fact that such emergency existed. Prior to the entry of any emergency order, reasonable effort shall be made to notify the parents, guardian, or other legal custodian for the purpose of gaining consent for such care; except that, if such consent cannot be secured and the child's welfare so requires, the court may authorize needed medical evaluation or emergency medical, surgical, or hospital care. Such ex parte emergency orders shall expire twenty-four hours after issuance; except that, at any time during such twenty-four-hour period, the parents, guardian, or other legal custodian may apply for a hearing to set aside the ex parte emergency order.

(4) Nothing in this section shall deprive the district court of jurisdiction to appoint a guardian for a child nor of jurisdiction to determine the legal custody of a child upon writ of habeas corpus or when the question of legal custody is incidental to the determination of a cause in the district court; except that:

(a) If a petition involving the same child is pending in juvenile court or if continuing jurisdiction has been previously acquired by the juvenile court, the district court shall certify the question of legal custody to the juvenile court; and

(b) The district court at any time may request the juvenile court to make recommendations pertaining to guardianship or legal custody.

(5) Where a custody award or an order allocating parental responsibilities with respect to a child has been made in a district court in a dissolution of marriage action or another proceeding and the jurisdiction of the district court in the case is continuing, the juvenile court may take jurisdiction in a case involving the same child if he or she is dependent or neglected or otherwise comes within the jurisdiction set forth in this section.

(6) When the juvenile court maintains jurisdiction in a case involving a child who is dependent or neglected and no child custody action or action for the allocation of parental responsibilities concerning the same child is pending in a district court in this state, upon the petition of a party to the dependency or neglect case, the juvenile court may enter an order allocating parental responsibilities and addressing parenting time and child support matters. The parent or person other than a parent with whom the child resides the majority of the time pursuant to the juvenile court's order shall file a certified copy of the order in the district court in the county where the child is permanently resident. Such order shall be treated in the district court as any other decree issued in a proceeding concerning the allocation of parental responsibilities.

(7) Upon motion of the city or county attorney, guardian ad litem, or respondent parent counsel, the district or the juvenile court has jurisdiction to enter a civil protection order pursuant to article 14 of title 13 in actions brought pursuant to article 3 of this title 19. The court shall use the standardized forms developed by the judicial department pursuant to section 13-1-136 and shall follow the standards and procedures for the issuance of civil protection orders set forth in article 14 of title 13, including but not limited to personal service upon the restrained person. Once issued, the clerk of the issuing court shall enter the civil protection order into the computerized central registry of protection orders created pursuant to section 18-6-803.7. If the person who is the subject of the civil protection order has not been personally served pursuant to section 13-14-107(3), a peace officer responding to a call for assistance shall serve a copy of the civil protection order on the person who is subject to the order. If the civil protection order is made permanent pursuant to the provisions of section 13-14-106, the civil protection order remains in effect upon termination of the juvenile court action. The clerk of the court issuing the order shall file a certified copy of the permanent civil protection order into an existing case in the district court, if applicable, or with the county court in the county where the protected party resides. Civil protection orders issued by the district or the juvenile court pursuant to article 14 of title 13 have the same force and effect as protection orders issued pursuant to article 14 of title 13 by a court with concurrent jurisdiction.

Repealed and reenacted by Laws 1987, S.B.144, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1987. Amended by Laws 1991, S.B.91-144, § 24, eff. April 9, 1991; Laws 1992, S.B.92-177, § 1, eff. April 16, 1992; Laws 1997, S.B.97-71, § 3, eff. July 1, 1997; Laws 1998, Ch. 226, § 21, eff. Aug. 5, 1998; Laws 1998, Ch. 310, § 61, eff. Feb. 1, 1999; Laws 2001, Ch. 245, § 2, eff. June 1, 2001; Laws 2006, Ch. 298, § 51, eff. Aug. 7, 2006; Laws 2008, Ch. 392, § 59, eff. Aug. 5, 2008; Laws 2017, Ch. 96, § 1, eff. April 4, 2017; Laws 2017, Ch. 263, § 149, eff. May 25, 2017.