Back to New York overview
- Laws of New York (select sections)
- Criminal Procedure Law
- Part One. General Provisions
- Title C. General Principles Relating to Requirements for and Exemptions from Criminal Prosecution
- Article 30. Timeliness of Prosecutions and Speedy Trial
- Chapter 11-A. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Part Two. The Principal Proceedings
- Title H. Preliminary Proceedings in Local Criminal Court
- Article 140. Arrest Without a Warrant
- Domestic Relations Law
- Chapter 14. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Article 5. The Custody and Wages of Children
- Article 5-A. Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act
- Title II. Jurisdiction
- Title III. Enforcement
- Article 10. Action for Divorce
- Article 13. Provisions Applicable to More Than One Type of Matrimonial Action
- Executive Law
- Chapter Eighteen. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Article 11. Division of State Police
- Article 15. Human Rights Law
- Family Court Act
- Article 1. Family Court Established
- Part 1. Applicability of Act and Creation of Court
- Part 5. General Powers
- Article 2. Administration, Medical Examinations, Law Guardians, Auxiliary Services
- Part 6. Counsel for Indigent Adults in Family Court Proceedings
- Article 4. Support Proceedings
- Part 1. Jurisdiction and Duties of Support
- Part 2. Venue and Preliminary Procedure
- Part 5. Compliance with Orders
- Article 5. Paternity proceedings
- Article 6. Permanent termination of parental rights, adoption, guardianship and custody
- Article 8. Family offenses proceedings
- Part 1. Jurisdiction
- Part 2. Preliminary procedure
- Part 3. Hearing
- Part 4. Orders
- Judiciary Law
- Chapter 30. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Article 2. General Provisions Relating to Courts and Judges
- Labor Law
- Chapter 31. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Article 18. Unemployment Insurance Law
- Title 7. Benefits and Claims
- Penal Law
- Chapter 40. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Part One. General Provisions
- Title A. General purposes, rules of construction and definitions
- Part Two. Sentences
- Title E. Sentences
- Article 70. Sentences of Imprisonment
- Article 80. Fines
- Part Three. Specific Offenses
- Title H. Offenses Against the Person Involving Physical Injury, Sexual Conduct, Restraint, and Intimidation
- Article 120. Assault and Related Offenses
- Article 121. Strangulation and Related Offenses
- Article 130. Sex Offenses
- Article 135. Kidnapping, Coercion and Related Offenses
- Title I. Offenses Involving Damage to and Intrusion Upon Property
- Article 140. Burglary and Related Offenses
- Article 145. Criminal Mischief and Related Offenses
- Title J. Offenses Involving Theft
- Title K. Offenses Involving Fraud
- Article 190. Other Frauds
- Title L. Offenses Against Public Administration
- Article 215. Other Offenses Relating to Judicial and Other Proceedings
- Title N. Offenses Against Public Order, Public Sensibilities and the Right to Privacy
- Article 240. Offenses Against Public Order
- Article 250. Offenses Against the Right to Privacy
- Title P. Offenses Against Public Safety
- Article 265. Firearms and Other Dangerous Weapons
- Part Four. Administrative Provisions
- Title W. Provisions Relating to Firearms, Fireworks, Pornography Equipment and Vehicles Used in the Transportation of Gambling Records
- Article 400. Licensing and Other Provisions Relating to Firearms
- Real Property Law
- Chapter 50. Of the Consolidated Laws
- Article 7. Landlord and Tenant
Article 10. Definitions
back to topSec. 10.00. Definitions of terms of general use in this chapter
Except where different meanings are expressly specified in subsequent provisions of this chapter, the following terms have the following meanings:
1. “Offense” means conduct for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment or to a fine is provided by any law of this state or by any law, local law or ordinance of a political subdivision of this state, or by any order, rule or regulation of any governmental instrumentality authorized by law to adopt the same.
2. “Traffic infraction” means any offense defined as “traffic infraction” by section one hundred fifty-five of the vehicle and traffic law.
3. “Violation” means an offense, other than a “traffic infraction,” for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment in excess of fifteen days cannot be imposed.
4. “Misdemeanor” means an offense, other than a “traffic infraction,” for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment in excess of fifteen days may be imposed, but for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment in excess of one year cannot be imposed.
5. “Felony” means an offense for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment in excess of one year may be imposed.
6. “Crime” means a misdemeanor or a felony.
7. “Person” means a human being, and where appropriate, a public or private corporation, an unincorporated association, a partnership, a government or a governmental instrumentality.
8. “Possess” means to have physical possession or otherwise to exercise dominion or control over tangible property.
9. “Physical injury” means impairment of physical condition or substantial pain.
10. “Serious physical injury” means physical injury which creates a substantial risk of death, or which causes death or serious and protracted disfigurement, protracted impairment of health or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ.
11. “Deadly physical force” means physical force which, under the circumstances in which it is used, is readily capable of causing death or other serious physical injury.
12. “Deadly weapon” means any loaded weapon from which a shot, readily capable of producing death or other serious physical injury, may be discharged, or a switchblade knife, gravity knife, pilum ballistic knife, metal knuckle knife, dagger, billy, blackjack, plastic knuckles, or metal knuckles.
13. “Dangerous instrument” means any instrument, article or substance, including a “vehicle” as that term is defined in this section, which, under the circumstances in which it is used, attempted to be used or threatened to be used, is readily capable of causing death or other serious physical injury.
14. “Vehicle” means a “motor vehicle”, “trailer” or “semi-trailer,” as defined in the vehicle and traffic law, any snowmobile as defined in the parks and recreation law, any aircraft, or any vessel equipped for propulsion by mechanical means or by sail.
15. “Public servant” means (a) any public officer or employee of the state or of any political subdivision thereof or of any governmental instrumentality within the state, or (b) any person exercising the functions of any such public officer or employee. The term public servant includes a person who has been elected or designated to become a public servant.
16. “Juror” means any person who is a member of any jury, including a grand jury, impaneled by any court in this state or by any public servant authorized by law to impanel a jury. The term juror also includes a person who has been drawn or summoned to attend as a prospective juror.
17. “Benefit” means any gain or advantage to the beneficiary and includes any gain or advantage to a third person pursuant to the desire or consent of the beneficiary.
18. “Juvenile offender” means (1) a person thirteen years old who is criminally responsible for acts constituting murder in the second degree as defined in subdivisions one and two of section 125.25 of this chapter or such conduct as a sexually motivated felony, where authorized pursuant to section 130.91 of the penal law; and
(2) a person fourteen or fifteen years old who is criminally responsible for acts constituting the crimes defined in subdivisions one and two of section 125.25 (murder in the second degree) and in subdivision three of such section provided that the underlying crime for the murder charge is one for which such person is criminally responsible; section 135.25 (kidnapping in the first degree); 150.20 (arson in the first degree); subdivisions one and two of section 120.10 (assault in the first degree); 125.20 (manslaughter in the first degree); subdivisions one and two of section 130. 35 (rape in the first degree); subdivisions one and two of section 130.50 (criminal sexual act in the first degree); 130.70 (aggravated sexual abuse in the first degree); 140.30 (burglary in the first degree); subdivision one of section 140.25 (burglary in the second degree); 150.15 (arson in the second degree); 160.15 (robbery in the first degree); subdivision two of section 160.10 (robbery in the second degree) of this chapter; or section 265.03 of this chapter, where such machine gun or such firearm is possessed on school grounds, as that phrase is defined in subdivision fourteen of section 220.00 of this chapter; or defined in this chapter as an attempt to commit murder in the second degree or kidnapping in the first degree, or such conduct as a sexually motivated felony, where authorized pursuant to section 130.91 of the penal law.
19. For the purposes of section 260.30 and 120.01 of this chapter the term “child day care provider” shall be defined as provided for in section three hundred ninety of the social services law.
20. For purposes of sections 120.13, 120.18, 125.11, 125.21 and 125.22 of this chapter, the term “peace officer” means a peace officer as defined in subdivision one, two, three, four, six, twelve, thirteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-three, twenty-three-a, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-eight, twenty-nine, thirty, thirty-one, thirty-two, thirty-four, thirty-five, thirty-six, forty-three, forty-five, forty-seven, forty-eight, forty-nine, fifty-one, fifty-two, fifty-eight, sixty-one, as added by chapter two hundred fifty-seven of the laws of nineteen hundred ninety-two, sixty-one, as added by chapter three hundred twenty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred ninety-two, sixty-two, as added by chapter two hundred four of the laws of nineteen hundred ninety-three, sixty-two, as added by chapter six hundred eighty-seven of the laws of nineteen hundred ninety-three, sixty-three, as amended by chapter six hundred thirty-eight of the laws of two thousand three, sixty-four, sixty-five, sixty-eight, as added by chapter one hundred sixty-eight of the laws of two thousand, sixty-eight, as added by chapter three hundred eighty-one of the laws of two thousand, seventy, seventy-one, seventy-four, as added by chapter five hundred forty-eight of the laws of two thousand one, seventy-five, as added by chapter three hundred twenty-one of the laws of two thousand two, seventy-five, as added by chapter six hundred twenty-three of the laws of two thousand two, seventy-seven, as added by chapter three hundred sixty-seven of the laws of two thousand four, seventy-eight or seventy-nine, as added by chapter two hundred forty-one of the laws of two thousand four, of section 2.10 of the criminal procedure law, as well as any federal law enforcement officer defined in section 2.15 of the criminal procedure law.
21. “Drug trafficking felony” means any of the following offenses defined in article two hundred twenty of this chapter: violation of use of a child to commit a controlled substance offense as defined in section 220.28; criminal sale of a controlled substance in the fourth degree as defined in section 220.34; criminal sale of a controlled substance in the third degree as defined in section 220.39; criminal sale of a controlled substance in the second degree as defined in section 220.41; criminal sale of a controlled substance in the first degree as defined in section 220.43; criminal sale of a controlled substance in or near school grounds as defined in section 220.44; unlawful manufacture of methamphetamine in the second degree as defined in section 220.74; unlawful manufacture of methamphetamine in the first degree as defined in section 220.75; or operating as a major trafficker as defined in section 220.77.
(L.1965, c. 1030; amended L.1967, c. 791, § 1; L.1968, c. 73, § 9; L.1975, c. 686, § 1; L.1978, c. 481, § 27; L.1979, c. 411, § 20; L.1980, c. 295, § 1; L.1981, c. 335, § 4; L.1986, c. 328, § 1; L.1995, c. 219, § 1; L.1998, c. 435, § 3, eff. Nov. 1, 1998; L.1998, c. 600, § 4, eff. Nov. 1, 1998; L.2003, c. 264, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2003; L.2005, c. 765, § 11, eff. Dec. 21, 2005; L.2007, c. 7, § 47, eff. April 13, 2007; L.2008, c. 257, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2008; L.2013, c. 1, § 26, eff. March 16, 2013.)