Know the Laws: Virginia
UPDATED November 18, 2016
A family abuse protective order is a civil court order that is designed to stop violent behavior and keep the abuser away from you.
This section defines domestic violence for the purposes of getting a protective order.
In Virginia, domestic violence is referred to as family abuse. “Family abuse” is when a family or household member commits any act involving violence, force, or threat that results in physical injury or places you in reasonable fear of death, sexual assault, or bodily injury. Such acts include, but are not limited to, any forceful detention, stalking, criminal sexual assault or any criminal offense that results in bodily injury or places you in reasonable fear of death, sexual assault, or bodily injury.*
* Va. Code § 16.1-228
A family abuse protective order is a civil court order that is designed to stop violent behavior and keep the abuser away from you. There are 3 types of protective orders for family abuse:
Emergency Protective Order: An emergency protective order is designed to give you immediate protection, and can be given on the weekends or after business hours when the courthouse is not open. It also can be given ex-parte by a judge, if s/he believes that you are in immediate danger. Ex-parte means the abuser does not have to be present or know that the order has been requested. However, the abuser will have to be served (given the order) before it takes effect.
You can petition for an emergency order with a magistrate at the Court Service Unit of a Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court, or at a General District Court or Circuit Court. A law enforcement official may also request that one be given to you.
An emergency order expires at the end of the third day following issuance. If it expires at a time when the court is not in session, the order will be extended until the end of the next business day the court is in session. An additional three days extension may also be granted, if you are hospitalized or otherwise incapacitated.*
The judge or magistrate should provide written information regarding protective orders that shall include the telephone numbers of domestic violence agencies and legal referral sources on a form prepared by the Supreme Court.*
Preliminary Protective Orders: A preliminary protective order is the first step in obtaining a (permanent) protective order. It is similar to an emergency order, but law enforcement officials cannot request a preliminary order for you. You must file a written petition yourself at the intake office of the Juvenile and Domestic Relations courthouse. To fill out the petition before you go to court, you can use the I-Can system.
Preliminary orders last up to 15 days, unless the court continues the case for longer.** If the respondent fails to appear at this hearing because the respondent was not personally served, the court may extend the protective order for a period not to exceed six months. The extended protective order shall be served as soon as possible on the respondent.**
Protective Orders: A (permanent) protective order can last up to 2 years.*** It can only be granted after a full court hearing where both you and the abuser have an opportunity to tell your own sides of the story to a judge. However, you can file to extend it before your order expires. See How do I change or extend the permanent order? for more information.
A permanent protective order takes effect after it has been served (given) to the abuser. You should be notified when the abuser is served.
* Va. Code § 16.1-253.4
** Va. Code § 16.1-253.1(B)
*** Va. Code § 16.1-279.1(B)
An emergency protective order can:
* Va. Code § 16.1-253.4(B),(J)
A preliminary protective order can:
A protective order can:
Whether a judge orders any or all of the above depends on the facts of your case.
Note: Be sure to tell the judge if the abuser owns any weapons. However, even if it not written into the order, federal law states that someone with a protective order against him/her cannot own, purchase or transport firearms.
* Va. Code § 16.1-279.1
Nothing. There is no filing fee to get a protective order.*
You do not need a lawyer to file for a protective order, but it may be helpful to have a lawyer, especially if the abuser has a lawyer. Even if the abuser does not have a lawyer, if you can, it is recommended that you contact a lawyer to make sure that your legal rights are protected.
If you cannot afford a lawyer but want one to help you with your case, you can find information on legal assistance and domestic violence organizations on the VA Where to Find Help page. In addition, the domestic violence organizations in your area and/or court staff may be able to answer some of your questions or help you fill out the necessary court forms.
* Va. Code § 16.1-279.1
You can file a petition in the county where you live, in the county where the abuser lives, or in the county where the abuse took place. If there is already another protective order in effect that protects you or your family or household member(s), you have the option of filing your petition in that county.*
* Va. Code § 16.1-243(A)(3)
You can get a protective order if you have been abused by a family or household member, which is defined as:
To read the exact terminology, please see the VA Legal Statutes page.
* Va. Code § 16.1-228
In Virginia, you may apply for a family abuse protective order against a current or former same-sex partner as long as the relationship meets the requirements listed in Who can get a family abuse protective order? You must also be the victim of an act of domestic violence, which is explained here What is the legal definition of domestic violence in Virginia?
In Virginia, family abuse protective orders generally do not cover people who are/were not family or household members.
However, assault, stalking, and harassment are against the law. If one of these crimes is being committed against you, you may want to consider calling the police. If criminal charges are pressed against the abuser and a warrant is issued for the abuser's arrest, a judge may be able to order him/her to stay away from you. You can also visit our Staying Safe page for ways to increase your safety.
If you do not qualify for a protective order based on domestic violence, you may be able to file for a Protective Order for an Act of Violence, Force or Threat.
If you are being stalked or harassed, go to the Stalking Resource Center website for more information on stalking and harassment laws, as well safety planning information.
Protective orders also do not cover many types of emotional or mental abuse. If you're being mentally or emotionally abused, please contact a domestic violence organization in your area. They can help you figure out your options and offer you support. See: VA Where to Find Help.
You can file a petition for a protective order at a juvenile and domestic relations court or circuit court. Go to the clerk of court and tell him/her you want an application for a protective order. You can also find links to these forms online by going to our VA Download Court Forms page. You can complete the form online and take it with you to the court. For the location of a court near you, go to our VA Courthouse Locations page. If you are in immediate danger of abuse and the court is closed, you may get an emergency order by going to the nearest police department. If you are issued this order, it will only be good for 72 hours, or until the court is open again.
On the complaint for protective order form, you will be the "petitioner" and the abuser will be the "respondent." Write about the most recent incidents of violence, using descriptive language - words like "slapping," hitting," "grabbing," threatening," "choking," etc. - that fits your situation. Include details and dates, if possible. Be specific.
If you need assistance filling out the form, ask the clerk for help. Some courts may have an advocate that can assist you. Another option is to find help through one of the domestic violence organizations listed on our VA State and Local Programs page.
Note: Remember to bring some form of personal identification (a driver's license or other identification that includes your picture). Be sure to sign the forms in front of the court clerk when you have completed the paperwork.
After you finish filling out your application, bring it back to the court clerk. The clerk will forward it to a judge. The judge may wish to ask you questions as he or she reviews your application. The judge will decide whether or not to issue the preliminary order, and will set a date for a hearing for the final protective order.
The court will send a copy of your preliminary protective order (if the judge granted you one) and a notice of hearing to the sheriff or police so that they can serve the abuser with these papers. The abuser must be served with the notice of hearing before the hearing can take place. If the sheriff cannot find the abuser to serve him/her with this notice, then the judge may wish to postpone the hearing. Be sure to have your preliminary order extended, if this is the case.
You may wish to stay in touch with the sheriff or police to see if they received your paperwork from the court, and to see if the abuser has been served or not.
Your hearing will generally take place within 15 days from the time you file the petition. You must go to the hearing. If you do not go to the hearing, your preliminary order will expire and you will have to start the process over. If you do not show up at the hearing, it may be harder for you to get a protective order in the future.
If the abuser has received notice of the hearing, but does not show up, the judge will most likely continue with the hearing without the abuser present. The judge may, however, decide to reissue the preliminary protective order and schedule a new hearing.
You have the right to bring a lawyer to represent you at the hearing if you can get a lawyer to represent you. If you show up to court and the abuser has a lawyer and you do not, you may ask the judge for a continuance to set a later court date so you can have time to find a lawyer for yourself. For legal referrals, see our VA Finding a Lawyer page. See our Preparing your Case page for ways you can show the judge that you were abused.
Here are some things you may want to consider doing. However, you will have to evaluate each one to see if it works for your situation.
You may also wish to make a safety plan. People can do a number of things to increase their safety during violent incidents, when preparing to leave an abusive relationship, and when they are at home, work, and school. Many abusers obey protective orders, but some do not and it is important to build on the things you have already been doing to keep yourself safe. Click on the following link for suggestions on Staying Safe. Also, advocates at local domestic violence organizations can assist you in designing a safety plan and can provide other forms of support. To find a shelter or advocate in your area please visit the VA State and Local Programs page.
If you are not granted a protective order, there are still some things you can do to stay safe. It might be a good idea to contact one of the domestic violence resource centers in your area to get help, support, and advice on how to stay safe. They can help you come up with a safety plan and help connect you with the resources you need. You will find a list of resources on our VA Where to Find Help page. You can also find safety planning tips on our Staying Safe page.
You may also be able to reapply for a protective order if a new incident of domestic violence occurs after you are denied the order.
If the abuser violates the protective order, there are two general options. You can file for a violation petition in the court that issued the order and ask the judge to hold him/her in civil contempt. Another option is that you can call the police and the abuser can be arrested, fined and even jailed for violating the protective order. Even if you think it is a minor violation, it can be a crime and contempt of court if the abuser knowingly violates the order in any way.
It can be a Class 1 misdemeanor when s/he violates the part of the order that prohibits the abuser from:
It can be a Class 6 felony crime if the abuser:
It is a good idea to write down the name of the responding officer(s) and their badge number in case you want to follow up on your case. You should also make sure the police or sheriff write a report on the incident even if the abuser is not arrested. The report could be valuable documentation if you try to modify or extend your order.
* Va. Code § 16.1-253.2(A)
* Va. Code § 16.1-253.2(B),(C)
Only a judge can modify a protective order. If you or the abuser wish to change the terms of the order, a motion to modify can be filed. If you wish to cancel the order, a motion to dismiss can be filed. The court may be less willing to offer you its protection in the future if you have an order dismissed (canceled).
If you want to extend the order, you can file a motion to extend. This must be filed before your protective order expires. Proceedings to extend a protective order are supposed to be given high priority by the court. If you were a member of the respondent's family or household at the time the initial protective order was issued, the court may extend your protective order for a period of up to two years to protect the health and safety of the you or your current family or household member(s). You can file to extend your order more than once.*
For any of the above motions that are filed, the court will set a date for a hearing and the abuser will be served with a copy of the motion and a request to be present. You must attend this hearing and tell the judge why the change, extension, or dismissal (cancellation) is necessary.
* Va. Code § 16.1-279.1(B)
Your order is valid and enforceable wherever you go throughout Virginia.
Additionally, the federal law provides what is called "full faith and credit," which means that once you have a criminal or civil protection order, it follows you wherever you go, including U.S. territories and tribal lands. Different states have different rules for enforcing out-of-state protection orders.
If you are moving out of state, please check the Restraining Orders pages for that state on this website for information on how to have your order enforced there.
Please see "Moving to Another State with a Protective Order" section for more information about moving out of Virginia with your protective order.
Note: For information on enforcing a military protective order (MPO) off the military installation, or enforcing a civil protection order (CPO) on a military installation, please see our Military Protective Orders page.