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Know the Laws: Vermont

UPDATED March 29, 2017

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WomensLaw.org strongly recommends that you get in touch with a domestic violence advocate in your community for more information on gun laws in your area.  Go to the VT Where to Find Help page to find legal assistance or domestic violence organizations in your area.

Guns and RFAs

back to topI have a relief from abuse order (RFA) against the abuser. Can s/he keep a gun or buy a new gun?

It depends. If your RFA order specifically says that the abuser cannot have a gun or buy a new gun, then s/he cannot have a gun.*

Also, according to federal law, if you have a RFA that was issued by a Vermont civil court against the abuser and meets federal law requirements, the abuser cannot have a gun in his/her possession, or buy a new gun.**

In order for your RFA order to qualify under federal law, the defendant (person who the RFA is against) must:

  • Be served (given) notice of the court hearing.  In other words, the defendant must have been given paperwork that told him or her about the hearing.
  • Have an opportunity to attend the court hearing.
    Note: The abuser does not have to be at the hearing, but s/he has to have the opportunity to come to the hearing.
  • Be an "intimate parter" of the victim, which includes:
    • A current or former spouse
    • A person with whom you share a child
    • A person you live with or have lived with in the past ***

Note: If your RFA order has expired, it is no longer a valid order under federal law, which means the firearm ban also does not apply.  The RFA expiration date should be written at the bottom of page two on your RFA order.

Note: This law may not apply to law enforcement officials, military personnel, and other government employees who use guns while performing official duties.**** If the abuser is a police officer, member of the military, or someone else who uses a gun for their job, talk to your local domestic violence program about your options. See VT State and Local Programs to find a program in your area.

* 18 USC Sec. 922(g)(8); 18 USC Sec. 922 (g)(9) 

 ** VT Statute §1103 (c); Benson v. Muscari, 769 A.2d 1291 (Vt. 2001)

 *** 18 USC Sec. 921 (a)(32)

 **** 18 USC Sec. 925 (a)(1)

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back to topIs there anything I can do to make it more likely that the abuser's gun is taken away when I get a relief from abuse order (RFA)?

While it does not need to be written on your relief from abuse order that the abuser cannot own, buy or have a gun in order for the federal law to be enforced, it may make it easier if it is written.  Vermont state law does not specifically say that a person who has a relief from abuse order against him/her cannot own or buy a gun, which means it is not always clear to law enforcement officials that the abuser's gun should be taken away when the relief from abuse order is issued.  However, there are a couple steps you can take to help make this clear:

1. If the abuser has a gun, tell the judge how many guns s/he has, and if s/he has ever threatened you with a gun(s).
2. Ask the judge to specifically write in your RFA order that the abuser cannot own, buy or have a gun while the relief from abuse order is in effect.
3. Before leaving the courthouse, check to make sure that the gun restriction is written on your relief from abuse order.
It also may be helpful if the judge explains what will happen to the abuser's guns, who will take them, and where they will be held once you leave the courthouse. If the judge agrees to add language that the abuser cannot keep his/her guns while the relief from abuse order is in effect, you may also want to ask that the judge:
  • Require the abuser to give his/her guns to the police, or require the police to go to the abuser's house and get them.
  • Make it clear to both you and the abuser how long the guns will be kept away from the abuser.
  • Order that the police notify you when the guns are returned to the abuser.

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back to topThe abuser did not show up for the relief from abuse order hearing. Can his/her gun still be taken away?

Maybe.  The abuser does not have to come to the hearing in order for the law to apply to him/her, but s/he does have to be given notice of the hearing and an opportunity to attend.*

If no hearing is scheduled, and/or no notice is given about the RFA order, then the federal firearm law might not apply to the abuser.**

 * United States v. Bunnell, 106 F. Supp. 2d 60 (D. Me. 2000), aff'd 280 F. 3d 46 (1st Cir. 2002.).
** United States v. Spruill, 292 F. 3d 207 (5th Cir. 2002.)

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back to topI have a temporary relief from abuse order against the abuser. Do I have to wait until I receive a permanent order before the abuser's gun is taken away?

Maybe.  You can ask the judge to write in your temporary order that the abuser cannot have a gun while you are waiting for a full court hearing.  If the judge sees the abuser's firearm as a serious enough threat, the judge might decide to write this in.

However, if there is no specific mention of a firearm restriction in the temporary order, then you may have to wait until you are given a permanent order.

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