WomensLaw.org strongly recommends that you get help from an organization in your area before proceeding with court action. Go to our TX Where to Find Help page for a listing of organizations and legal services in Texas.
For additional information and for self-help resources, you can visit: TexasLawHelp.org or Texas Courts Online.
General info & definitions - custody
back to topWhat is conservatorship (custody)? What types are there?
In Texas, custody is called “conservatorship.” Conservatorship is used to describe the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent. A judge may give conservatorship to one or both parents.
There are two types of conservatorship in Texas:
- sole managing conservatorship
- joint managing conservatorship.*
Generally, conservatorship (custody) includes the right to:
- Get information from the other parent of the child about the health, education, and welfare of the child;
- Have access to medical, dental, psychological, and educational records of the child;
- Talk to a physician, dentist, or psychologist about the child;
- Talk to school officials concerning the child's welfare and educational status, including school activities; and
- Consent to medical, dental, and surgical treatment during an emergency involving an immediate danger to the health and safety of the child.**
* Tex. Fam. Code §153.005(a)
** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.073(a)
back to topWhat is sole managing conservatorship (SMC)?
Sole managing conservatorship (SMC) means you are the only parent with the legal right to make certain decisions concerning your child. If you are granted SMC, you have the general rights given to a conservator and you are the only parent who has rights such as:
- decide the primary (main) residence of the child;
- consent to medical, dental, and surgical treatment involving invasive procedures;
- consent to psychiatric and psychological treatment;
- receive child support; and
- make decisions concerning the child's education. *
There are several reasons why a judge might grant one parent sole managing conservatorship:
- The other parent has a history of family violence, neglect.
- The other parent has a history of drugs, alcohol or other criminal activity.
- The other parent has been absent from the child’s life.
- There is a history of extreme conflict between the parents over educational, medical and religious values.
- One parent does not want joint managing conservatorship. **
* Tex. Fam. Code §153.132
**The Texas Young Lawyer’s Association, What to Expect in Texas Family Law Court
back to topWhat is joint managing conservatorship (JMC)?
Joint managing conservatorship (JMC) is when the rights and duties of a parent are shared by both parties. However, exclusive right to make certain decisions (like where the child lives) may be awarded to one party.*
JMC can be established either by an agreement from the parents or a court order. If the parents come to an agreement about sharing managing conservatorship, the agreement must be approved by a judge.*1
When making a decision about JMC, the judge will consider what is in the best interest of the child, which includes:
- whether the physical, psychological, or emotional needs and development of the child will benefit from joint managing conservators;
- the ability of the parents to give first priority to the welfare of the child and reach shared decisions in the child's best interest;
- whether each parent can encourage and accept a positive relationship between the child and the other parent;
- whether both parents participated in child upbringing before the filing of the suit;
- the geographical closeness of the parents' residences;
- if the child is 12 years of age or older, the child's preference, if any, regarding the person to have the exclusive right to decide where the child will live; and
- any other relevant factor.*2
If both parents are made conservators, the judge will specify the responsibilities each parent has separately and jointly.*3
Even if the judge grants joint managing conservatorship, s/he may still make one parent the primary joint managing conservator, also known as the “custodial parent”. The custodial parent has the right to determine the primary (main) residence of the child. All other decisions are made by both parents.*4
When a judge makes both parents joint managing conservators it does not mean that each parent will necessarily get equal or nearly equal possession of and access to the child.*5
* Tex. Fam. Code §101.016
*1 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.133
*2 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.134(a)
*3 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.071
*4 The Texas Young Lawyer’s Association, What to Expect in Texas Family Law Court
*5 Tex. Fam. Code §153.135
During a custody suit, the parties may be able to go to arbitration to help them come to an agreement about conservatorship and possession. Arbitration means a neutral third party, called an arbitrator, will be present at the custody proceeding instead of a judge. The parties can decide whether the arbitration is binding (legally enforceable) or not. In binding arbitration, once an agreement is finalized it is made official unless the judge believes it is not in the best interest of the child.*
* Tex. Fam. Code §153.0071(a)-(b)
Mediation is a process where parents can come to an agreement about conservatorship and possession of their child without going in front of a judge. A third party, called a mediator, meets with the parents to help them get to a mutual agreement. Parents may agree to mediation or a court may order mediation.
Once an agreement is reached, it will be binding on all parties if the agreement:
- Has stated in boldfaced type, capital letters or underlined, that it is not “subject to revocation” (meaning it cannot be reversed or undone);
- Is signed by the parties;
- Is signed by the parties’ attorneys if present when the parties sign the agreement.
However, a court will not accept an agreement made through mediation if one of the parties is a victim of family violence and this impaired his/her ability to make decisions and the agreement is not in the child’s best interest.
If you are a victim of family violence, you can ask the judge not to refer the case to mediation. Usually, the judge will grant the request, unless the other party disagrees and asks for a hearing to determine whether or not mediation is appropriate. After the hearing, if the judge refers the case to mediation anyway, measures will be taken to protect the party who did not want mediation. For example, the judge may order separate rooms and no face-to-face contact during mediation.*
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.0071(c)-(f)
back to topWhat is a parenting plan?
A parenting plan contains the rights and responsibilities of the legal parent/s of a child, including a schedule for possession and access to the child and child support information.* Parents can make a parenting plan and submit it to the court. If a judge finds that it is in the best interest of the child, s/he will order the use of that parenting plan. Otherwise, the judge can order a parenting plan s/he believes is appropriate.** A parenting plan is required once a final order about conservatorship and possession of and access to the child is determined.***
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.601(4)
** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.007
*** Tex. Fam. Code §153.603
back to topWhat is a parenting coordinator?
A parenting coordinator is a third party that helps the parties come to an agreement about parenting issues.* A judge may assign someone to a case if the parents or persons acting in the capacity of parents cannot come to an agreement about parenting issues. You do not need to wait for the judge to assign a parenting coordinator; you can request one if you think it would help.
Generally, a judge will order a parenting coordinator only if the parties have repeatedly brought legal action against one another and have trouble communicating with one another.
If you do not want a parenting coordinator to get involved because there has been a history of family violence against you or your child, you can make a written objection to the judge. A hearing will be held if the other parent still wants to have a parenting coordinator involved. After the hearing, if the judge decides to appoint a parenting coordinator, the judge must take precautions to protect you from emotional and/or physical harm. For example, you might be placed in a separate room from the abuser when you meet with a parenting coordinator.**
There is a fee to meet with the parenting coordinator. The payment is shared by both parties. If the parties cannot pay the fee, the judge may be able to find a volunteer to act as a parenting coordinator.***
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.601(3)
** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.605
*** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.609
back to topWhat is a parent education and family stabilization course?
A parent education and family stabilization course is designed to help parents and children dealing with divorce. In a proceeding to determine conservatorship or possession of or access to a child, the judge may order the parents to attend the course if s/he determines that it is in the best interest of the child.
There is a fee of no more than $100. If the parties cannot afford the fee, there may be able to find courses that are free or offered on a sliding fee scale. A parent can complete the course by personal instruction, videotape instruction, or through electronic communication. Courses may also be available in Spanish. For information on course locations, contact the county clerk. See TX Courthouse Locations for contact information for the county clerk near you.
If a judge orders the parties to attend a course and they do not, they can be held in contempt of court.
Note: If you have been a victim of family violence, you can ask the judge to place you in a separate class from the other parent.*
* Tex. Fam. Code § 105.009
General info & definitions - visitation
back to topWhat is “possession and access” (visitation)?
In Texas, visitation is called possession of and access to a child. A parent can get possession and access unless the judge determines it is not in the best interests of the child and will endanger the physical or emotional well-being of the child.*1
During the time that a parent has possession of his/her child, s/he has:
- the duty of care, control, protection, and reasonable discipline of the child;
- the duty to support the child, including providing the child with clothing, food, shelter, and medical and dental care not involving an invasive procedure;
- the right to consent for the child to medical and dental care not involving an invasive procedure; and
- the right to direct the moral and religious training of the child.*2
A judge will create a visitation schedule, called a standard possession order
, using certain guidelines. A standard possession order is used for children 3 years of age or older.*3 For a child less than 3 years old, the judge will create a visitation schedule that s/he thinks is appropriate.*4 See What factors will a judge consider for a child who is less than 3 years old?
for more information.
A possession order can be changed to meet the particular needs of the managing conservator(s), possessory conservator and the child(ren).*5
*1 Tex. Fam. Code §153.191
*2 Tex. Fam. Code §153.074
*3 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.251
*4 Tex. Fam. Code §153.254
*5 Tex. Fam. Code §153.253
back to topWhat is a possessory conservator?
The possessory conservator has the same rights and responsibilities as any other parent except s/he does not decide the primary (main) home of the child. The judge can limit these rights at his/her discretion.* One parent is usually made possessory conservator when the other parent is made the sole managing conservator.**
However, a judge will not make a parent possessory conservator if it is not in the best interest of the child and might harm the physical and emotional well-being of the child.**
To read about the rights and responsibilities of a possessory conservator see What is conservatorship (custody)? What types are there? and What is possession of and access to a child (visitation)?
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.192
** Tex. Fam. Code §153.191
back to topWhat is a standard possession order?
A standard possession order contains a parent’s rights of possession of and access to his/her child.* It is basically a visitation schedule. In a standard possession order, the parents can either agree on a schedule or the judge will order a schedule s/he thinks is appropriate.*1 The schedule contains exact dates and times that a child will stay with each parent. The standard possession order is designed for a child over 3 years old. Therefore, if the child is under 3 years of age, there may be a different order in effect until the child turns three.*2 See What factors will a judge consider for a child who is less than 3 years old? for more information.
The judge can modify (change) the standard possession order to accommodate the parties. If the judge decides to modify (change) the standard possession order, s/he will consider several factors including the age, developmental status, circumstances, needs, the best interest of the child and the circumstances of the managing conservator and of the parent named as a possessory conservator.*3
* Tex. Fam. Code § 101.029
*1 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.311
*2 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.254
*3 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.256
back to topShould I start a court case to ask for supervised visitation?
If you are not comfortable with the abuser being alone with your child, you might be thinking about asking the judge to order that visits with your child be supervised. If you are already in court because the abuser filed for visitation or custody, you may not have much to lose by asking that the visits be supervised if you can present a valid reason for your request (although this may depend on your situation).
However, if there is no current court case, please get legal advice BEFORE you start a court case to ask for supervised visits. We strongly recommend that you talk to an attorney who specializes in custody matters to find out what you would have to prove to get the visits supervised and how long supervised visits would last, based on the facts of your case.
In the majority of cases, supervised visits are only a temporary measure. Although the exact visitation order will vary by state, county, or judge, the judge might order a professional to observe the other parent on a certain amount of visits or the visits might be supervised by a relative for a certain amount of time -- and if there are no obvious problems, the visits may likely become unsupervised. Oftentimes, at the end of a case, the other parent ends up with more frequent and/ or longer visits than s/he had before you went into court or even some form of custody.
In some cases, to protect your child from immediate danger by the abuser, starting a case to ask for custody and supervised visits is appropriate. To find out what may be best in your situation, please go to TX Finding a Lawyer to seek out legal advice.
Who can get custody or visitation
back to topWho can get conservatorship (custody)?
It is the public policy of Texas that a child have frequent and continuing contact with his/her parents and have the parents share the rights and responsibilities of raising their child as long as it is in the best interest of the child.*1 The law favors granting parents sole or joint managing conservatorship but evidence of family abuse is taken into serious consideration when determining the best interest of a child.*2
A competent adult, a licensed child-placing agency, or an authorized agency can also be appointed conservator of a child.*3 They can be appointed sole or joint managing conservator.*4
A child’s relative might be granted managing or possessory conservatorship. See I am a child’s relative. Can I get managing or possessory conservatorship? for more information.
Note: In determining custody, there should be no discrimination based on sex or marital status. *5
*1 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.001
*2 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.131
*3 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.005
*4 Tex. Fam. Code §§ 153.371- 153.372
*5 Tex. Fam. Code. § 153.003
back to topCan a parent who committed violence get “custody” (conservatorship) or “visitation” (access)?
Maybe. It is possible that a parent who has committed violence will get custody or visitation if the court determines that it is in the "best interest of the child" to do so. Generally, judges believe it is in the child’s best interest to have frequent contact with both parents.*
Conservatorship / Custody:
If a person is filing for sole or joint managing conservatorship, the court will consider whether the person has been abusive toward his/her spouse, the parent of the child and any person under 18 years old within the 2 years before filing for conservatorship or during the proceeding. A judge may deny joint managing conservatorship if s/he finds that there is a history or pattern of child neglect or physical or sexual abuse of a parent, spouse or child. The judge will also assume that it is not in the child’s best interest for the abusive parent to be a sole managing conservator – however, that parent has the right to present evidence to try to change the judge’s mind.
Likewise, the court will consider any incident of family violence in deciding whether to deny, restrict, or limit the possession of a child by a parent who is appointed as a possessory conservator.**
Possession and Access / Visitation:
If a parent has been violent within the last two years before filing or during the court proceedings, a judge may deny that parent possession of or access to the child unless:
- the judge decides that allowing the parent access is not a danger to the child and is in the best interest of the child; and
- the judge approves a possession order that will protect the child and any other victim from the abusive parent. The order may require:
- supervised access;
- exchange of the child in a protective setting (see note below);
- that the parent not drink alcohol and not use any drugs within 12 hours before or during the time the child is with him/her; or
- that the parent attend a batterer’s prevention program or any program the judge finds appropriate.**
Also, the judge will assume that it is not
in the best interest of a child for a parent to have unsupervised
visitation if there is a history or pattern of past or present child neglect or physical or sexual abuse by that parent directed against the other parent, a spouse, or a child.**
When trying to prove any incidents of abuse within the past two years, the judge will consider a protective order issued during that time as evidence. Therefore, tell the judge if you have gotten a protective order within the last 2 years against the parent seeking possession of and access to your child.
If the abuser is granted possession and access to your child, ask the court or a local domestic violence program for information about visitation centers or visitation exchange facilities in your county if you think that is a good option for you.
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.131
** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.004
back to topI am the child’s relative. Can I get managing or possessory conservatorship (custody)?
A child’s great-grandparent, grandparent, uncle or aunt can file for managing conservatorship if there is “satisfactory” proof that:
- it is necessary because the child’s present situation is mentally or physically harmful for the child; or
- both parents, or the surviving parent, or the managing conservator either filed the petition or consented to the suit.*
In addition, any person regardless if they are related to the child or not, can file for managing conservatorship if:
- s/he has had actual care, control, and possession of the child for at least 6 months ending not more than 90 days before filing; or
- the child, child’s guardian, managing conservator, or parent has lived with the person for at least 6 months ending not more than 90 days before filing and the child’s guardian, managing conservator or parent is dead when the person files.**
A grandparent or someone who has had significant past contact with the child cannot file a petition for possessory conservatorship
unless there is already an open case involving conservatorship of the child. If there is an open case, the judge can allow the grandparent or other person to ask for possessory conservatorship if the judge finds it is in the best interest of the child. ***
* Tex. Fam. Code §102.004
** Tex. Fam. Code § 102.003
*** Tex. Fam. Code § 102.004(b)
back to topI am the child’s grandparent. Can I get possession of or access to the child (visitation)?
A grandparent can request possession of or access to his/her grandchild. Much of the judge's decision will be based on various factors relating to the grandparent's child (the parent of the grandchild in question). The judge should give the grandparent visitation if:
- the grandparent's child's (in other words, the parent's) parental rights have not been terminated; and
- the grandparent proves to the judge that denying visitation would significantly harm the grandchild's physical or emotional well-being; and
- the grandparent's child (in other words, the parent):
- has been incarcerated for at least 3 months leading up to the grandparent's visitation request; or
- has been found by the court to be incompetent; or
- is dead; or
- does not have possession of or access to the child.*
A grandparent cannot
request possession of or access to a grandchild if the grandchild has been or is in the process of being adopted (by a person other than the child's stepparent) and
both of the child's biological parents:
- are dead;
- had their parental rights terminated; or
- designated an authorized agency, or person other than the child's stepparent as the managing conservator of the child.**
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.433
** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.434
back to topI am the child's sibling. Can I get possession of or access to the child (visitation)?
A sibling, who is at least 18 years old can also get access to a child if they have been separated in an action by the Department of Family and Protective Services. The judge will grant the sibling’s request if it is in the best interest of the child.*
* Tex. Fam. Code § 102.0045, § 153.551
back to topWhat are the rights and responsibilities of a person, other than the parent, who is made a conservator?
If a nonparent, licensed child-placing agency* or authorized agency** is appointed conservator, they are given a number of rights and responsibilities, including:
- the right to have physical possession and to direct the moral and religious training of the child;
- the responsibility of care, control, protection, and reasonable discipline of the child;
- the responsibility to provide the child with clothing, food, shelter, education, and medical, psychological, and dental care;
- the right to consent for the child to medical, psychiatric, psychological, dental, and surgical treatment and to have access to the child's medical records;
- the right to designate the primary residence of the child and to make decisions about the child's education.***
* Tex. Fam. Code § 102.003(7)
** Tex. Fam. Code § 102.003(6)
*** Tex. Fam. Code § 153.371
How the custody process works
back to topWhat are the steps for filing for custody?
It depends on the particulars of your situation. To find out what the process will be like for you, please contact a lawyer in your area. If you cannot afford one, you may be able to get help from a legal resource on our TX Finding a Lawyer page.
If you are going to be filing the papers yourself without an attorney, Texaslawhelp.org has an instruction manual explaining how to file in a contested case (where the parents disagree about custody) and an uncontested case (where the parents agree). If you are the non-custodial parents, another resource is the Texas Access and Visitation Hotline, which allows you talk to a lawyer for free and talk to someone in person at their drop-in clinics. They provide legal information and assistance related to child custody and visitation issues, as well as paternity and child support information. They do not represent people in court. The statewide, toll free number, 1-866-292-4636, is answered in English and Spanish, Monday - Friday from 1 to 7 p.m. See www.txaccess.org for more information.
back to topWhere do I file for custody?
Generally, you would file for custody in the “home state” of the child. The "home state" is the state where your child has lived with a parent or a person acting as a parent for at least the past six months. If your child is less than six months old, then your child's home state is the state where s/he has lived since birth. Leaving the state for a short period of time does not change your child's home state.*
If you and your child recently moved to a new state, generally you cannot file for custody in that new state until you have lived there for at least six months. Until then, you or the other parent can start a custody action in the state you just left (where your child most recently lived for at least six months) if one of the child’s parents continues to live in that state.**
*Tex. Fam. Code § 152.102
** Tex. Fam. Code §152.201
back to topAre there exceptions to the “home state” rule?
Yes, there are several exceptions to the “home state” rule.
Significant Connections - you may file for custody in a state where your child and at least one parent have “significant connections” and there is substantial evidence in that state regarding your child’s care, protection, training and personal relationships. This exception applies only if your child does not have a home state or if the court in your child’s home state chooses not to determine custody.*
Inconvenient Forum - the court may decline to hear your case in favor of a more appropriate court in another state. Before declining, the court will consider several factors, such as:
Temporary Emergency Custody
- which state is better able to protect the child and the parties if there is domestic violence
- the length of time the child has lived outside this state
- the financial circumstances of the parties
- the familiarity that each court has with the particular case**
- See Can I get temporary emergency custody?
Jurisdiction Declined by Reason of Conduct
– If a parent has behaved in an unjustifiable way, and that action leads them to file for custody in a particular state, the judge can decide not hear the case. For example: If a parent took the child out of the home state without the other parent’s permission, in violation of a custody order, and filed in the new state, the judge could decide that s/he should not hear the case. If the judge does this, steps must be taken to ensure the safety of the child.***
* Tex. Fam. Code § 152.201(2)
** Tex. Fam. Code § 152.207
*** Tex. Fam. Code § 152.208
back to topHow will a judge make a decision about conservatorship (custody)?
When deciding who will have custody, a judge will try to make an arrangement that s/he thinks is in the "best interest of the child."*1
Some factors the judge may consider are:
- whether the physical, psychological, or emotional needs and development of the child will benefit from the appointment of joint managing conservators;
- the ability of the parents to give first priority to the welfare of the child and reach shared decisions in the child's best interest;
- whether each parent can encourage and accept a positive relationship between the child and the other parent;
- whether both parents participated in child rearing before the filing of the suit; and the
- the geographical proximity of the parents' residences.*3
In addition, if the child is 12 or older, the judge is supposed to interview with the child in chambers (the judge’s office) to find out the child’s wishes as to which parent s/he prefers to have the right to decide his/her primary (main) residence. If the child is under 12, the judge may interview the child about this but doesn’t have to. Also, a judge may interview a child of any age in chambers to find out the child's wishes as to possession, access, or any other issue in the case affecting the parent-child relationship.*4
Texas law requires judges not to consider the sex or marital status of the person when determining conservatorship or possession of and access to
Generally, the judge will favor granting both parents frequent contact with their child and have them share the responsibilities of raising their child.*2 However, the judge will not grant joint managing conservatorship if s/he finds there is credible (believable) evidence of a family violence, present child neglect or physical or sexual abuse by one parent against the other parent, a spouse or a child.*6
*1 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.002
*2 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.001
*3 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.134.
*4 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.009
*5 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.003
*6 Tex. Fam. Code § 153.004
back to topWhat factors will a judge consider for a child who is less than 3 years old?
As of September 2011, a judge has to consider the following factors when deciding a possession order for a child who is less than 3 years old:
- the caregiving provided to the child before and during the pending court case;
- the effect on the child that may result from separation from either party;
- the availability of the parties as caregivers and the willingness of the parties to personally care for the child;
- the physical, medical, behavioral, and developmental needs of the child;
- the physical, medical, emotional, economic, and social conditions of the parties;
- the impact and influence of people, other than the parties, who will be present during periods of possession;
- the presence of siblings during periods of possession;
- the child's need to develop healthy attachments to both parents;
- the child's need for having a continuous routine;
- the location of the homes of the parties and how close they are to each other;
- the need for a temporary possession schedule that will shift little by little towards the future possession schedule that will be in effect once the child reaches age 3 - the temporary schedule will be based on the age of the child or any minimal or inconsistent contact with the child by a party;
- the ability of the parties to share in the responsibilities, rights, and duties of parenting; and
- any other evidence of the best interest of the child.*
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.254(a)
back to topCan I get temporary emergency custody?
You can file for temporary emergency custody in a state other than your child’s “home state” if the child is present in the state AND:
- The child has been abandoned; or
- It is necessary in an emergency to protect the child because either the child, a sibling or a parent of the child, is subjected to or threatened with abuse.*
If there is no custody order in place and you are given temporary emergency custody in Texas, it may stay in effect until your child’s “home state” or any other state that has jurisdiction, makes a custody determination. The temporary order may become a final custody order if Texas becomes your child’s “home state”.**
If there is already a custody order in place or a custody case is in progress in another state, the temporary emergency custody order will state a specific time limit that it will be in effect until the custody determination is finalized from the other state.***
Getting temporary emergency custody is often difficult to do and we strongly recommend getting the help of an attorney if at all possible. If you are a TX resident and you go to another state to file for temporary custody (and get it), the abuser may still file a custody petition in TX. If the abuser's petition is granted, the judge may possibly even sign a writ (order) for you to bring the child back to TX or even possibly give the child to the abuser while the TX custody case is pending. You will have to weigh this risk with whatever risks you are facing at home. If you are faced with this situation, we strongly recommend getting a lawyer immediately. You can find free and paid legal referrals on our TX Finding a Lawyer
* Tex. Fam. Code § 152.204(a)
** Tex. Fam. Code § 152.204(b)
*** Tex. Fam. Code § 152.204(c)
back to topHow is paternity (legal fatherhood) established?
There are several ways to establish paternity (legal fatherhood) in Texas.
Paternity is presumed (assumed) when a man is:
- Married to the mother of the child and the child is born during the marriage or born before the 301st day after the date the marriage ended (note: 301 days accounts for the length of a typical pregnancy);
- Married (but not a valid marriage) to the mother of the child before the birth of the child and the child is born during the invalid marriage or before the 301st day after the marriage ended;
- Married to the mother of the child after the birth of the child and voluntarily acknowledged paternity, and:
- The acknowledgment is in a record filed with the bureau of vital statistics;
- He voluntarily named himself the child’s father on the child’s birth certificate; or
- He promised in a record to support the child as his own; or
- He lived with the child in the same household for the first two years of the child’s life and he presented himself as the father to other people. *1
If the parents are not married, they can sign an Acknowledgment of Paternity (AOP).*2 There is no filing fee to file the AOP.*3 You can get an AOP form at a hospital, the local registrar, the Child Support Office or at the Bureau of Vital Statistics. For more information, see the website of the Texas Attorney General
Another way to establish paternity is when
a parent files a paternity proceeding in court and the judge orders a genetic test to prove legal fatherhood. *4
*1Tex. Fam. Code § 160.204(a)
*2 Tex. Fam. Code §160.301
*3 Tex. Fam. Code § 160.306
*4 Tex. Fam. Code § 160.502
back to topCan I get support for my children and myself?
The judge may require one or both parents to provide child support until:
- the child turns 18 or graduates from high school, whichever comes later;
- the child is emancipated (released from custodial care); or
- the death of the child.
If the child is disabled, child support payments could last for an indefinite period of time.*
Parents will also be required to pay medical support for their children.**
For information on how Texas calculates child support see Texas Family Law Information
. WomensLaw.org has no relationship with this company and does not endorse its services. We provide this link for your information only.
For information on spousal support (maintenance), see Can I get support for myself and my children?
in our Divorce section.
* Tex. Fam. Code §154.001
** Tex. Fam. Code §154.008
After a custody order is in place
back to topIf a custody order is already in place, how can I get it changed?
To change a conservatorship or possession and access order that is already in place, you need to file a motion with the court. Generally, you can file to change or modify a conservatorship or possession and access order if it would be in the best interest of the child and:
- the circumstances of the child, a conservator, or other party affected by the order have materially and substantially changed since the order was put in place; or
- the child is at least 12 years old and has filed with the court, in writing, the name of the person who the child prefers to have the exclusive right to decide where s/he will live; or
- the conservator who has the exclusive right to decide where the child will live, has voluntarily given up the primary care and possession of the child to another person for at least six months.*
- This subsection does not apply to a conservator who has the exclusive right to decide where the child will live, and who has temporarily give up the primary care and possession of the child to another person during the conservator's military deployment, military mobilization, or temporary military duty.
To file a motion for a change in conservatorship or possession and access, you must fill out certain forms and return them to the court. You can visit your local courthouse to obtain copies of all the needed paper work. The court clerk may be able to answer some questions you have about the paper work but cannot provide legal advice. You might want to consider contacting a lawyer for help with this. You can find information on lawyer referral services and free or low-cost legal services at our TX Finding a Lawyer
* Tex. Fam. Code § 156.101
back to topCan I change the state where the case is being heard?
Maybe. If you move to another state, you may be able to change the state where the conservatorship case is being heard -- it may depend on where the child’s primary residence has been for the last 6 months as well as many other factors. If the child has lived in a place for at least 6 months, you might be able to have the case transferred to that new location. If you have been in the new state for less than 6 months, the court can deny your request to change the location of the case.* If no party lives in TX any more, the court may more likely allow a transfer. As with all custody issues, it is best to talk to a lawyer about this matter. Please visit our TX Finding a Lawyer page.
* Tex. Fam. Code § 155.202(a)
back to topIf there is a custody order in place, can I take my kids out of the state?
It depends. Generally, whether or not you can take your child out of the state for a short period of time depends on what your custody order says. The custody order may allow you to take your child out of the state, prohibit you from taking the kids out of the state, or it may not address this issue at all. We strongly recommend you talk to a lawyer about your legal rights before going out of state for an extended period of time.
If you want to permanently move out of state (or move within the state to a distant location that would interfere with the other parent's visitation schedule), then you have to either get the permission of the other parent or of a judge. If the other parent agrees, you may want to make sure that the permission for you to move with the children is in writing and that both parents sign it in front of a notary since that might help you prove the other parent's consent in the future. If you have to apply to the court for permission, the court will look at your request to move the same way they look at modification of a custody order. As with any modification of a custody order, in order to get permission to move, you must prove to the judge that moving would be in the best interest of your child. As with all custody issues, it is probably best to talk to a lawyer about this matter. Please visit our TX Finding a Lawyer page.
back to topIf the other parent takes the kids out of state without my permission, can I charge him with kidnapping?
Usually not, but he may be charged with custodial interference in some cases.
Generally, a parent cannot take a child out of the state, even for a short period of time, without the other parent's permission, unless the court order specifically says s/he can. If your court order does not address this issue, then the other parent is usually not allowed to leave the state with your child, unless you give him permission.
If you have a conservatorship or a possession and access order in place and the other parent tries to hide your child in violation of the conservatorship or possession and access order, you can speak with law enforcement about getting him charged with interference with custody. This is true whether the other parent leaves the state with your child or not.
back to topCan a parent who does not have custody have access to the child's records?
Yes. Both the custodial and noncustodial parents will have access to your child's records, unless a court order says otherwise. These records include anything relating to your child, such as school records, medical and dental records. If you do not want the other parent to have access to these records, you must convince the judge that there is a good reason for her/him to limit this access.* Also, if you are living in a confidential address due to fear of the batterer, you may want to consider using a P.O. box address at the child's doctor or school, if possible. Another option is to participate in the Texas Attorney General’s Address Confidentiality Program. This way, if the batterer does get access to the child's records, s/he cannot use the records to find out where you are living.
* Tex. Fam. Code § 153.073
WomensLaw.org thanks Tracy Grinstead-Everly, JD, Policy Manager at the Texas Council on Family Violence
for her help in revising this information.
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