Know the Laws: Alabama
UPDATED July 23, 2013
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At least one of the child's parents is entitled to custody, unless there is evidence that both parents are unfit.
If the parents are unfit or no longer living, the judge can award custody to another person or to an agency such as the Department of Human Resources, depending on what the judge believes to be in the best interest of the child. If custody cannot be awarded to a parent, there is a strongly supported view that it should be awarded to another relative if the placement will be safe for the child.
Sometimes. A judge is supposed to look at any history of domestic or family abuse when considering who gets custody. If the judge determines that there has been domestic abuse, the judge is supposed to assume that it is not in the child’s best interest for the abuser to get sole or joint custody.*1 The judge should assume that it is in the best interest of the child to live with the non-abusive parent.*2 However, the abuser can still try to show the judge that it would be in the child’s best interests to give him/her custody. If the judge is convinced, s/he may give the abuser sole and/or joint custody of the child.
The judge must also take into account:
Sometimes. Visitation by a parent who committed violence may be allowed, but only if the judge believes that proper measures can be taken to insure the safety of both the child and the non-abusive parent. This may include picking up and dropping off the child in a protected place or having the visits be supervised. The judge can also order an abuser to pay for supervised visitation, or to pay a bond (money that will be kept if he doesn't return the child). The judge may also order the abuser to attend a batterer's treatment program and order the abuser to not have or use alcohol or drugs during the visitation and for 24 hours before the visitation. The judge can also prohibit overnight visits. The judge can also order that your address be kept confidential.*
The court can also refer, but cannot order, an adult who is a victim of family or domestic violence to attend counseling relating to the victim's status or behavior as a victim, individually or with the abuser as a condition of receiving custody of a child or as a condition of visitation.*
When deciding visitation, the judge must also take into account:
Also, the law states that if a parent is absent or relocates because of an act of domestic or family violence by the other parent, the absence or relocation may not be a factor that the judge can use against the parent in making a decision as to custody or visitation.***
If the judge does not believe that the victim and/or child remains at risk from the abuser, the judge may order unsupervised visitation without any conditional measures to protect the victim and child. Therefore, if you feel there is still a risk of violence, the judge has to be convinced that you and your child need protection.
* Alabama Code § 30-3-135
** Alabama Code § 30-3-132(a)
*** Alabama Code § 30-3-132(b)
There is an assumption that it is in the best interest of the child to be with the natural parent. For a non-parent to get custody, the parents have to either give up their rights (or be deceased) or the non-parent seeking custody has to prove that the parent is guilty of such bad misconduct or neglect that the parent is unfit and an improper person to be entrusted with the care and upbringing of the child.*
* Ex parte Jonathan M. Terry; 494 So. 2d 628, Supreme Court of Alabama (1986)
Under certain circumstances, yes. Any grandparent (but not great-grandparent) can file for visitation when there's already a custody, divorce, or certain types of termination of parental rights proceedings going on that are related to the child.*
Grandparents can only file for visitation outside of an existing case if: